ap art history vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ballet Rehearsal
Babernini Faun
Late Byzantine
Etruscan Room
Robert Adam
Great Mosque, Damascus
Bird in Space
Nok Head
Ancient Africa
At the Moulin Rouge
angel (earlier a man)
Recessed area, usually semicircular.
a royal linen headdress
a female pillar sculpture
La Place du Theatre Francais
circle of monoliths (large rocks)
Islamic art/geometric patterns that are repeated over and over
constantinople was captured by crusaders in
Marriage of the Virgin
Italian High Ren
Patterns expressed through smooth, flowing, curving lines.
"Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia"
rows of columns
temple set-up that requires several angular changes in direction for stairs (characteristically sumerian)
sharply pointed ornament capping piers or flying buttresses of Gothic churches
Regular Latin word for "eye." Technically used to describe the empty round hole at the top of the dome of the Pantheon
Church of St. Pierre, Miossac
Miossac, France
-Christ in Majesty...throned, usually judge at the las judgement
-surounded by angels
-row of Old Testament figure...Jesus is fulfillment
an intellectual movement in the Renaissance that emphasized the secular over the religious. Humanists were greatly attracted to the achievements of the classical past, and stressed the study of classical literature, history, philosophy, and art.
Latin, consumer of flesh.A coffin, usually of stone.
a painting technique that involves applying water based paint onto a freshly plastered wall. The paint forms a bond with the plaster that is durable and long lasting.
colonnaded courtyard (i.e. of a monastery)
small rectangular relief sculpture on the ficade of a Greek temple
"Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures" or "Mother of the Gracchi"
Angelica Kauffmann
ca. 1785, Neoclassicm
oil on canvas
3' 4" X 4' 2"
Michelangelo, The Sistine Chapel & Last Judgement: 1508;1534...neo-platonic themes with greek and biblical scenes depicted (old testament prophets and greek sybyls)
post-WWI movement that focused on the inner workings of the mind and bringing outer and internal reality into one piece, influenced by subconscious and dreams
masonry roof or ceiling constructed on the arch principle
relating to or containing or issuing from a bishop's office or throne
an audience hall in a Persian palace
chi rho iato
XPI, monogram, Greek for Christ
Egyptian hall with roof supported by closely spaced columns
a metaphysical branch of Buddhism that teaches fulfillment through self-discipline and intuition
Vase with relief of Apotheosis of homer
Flaxman, Wedgwood
neo classical
lines imagined to be behind and perpendicular to the picture plane that converge at a vanishing point
a decoration using pieces of stone marble or colored glass
an upper gallery used to accommodate overflow of pilgrims
Japanese for "pictures of the floating world". Style of Japanese genre painting that influenced 19th century western art.
synthetic cubism
more collaging, less planar shifts, or different view of the same thing. came after other kind of Cubism
in ancient Egypt, a slate slab used for preparing makeup; colors or kinds of colors characteristically used by an artist; thin board with a thumb hole at one end on which an artist lays and mixes colors-- any surface so used
a roofed arcade or gallery with open sides stretching along the front or side of a building
a system of writing in which the strokes are formed in a wedge or arrow-head shape
a small model of the larger sculpture made first to plan the larger form
the central pillar of a portal that stabilizes the structure. It is often elaborately decorated
wall areas adjacent to the curves of the arch
A plant native to Egypt and adjacent lands used to make paperlike writing material; also, the material or any writing on it.
two main cities in medieval art
florence and siena
vanishing point
place where orthogonals meet in a composition employing one point perspective
an atrium surrounded by columns in a roman house
the portion of a basilica flanking the nave and separated from it by a row of columns or piers
"A Philosopher Giving a Lecture at the Orrery (in which a lamp is put in place of the sun)"
Joseph Wright of Derby
ca. 1763-65
oil on canvas
4' 10 X 6' 8"
"caught up in the wonders of scientific knowledge"
Assyrian guardian in the form of a man-headed wing bull
Radiocarbon dating
A method of measuring the decay rate of carbon isotopes in organic matter to determine the age of organic materials such as wood and fiber.
still life
a painting of a grouping of inanimate objects, such as flowers or fruit
the main room of a Greek temple where the god is housed
The value or tonality of a color is the degree of its lightness or darkness. The intensity or saturation of a color is its purity, its brightness or dullness. See also primary, secondary, and complementary colors.
Raphael Sanzio
He was famous for use of Perspective. Filled walls of Pope Julius 2 with paintings. He painted the School of Athens. Also painted famouse Rennisance figure including himself.
