AP BIO Flashcards

Terms Definitions
blade-like shape
become fluid, liquid
Eucaryotic Cells DNA
Multiple chromosomes
-Chemical digestion (Pepsin digest protein)
-Chemical digestion (HCl lowers pH/activates pepsin)
-Produce chyme
-Produce mucous (Protect stomach from ulcer [acid burn] )
-Mechanical digestion (Peristalsis crushes food)
homologous structure
similar b/c of ancestor
microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen
narrow channels between plant cells
a process by which nutrients, particularly phosphorus and nitrogen, become highly concentrated in a body of water, leading to increased growth of organisms such as algae or cyanobacteria
Scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation
What macromoleucle has many hydrogen bonds and peptide linkages?
the relation between two different kinds of organisms when one receives benefits from the other without damaging it
A typically long extension, or process, of a neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body toward target cells
A transposable element that moves within a genome by means of a DNA intermediate.
Antifreeze compounds used by some ectotherms in order to better acclimatize.
Cell layer around root vascular cylinder; influenc
triplet code
A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
the clinging of one substance to another
Trisomy X (XXX)
Nondisjunction of sex chromosomes; phenotypically female, their sex organs don't mature during adolescense, secondary sex characteristics fail to develop, sterile, absort stature.
one of usually numerous, short, highly branched processes of a neuron that conveys nerve impulses toward the cell body
region between the nucleus and plasma membrane; the interior of a prokaryotic cell and the area in which membrane bound organelles are suspended in cytosol
One of usually numerous, short, highly branched extensions of a neuron that receive signals from other neurons
Dendritic cells
Phagocytic white blood cells that engulf microbes and stimulate the acquired immunity.
collenchyma cell
A supportive tissue of plants, consisting of elongated living cells with unevenly thickened walls
The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
S phase time
takes about 1/2 the time
A tiny lymph vessel extending into the core of an intestinal villus and serving as the destination for absorbed chylomicrons.
a subatomic particle with one unit of positive charge
lytic cycle
A type of viral (phage) replication cycle resulting in the release of new phages by lysis (and death) of the host cell
What is chareronins
protein molecules that assist the proper folding of proteins
The part of a plant embryo directly below the cotyledons, forming a connection with the radicle.
endoplasmic reticulum
network of membranous sacs and tubes active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
endomembrane system
the collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer ot membranous vesicles.
g-protein-linked receptor
A signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that responds to the binding signal molecule by activating a G protein.
inositol trisphosphate
a second messenger that functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and a third messenger, a rise in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration.
central vacuole
(plant cells) organelle that acts as storage, breakdown of waste products, hydrolysis of macromolecules, enlargement helps plant growth
High Specific Heat
Causes water to change less wheb absorbing or loosing heat
fluid mosaic model
The currently accepted model of cell membrane structure, which envisions the membrane as a mosaic of individually inserted protein molecules drifting laterally in a fluid bilayer of phospholipids.
Limnetic Zone
The well lit area of a freshwater aquatic biome far from the shore inhabited by phytoplankton
A cellular sac, bound by a membrane in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, that contains hydrolytic enzymes and whose function is to digest macromolecules.
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
Minimum Viable Population Size
the minimum number of individuals need for species to sustain numbers & survive
Concluded that
DNA of the virus was injected into the host during infection, leaving the protein outside. the DNA produces more viruses.
Difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes
o Eukaryotic Cells - Eukaryotic cells are more complex, evolving from a prokaryote-like predecessor. Most of the living things that we are typically familiar with are composed of eukaryotic cells; animals, plants, fungi and protists. Eukaryotic organisms can either be single-celled or multi-celled.
o Prokaryotic Cells - Prokaryotes are evolutionarily ancient. They were here first and for billions of years were the only form of life. And even with the evolution of more complex eukaryotic cells, prokaryotes are supremely successful. All bacteria and bacteria-like Archaea are prokaryotic organisms.
magnetite in the heads of birds, can see the magnetic field through photoreceptors
hypotheses for birds detecting the earth's magnetic field
bladder; pouch
man; same; alike
Smallest cytoskeleton fibers. Important for: Muscle contraction: Actin & myosin fibers in muscle cells
"Amoeboid motion" of white blood cells
plants defense against pathogens
Channel proteins
allow passage of hydrophilic
locomotion organelles in some bacteria
in roots auxin _____ growth
Geoge Cuvier
French scientist who developed paleontology. Opposed idea of gradual evolutionary change. Advocated catastrophism.
