Learning Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
soma
cell body
Presynaptic neuron
Sending neuron
too much intensity
disrupts conditioning
negative reinforcement
something removed increases behavior
Recall
must retrieve information learned earlier (fill in the blank tests)
Psychopath
Extreme extraverts; they are aggressive, resistent to help & change, they don't condition or develop social  fears, and worst of all they have no empathy after committing wrong actions.
mesulam
progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions
Free recall
Generate response from memory
ratio
delivery of reinforcement depends on the # of responses given by the individual
OVER-JUSTIFICATION EFFECT
external rewards can undermine intrinsic reward of performing a behavior
semantics
meanings from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language, the study of meaning
Prepared learning
Evolutionary predisposition to learn some pairings of feared stimuli over others owing to their survival value
Overshadowing
The phenomenon whereby the most salient member of a compound stimulus is more readily conditioned as a CS and thereby intereferes w/ conditioning of the less salient member.
Latent Inhibition
Difficulty in establishing classical conditioning to an already familiar stimulus
Shaping
A technique used which reinforces behavioral tendencies in a desired direction. Uses successive approximation—reinforcing responses that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior
unconditioned response
in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
Cognitive maps
Internal representations of external worlds layout; All behavior is intrinsically motivated
Conditioned Response
CR
the response elicited by the conditioned stimulus due to the training. usually it closely resembles the UCR.
ex- salvate
Operant Conditioning
Organisms associate their own actions with consequences.
actions follwed by reinforcers;increase
actions follwed by punishers; decrease
CAN be controlled
IMPLICIT LEARNING
learning that takes place largely independent of awareness of both the process and the products off information acquisition
Counter Conditioning
reversing the effects of conditioning; pairing a stimulus that elicits a response incompatible with an unwanted response (ex: teaching the child not to be afraid of mice)
positive punishment
administering an aversive stimulus to keep an unwanted behavior in control
Intermittent Pairing
Pairing the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus on only a portion of the learning trials. 
 
Irregular pairing reduces the rate of learning and the final level of learning achieved.
Positive Reinforcement
Presentation of a stimulus that strengthens the probability of the behavior.
Midlife Crisis
a potentially stressful period that typically occurs during the mid-forties and is brought on when a person comes to grips with mortality issues and begins to review his or her life and accomplishments.
incremental theory
intelligence is something that can increase, be built upon. Failure means you still need to learn
experience-dependent
expereince and skills that emerge only when environmental conditions nurture them, and they can presumably emerge at any age. ex. an 85 year old woman changes locations- but quickly figures out how to get to the grocery store, hardware store, ect. to survive.
Pragmatist
believes just because we are wrong about one thing does not mean we are wrong about all things
Dualism
human being is a bipartite creature composed of a material body and an immaterial soul
GENERALIZATION
BAD. Instead of an animal responding to a specific tone (metronome), he will respond to any sound and start salivating
**RAPE EXAMPLE
conditioned response
in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus (CS)
Symbol-manipulation model
Rules and procedures to manipulate, search, update symbols and associations; models for learning and memory; computer as a metaphor for human mind
higher-order conditioning
CS in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus creating a second stimulus
Modeling Process (what four steps?)
Attention, Retention, Reproduction, Motivation
variable interval schedule
reward the first response displayed after a varying time interval.
Fixed ratio
reinforce the desired behavior after a specific number of responses have been made
every three times a rat presses a lever, it gets food
Schacter (1999)
Who created the 7 sins of memory
unconditioned response (CR)
response previously associated with a nonneutral stimulus that does not need to be learned
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditioned response
Aritificial/ Contrived Reinforcer
deliberately arranged to modify a behavior. extrinsic=artificial
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
Stimulates a response after learning takes place. Like the bell ringing leading to dogs salivating because they know/think food is coming.
Natural selection
Darwin, Species adapt to changes in their world, selected by the environment, selection allow for sucess in competition to survive
association
each idea has its own identity and forms a link enterohimeo cortex
attention
a concentration of the mind on a single object or thought, esp. one preferentially selected from a complex, with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli.
Motor nerves
Motor signals from spinal cord to muscles (responds)
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
the automatic response evoked by a UCS
the _______ of the CS relative to the UCS affects the speed of conditioning.
timing
Deductive Reasoning
a conclusion that follows from a set of observations (Formal Logic) Ex: All professors love teaching, Jane is a professor.
Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors.  This is an example of
A. latent learning
B. instinctive drift
C. the law of effect
D. spontaneous recovery
E. operant conditioning
B. instinctive drift
Little Albert
11-month old boy taught to fear rats in John Watson's famous experiment, fear of rats generalizes to all furry stimuli (rabbits, fur coats), is now considered an unethical experiment
Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule
Pattern in which we provide reinforcement after a variable number of responses, with the number varying randomly around some average
what is a negative punishment?
involves taking away something pleasant
partial reinforcement effect
The process whereby behavior that has been maintained on an intermittent (partial) schedule of reinforcement extinguishes more slowly than behavior that has been maintained on a continuous schedule.
neutral stimulus (NS)
does not elecit the UCR under normal conditions
Child sexual abuse does happensome adults actually do forget such episodes
memories of abuserepressed or constructed?
What are independent and dependent variables in learning experiments?
Independent – variables that experimenter can change. Dependent – variable that experimenter is looking for.
____ is NOT a part of the law of effect
OUTCOME
Peripheral nervous system
Nerve fibers that connect CNS to rest of body; consists of motor and sensory neurons that connect the brain and the spinal cord to the rest of the body.
Who performed the "Little Albert Experiment?"
John Watson.(Fuzzy white rat, big BANG, crying)
BOBO DOLL EXPERIENCE
kids who saw the bobo doll get beat up, went to beat up the bobo doll. kids who did not see the bobo doll get beat up, didnt not really hit the bobo doll.

conclusion: if you see something happen(domestic violenc, you are likely to repeat that behavior)
Shaping through successive approximations
teaching a dog how to roll over, but by first rewarding them for being able to lie down, and then reward them each step along the way until they compete the task of rolling over.
Which of the following best explains why children are more likely to resist eating strong-tasting foods?
A. sensory interaction makes certain foods more unpleasant to taste
B. young children have more taste receptors, so their sensitivity to taste is gr
B. young children have more taste receptors, so their sensitivity to taste is greater
What does the term releaser mean in regard to fixed action patterns?
Releasers are the situation or stimuli that cause the modal action pattern. Whether it is a certain sight, smell, or sound, it is the situation that triggers the instinctual actions.
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