Black-figure painting
vase painting with black figures on a red background
Two-Dimensional Media
-Paintings - Paint is a pigment mixed with a liquid binder (paints = tempera, oil, acrylic and watercolor; painting = wall painting, fresco, wood panel painting, on canvas, miniature painting (done on a small scale), and illumination (decoration of books with paintings)
-Graphic arts - drawing and printmaking. the application of lines to a two-dimensional surface.
-Cartoons - full scale drawing used in preparation for a finished work in another medium
-Prints - made by transferring and image through applying pressure to paper from the surface that the image was created. (woodcuts, engravings, etchings, and lithographs)
-Photography, film, video and computer arts - involve another dimension: time. they all require that we think about the process as well as the image. Photography means "light writing"
Abstract Expressionalism
Also known as the New York School. The first major American avant-garde movement, Abstract Expressionism emerged in New York City in the 1940s. The artists produced abstract paintings that expressed their state of mind and that they hoped would strike emotional chords in viewers. The movement developed along two lines: gestural abstraction and chromatic abstraction.
King Minos
the king of the Palace of Knossos at Crete (king of the Minoans)
Mortise-and-tenon system
A projection on the end of a piece of wood that is inserted into a corresponding hole () in another piece of wood from a joint
Third style wall painting / mural - 10
In Roman mural painting, the style in which delicate linear fantasies were sketched on predominantly monochromatic backgrounds.
The Bath
Neolithic Pottery
Notre Dame
Sierra Nevade Mountains
Pueblo Bonito
(Ancestral Puebloans)
succession of arches
King David
Romanesque Sculpture
Family of Charles IV
citadel of Sargon II
(Ancient Near East)
a two paneled painting
(1444-1514)High Renaissance architect who worked on the dome of St. Peter's Basilica(with Michelangelo) as well as the "Tempietto." St. Peter's Basilica is in the Vatican City, Rome; dome is 138ft in diameter; most perfect dome; greatest example of the High Renaissance
a Greek drinking cup
bands that divide a composition
a Christian sacrament commemorating the Last Supper by consecrating bread and wine
men's painting (active, sometimes color/sometimes ink monochrome)
date of the black plague
The Sleep of Reason
Francisco Goya
Spanish Romanticism
chamber/oven used to bake pottery
continuous horizontal band of sculptural decoration
Giovanni Pisano
The Annunciation and the Nativity
Hindu god of creation and destruction
a triangular gable between a horizontal entablature and a sloping roof
On a Mountain Path in Spring
a long Native American communal dwelling made of wood. They are characterized by having supporting interior poles that create long interior corridors
trompe l'oiel
French, "deceives the eye." Illusionistic painting.
Girl with a pearl earing (necklace)
Dutch Baroque
Aachen, Germany was the capital of...
the main aisle of a church
Nicholas Broylston
John Singleton Copley, Cocky-looking, Shaven head, son of Mrs. Thomas Broylston, Born into wealth
stylized, upright form of an Egyptian spitting cobra. used as symbol of royalty and divine authority
to give a rustic appearance by roughening the surfaces and beveling the edges of stone blocks to emphasize the joints between them; technique employed in ancient Roman architecture, and was also popular during the Renaissance, especially for stone courses at the ground-floor level
A relativistic point of view that emphasizes the subjective construction of reality. It implies that what we see in families may be based as much on our preconceptions as on what's actually going on.
in Roman architecture, a large axially planned building with a nave, side aisles, and apses
Column of Bishop Bernward
-originally guess a crucifix adorned the top
-tells stories of Jesus NOT told on the door
-influence of Trajan's Column!!
action painting
Also called gestural abstraction, the kind of abstract expressionism practiced by Jackson Pollock, in which the emphasis was on the creation process, the artist's gestures in making art. Pollock poured liquid paint in linear webs on his canvases, which were laid out on the floor, thereby physically surrounding himself in the painting during it's creation
the vestibule, or lobby, of a church
The fenestrated part of a building that rises above the roofs of the other parts. In Roman basilicas and medieval churches, the windows that form the nave's uppermost level below the timber ceiling or the vaults.