What provides mechanical strength to plant cell walls?
non-equilibrium model
describes most communities as constantly changing after being affected by disturbances
the junction where one neuron communicates with another cell across a narrow gap. Neurotransmitter molecules released by the neuron diffuse across the synapse, relaying messages to the other cell.
The supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic era, when plate movements brought all the landmasses of Earth together.
the process by which a cell(macrophages) engulfs foreign substances or other cells
'Fungus-root.'' A form of mutualism between fungal
A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron and joining the two adjacent exons.
RNA splicing
The removal of noncoding portions (introns) of the RNA molecule after initial synthesis.
organic chemistry
compounds containing carbon are said to be organic, and the branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds is called...
process of making sperm (1n) --> occurs in testes
negative feedback
a primary mechanism of homeostasis, whereby a change in a physiological variable that is being monitered triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation
cytoplasmic streaming
A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells.
membrane potential
the difference in electrical charge (voltage) across a cell's plasma membrane, due to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances.
Cells that attract phagocytic cells to engulf microbes during an inflammatory response.
water potential
measure of solute concentration and pressure, measured in megapascals MPa
Limp. Walled cells are limp in isotonic surroundings, where there is no tendency for water to enter.
In plants
during telophase cell plate is produced. Cell plate enlarges until its surrounding membrane fuses with the plasma membrane along the perimeter of the cell.
Competitive Inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
anything that takes up space and has mass
A phage genome that has been inserted into a specific site on the bacterial chromosome
what are carbohydrates used for
fuel and building material
Long-day plants
Plants that flower when night is shorter than a critical period
golgi apparatus
products of ER are modified, stored, and sent to other places
one of the family of closely related organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
the outer layer of the skin covering the exterior body surface of vertebrates
Double Covalent Bond
Sharing of two pairs of valence electrons by two atoms
cell-cell recognition
the ability of a cell to distinguish one type of neighboring cell from another.This attribute is important in the sorting and organization of cells into tissues and organs during development. # It is also the basis for rejection of foreign cells by the immune system.
Benthic Zone
The bottom of an aquatic biome where it is made of sand, inorganic matter, and organic sediment
origin of replication
Site where replication of DNA begins, site where DNA polymerase and other proteins initially bind.
Polar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive.
Gross Primary Production
the amount of light energy that is converted to chemical energy by photosynthesis per unit time
scanning electron microscope (SEM)
What is useful for studying surface structures?
The pH Scale
Anything < 7 is acidic
Anything > 7 is basic
Water has a pH of 7, so it is neutral
niko tinbergen, karl von frisch, konrad lorenz
3 people who shared nobel prize for behavioral ecology
hidden; covered
middle half intermediate
catalyze specific chemical reactions
male competition
males compete for females
Oxidized and reduced forms, respectively, of flavin adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that transfers electrons (as hydrogen) in metabolism, including cellular respiration.
point mutations
substitution, deletion, or insertion
Genetic Polymorphism
polymorphisms for alleles that influence height at the several loci.
Recombinant chromosomes
Individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from two different parents
What is not an organic molecule?
the living together in direct contact
Molecules that set the body's thermostat at a higher temperature
heterozygote advantage
Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared with homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in a gene pool.
Rythmic waves of contractions by smooth muscle in the wall of the canal that helps move food.
Mixture of mineral particles of variable sizes and
A violation of the base-pairing rules in that the third nucleotide (5' end) of a tRNA anticodon can form hydrogen bonds with more than one kind of base in the third position (3' end) of a codon.