The uppermost portion of the capital of a column, usually a thin slab.
the ampitheatre
not on a hill, used concrete
lost-wax casting
sculpture method where the artist makes a full-size wax mold and then melts away the wax with molten bronze
A sheltered place or passageway for walking through or around, such as a cloister.
the act or practice of envisioning things in an ideal form
The French fascination with all things Japanese. Emerged in the 2nd half of the 19th century. Impressionists & post-Impressionists were particularly impressed with the use of bold contour lines, flat areas of color, and cropped edges in Japanese woodblock prints.
based on or tracing descent through the female line
Hippodamian plan
city plan devised by Hippodamos of Miletos ca 466 BC, in which a strict grid was imposed on a site, regardless of the terrain, so that all streets would meet at right angles
one of the small pieces used in mosaics
a woven product in which the design and the backing are produced ar the same time on a loom
Bronze doors, St. Michael's, Hildesheim
-commissioned by Bishop Bernward
-16' tall
-symbolic (Middle Age population was mostly illiterate)
-shows key stories of Christian doctrine
left: fall of man (sinfulness, expulsion serpant=lizard...top to bottom)
right: salvation (annunciation to resurection...bottom to top)
fête galante
an eighteenth century french style of painting that depicts the aristocracy walking through a forested landscape
chiaroscuro woodcut
A woodcut technique using two blocks of wood instead of one. The printmaker carves and inks one block in the usual way in order to produce a traditional black-and-white print. Then the artist cuts a second block consisting of broad highlights that can be inked in gray or color and printed over the first block's impression.
the upright piece framing the side of the doorway on the portals of a romanesque or gothic cathedral
Venetian art, Titian was a pupil of Giovanni Bellini and worked closely with _________ in his early career so that his early work shows their influence. described Venetian Art as "poetic"
Relief sculpture
sculpture that projects from a flat background
Four evangelists
the authors of the gospels; Matthew, Mark, Luke, John
Mrs. Thomas Broylston
John Singleton Copley, Unhappy wealthy woman, sitting on a chair, looks uncomfortable, fancy dress
the part of a building above the columns and below the roof
Fourth Style mural
in Roman mural painting, marks a return to architectural illusionism, but the architectural vistas are irrational fantasies
rib vault
a vault in which diagonal arches form riblike patterns; partially support a roof, in some cases forming a weblike design
orant figure
a figure with its hands raised in prayer
post-and-lintel system
A system of construction in which two posts support a lintel.
groin vault
A vault formed when two barrel vaults meet at right angles.
Palladian Architecture
referring to or relating to or having the style of architecture created by Andrea Palladio, a combination of an arched center window and rectangular windows on each side
a single block or piece of stone of considerable size, esp. when used in architecture or sculpture
compound pier
A pier with a group, or cluster, of attached shafts, or responds, especially characteristic of Gothic architecture.
an order of column with a base, a more slender fluted shaft and a volute capital
Tesserae - 10
Tiny stones or pieces of glass cut to the desired shape and size to form a mosaic.
La Marseillaise
(Old Kingdom)
Spiral Jetty
a wall painting
one large rock
Zhou jade bi
St Peters
Italian Ren
the "new" Stone Age
Religious communities of monks
White Temple, Uruk
(Ancient Near East)
the gross clinic
thomas eakins
american realism
Hindu god of creation
A shadow drawing of something
columnar screen separating the sanctuary from the main body of a Byzantine church
Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus
(Early Christian)
An early-20th-century art movement that rejected naturalistic depictions, preferring compositions of shapes and forms abstracted from the conventionally perceived world. See also Analytic Cubism and Synthetic Cubism.
Elizabeth 1 when princess
Levina Bening Teerling
oil on oak panel
Renaissance art in England
prominent semicircular lunette above the doorway on a romanesque portal
a king of ancient Egypt
high= light, low= dark; general lightness
fresco secco
dry painting on lime fresco
Seated Boxer
Hellenistic Greek Sculpture (100-50 BCE) Heavily Battered, defeated veteran
Nose broken, teeth missing
Appealed to the emotions
A Egyptian god worshiped for motherhood, magic, and fertility.
the central area in a building
Islam's sacred book, composed of surahs (chapters) divided into verses.
Greek, double theater. A Roman building type resembling two Greek theaters put together. The Roman amphitheater featured a continuous elliptical cavea around a central arena.
architectural device used as a transition from a square to a polygonal or circular base for a dome, it may be composed of lintels, corbels, or arches
The Japanese military government of the 12th through 19th centuries
the layered foundation of a temple
the citadel in ancient Greek towns
latin for "burial mound." In etruscan architecture, tumuli cover one or more subterranean multichambered tombs cut out of the local tufa (limestone)
Greek, "great stone." A large, roughly hewn stone used in the construction of monumental prehistoric structures.
lesser local male Buddhist and Hindu divinity; fleshy but powerful god
semicircular niche set into the qibla wall of a mosque
(for metals) having areas separated by metal and filled with colored enamel and fired
In a Gothic cathedral, the blind arcade gallery below the clerestory; occasionally, the arcades are filled with stained glass
a graceful arrangement of the body based on tilted shoulders and hips and bent knees/weight shift/one foot tension one foot relaxed
axial plan
The horizontal arrangement of the parts of a building or of the buildings and streets of a city or town, or a drawing or diagram showing such an arrangement. In an axial plan, the parts of a building are organized longitudinally, or along a given axis; in a central plan, the parts of the structure are of equal or almost equal dimensions around the center.
the patron of the royal chapel
louis 9th
A rectangular area which cuts across the main axis of a basilica-type buiding and projects beyond it.
a type of early photography, developed by Williom H.F. Talbot that is characterized by its grainy quality. It is considered the forefather of all photography because it has both positive and negative image
An ancient city of northwest Asia Minor near the Dardanelles. Originally a Phrygian city dating from the Bronze Age, it is the legendary site of the Trojan War and was captured and destroyed by Greek forces c. 1200 B.C. The ruins of Troy were discovered by Heinrich
a gradual transition from light to dark in a painting; forms are not determined by sharp outlines, but by the meeting of lighter and darker areas
Jesus reveals his divinity as God's son in a vision as Peter, James and John look on (sometimes represented as a cross)
a series of regularly spaced columns supporting an entablature and usually one side of a roof
Sculpture in the round
Freestanding figures, carved or modeled in three dimensions.
linear perspective
method of presenting an illusion of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface; all parallel lines or surface edges converge on one, two or three vanishing points located with reference to the eye level of the viewer (the horizon line of the picture), and associated objects are rendered smaller the farther from the viewer they are intended to seem
the endpoint of a church where the altar is located
a female figure that functions as a supporting column
the process of using a black sulfurous substance as a decorative inlay for incised metal surfaces; the art or process of decorating metal in this manner
benday dots
named for inventor Benjamin Day. This printing process uses the pointillist technique of colored dots from a limited palette placed closely together to achieve more clors and subtle shadings
donor portrait
A portrait of the individuals(s) who commissioned (donated) a religious work, for example, an altarpiece, as evidence of devotion.
a vertical support that holds up an arch or a vault
Period Style
the characteristic style of a specific time
made the scultpture of Athena in the Pantenon. was a Greek sculptor, painter and architect, commonly regarded as one of the greatest of all Classical sculptors.
a tall, slender column used to call people to prayer
Fan vaults
radiating ribs form a fanlike pattern in this structure
central-plan building
building where all parts are of almost equal dimensions around the center (used for mausoleums and baptisteries in the west and churches in the east)
corbelled vault
vault formed by the poling of stone blocks in horizontal courses cantilevered inward until the two walls meet in an arch. Lion's Gate at Mycenae
archaic smile
The smile that appears on all Archaic Greek statues from about 570 to 480 BCE. The smile is the Archaic sculptor's way of indicating that the person portrayed is alive.
Domes in byzantine churches could be supported in these two ways
squinches and pendentives
is a type of ceramic vase with two handles and a long neck narrower than the body
Lapus Lazuli
rare blue stone/mineral that had to be imported from Afghanistan
blind arcade
when arches face a wall and are not self-supporting
Post and lintel
a system of construction in which two posts support a lintel, a beam used to span an opening
part animal and part human
common in ancient near eastern art
3 differences between italian gothic churches and french gothic churches
no sculpture on the facade, pinacles replaced towers, and no elaborate porch
The Cry
Angkor Wat
Abstract Expressionism
Apotheosis of Homer
Buddha (Gandhara style)
Le Corbusier
International Style
Romanesque Pilgrimage Church
A Harvest of Death
(Persian Art)
(Ancient Near East)
An Etruscan death demon.
S. Ivo Alla
Italian Baroque
Royal Crescent
John Wood the Younger
original burial mound--became a building
Third Style
Minimalistic, diminished architectural elements, "delicate linear fantasies"
The traditional blanket designation for European art from 1600 to 1750. The stylistic term Baroque, which describes art that features dramatic theatricality and elaborate ornamentation in contrast to the simplicity and orderly rationality of Renaissance art, is most appropriately applied to Italian art of this period. The term derives from barroco.
The Conversion of St Paul
oil on canvas
Italian Baroque
"Portrait of Pompey the Great"
meticulous realism that combines underlying bone structure with surface details in a portrait
bowl for mixing wine and water
Charlamagne equestrian sculpture
9th century
-Roman equestrians, but now SMALL...tabletop size
-cross, orb
-bronze...metal (like earlier Middle Age)
steel reinforced concrete. The two materials act together to resist building stresses
A flask containing perfumed oil; lekythoi were often placed in Greek graves as offerings to the deceased.
designs sewn onto fabric with thread
monumental entrance to an Egyptian temple
an underground passageway used for burial
Environmental art
1960's movement where artists used natural or organic materials, often the land itself, to create site-specific art; encouraged spectator interaction with the art
order invented in ancient Greece for articulating the three units of the elevation of a classical building (the platform, colonnade, entablature); characterized by capitals with funnel-shaped echinuses, columns without bases and a frieze of triglyphs and metopes
the face or front of a building
a rectangular audience hall in Aegean art that has a two-column porch and four columns around a central air well
A method of painting using pigments with wax fixed onto the surface by heat.
carved stone slab used to mark sites
an enclosed garden-like area around a cathedral
transverse rib
A relatively slender, molded masonry arch that projects from a surface. In Gothic architecture, the ribs form the framework of the vaulting. A diagonal rib is one of the ribs that form the X of a groin vault. A transverse rib crosses the nave or aisle at a 90-degree angle.
A small concealed chamber in an Egyptian mastaba for the statue of the deceased.
Judith adn Maidservant with head of Holofernes
Artemisia Gentieschi (stop painting and get back to the kitchen)
oil on canvas
Italian Baroque
the depiction of 3 dimensional objects in space on a 2 dimensional surface
-complexes dedicated to the worship of the spirits of the dead and the preservation of an individuals' ka (soul)
sculpter who worked at St. Lazare, Autun
A two-paneled painting or altar piece. (The Melun ______ by Jean Fouquet)
mechanical scraping of a rock surface by friction between rocks and moving particles during their transport in wind, water, etc.
Max Beckman
Painted "Night" was a former soldier and saw that humans could be animals
valley temple
temple closest to the Nile River associated with each of the Great Pyramids at Gizeh in ancient Egypt
hot bath section of a roman bathing establishment.
theories about the nature of art and artistic expression
brick blocks that a house is made of
plein air
An approach to painting much popular among the Impressionists, in which an artist sketch outdoors to achieve a quick impression of light, air, and color. The artist then takes the sketches to the studio for reworking into more finished works of art.
in later times, how was Christ represented?
a God
bell tower of a church, usually but not always freestanding
The flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in 622, The year from which Islam dates its beginnings
a raised structure on which gifts or sacrifices to a god are made
Genre painting
painting in which scenes of everyday life are depicted
stele (stelea)
a stone or wooden slab, generally taller than it is wide, erected for funerals or commemorative purposes; generally decorated with the names and titles of the deceased or living (inscribed painted or carved)
A tool with a straight blade at one end for cutting and shaping stone or wood.
a visual effect in which an object is shortened and turned deeper into the picture plane to give the effect of receding space
Ground line
In paintings and reliefs, a painted or carved baseline on which figures appear to stand.
like a modern book is made up of sheets bound together on one side.
a small building set up for the safe storage of votive offerings.
Proportion and Scale
-Proportion - comparison of the parts to each other. the whole object, how the objects compare to their environment, and might be found by intuition or the result of precise mathematical calculations.
-determined by using a basic unit of measure that is then multiplied or divided to determine the size of all other objects.
-Roman architect Vitruvius, Leonardo da Vinci depicts what he believed were the perfect proportions of the human body.
-Canons of proportion - artists formulate them to define the "correct" proportions for representing the human figure, parts of buildings, or other objects
-Ideal proportions - especially important in Ancient Greece. (i.e. the height, width, and placement of columns on the Parthenon) determined by strict mathematical ratios
-Proportions may be accurate or distorted
-Scale - the relative size of complete figures or objects compared to their original size or their environment
-Hierarchical Scale - rulers and gods are sometimes larger than other figures to indicate power and divinity
-Akkadian Limestone Question 1 on Quiz
-A painting, sculpture, or building that towers over the viewer often seems powerful, imposing, and even aggressive, as if it is asserting its authority over us.
a painter at work
1st century BCE
house of surgeon, Pompeii
represents how Roman women are freer, and represents that women were educated
verism - 10
often used by the Romans in marble sculptures of heads. Verism, often described as "warts and all", shows the imperfections of the subject, such as warts, wrinkles and furrows., true to natural appearance; super-realistic
Chinese- FAN KUAN, ink on silk, Norther Song Dynasty, ca 1020
Travelers among Mountains and Streams
give two reasons why large statues of Christ are extremely rare in early christian art
statues seen as pagan and statues were seen as idols
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