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of languagefrom nucleotides to amino acids
whether ionic or polar, any substance that hash an affinity for water is said to be...
Klinefeltner's Syndrome (XXY)
Nondisjunction of sex chromosomes; extra X chromosome, man is sterile
a membrane that suspends many organs of vertebrates inside fluid-filled body cavities
basal body
A eukaryotic cell organelle consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets; may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum; structurally identical to a centriole.
a glial cell with diverse functions, including providing structural support for neurons, regulating the interstitial environment, facilitating synaptic transmission, and assisting in regulating the blood supply to the brain.
Released by mast cells in connective tissue; dilate capillaries during an inflammatory response.
turgor pressure
pressure due to high water concentration
trans face
golgi apparatus--> gives rise to vesicles which pinch off and travel to other sites
Meiosis occurs only in__
gonands (ovaries or testes)
Enzymatic Hydrolysis
The process in digestion that splits macromolecules from food by the enzymatic addition of water.
extracellular digestion
breakdown of food particles outside of cells. compartments continuous to the outside of the body (has an anus or mouth)
miniature versions of an adult in the reproductive process of budding; type of asexual reproduction
A polypeptide is a polymer of what
amino acids
Compound produced by one part of an organism that is transported and triggers a respone in another part
noncompetitive inhibitors
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing the enzyme's shape so that the active site no longer functions effectively.
the outer region of cytoplasm in a eukaryotic cell, lying just under the plasma membrane, that has a more gel-like consistency than the inner regions.
large molecules that are made up of smaller molecules
bud primordia
growth from the apical meristem that will eventually become a bud (an embryonic shoot, often protected by young leaves)::: bud primordia develop into lateral shoots
moderation of temperature
water molecules absorb heat from warmer air and release stored heat to cooler air
Importance of Buffers
Minimizes changes in pH, important in bodies, small pH changes can kill an organism
dynamic equilibrium
as many molecules cross one way as cross in the other direction.
Tropical Forest
A region of forest or jungle that located near the equator and that is characterized by large amounts of rain and little variation in temperature
homozygous organisms
Have two identical alleles for a given traits, whether they be dominant or recessive.
Autotrophs (or Producers)
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. These use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
Dynamic Stability Hypothesis
long food chains are less stable than short food chains
action of flexor carpi radialis
flexes wrist and abducts the hand
the enzyme is only activated when...
you add epinephrine to cells with a cell membrane
Moist; liquid
spec; spic
look at
mechanical isolation
- anatomical incompatibility
______ never face cytoplasm
drastic increase in size= vulnerability to genetic drift
solutions of equal solute concentration
a group of four chromatids
Called phyletic evolution. Is the accumulation of changes that gradually transform a given species into a species with different characteristics.
Organisms which are heterozygous for two characters
plant energy storage, spirals of glucose, cannot go through cell walls
a specific biological community and its physical environment interacting in an exchange of matter and energy.
growth hormone
metabolizes fats, produces muscle, increases bone length
A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
Capillary beds
organized networks of capillaries. THere are anywhere from 10-100 capillaries supplied by a single metarteriole, infiltrate every tissue.
direct transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells that are temporarily joined
evolutionary adaptions
inherited traits that enhance an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
level of organization that consist of an entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem (1)
the embryonic plant shoot that bears young leaves
positive feedback
A physiological control mechanism in which a change in a variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.
thick hollow tubes; thickest fibers of the cytoskeleton made of tubulin; maintain cell shape, allows cell motility, and organelle mvt
A foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism that elicits an immune response
metabolic pathway
the chemical reactions, both anabolic and catabolic, that make up an oragaisms metabolism
mycelium of mycorrhizae form a dense sheath around the plant root
stem cell
unspecialized cell that can reproduce itself indefinitely, and can differentiate into specialized cells
RNA polymerase
An enzyme that links ribonucleotides into a growing RNA chain during transcription
The process of breaking down food into molecules small enough for the body to absorb.
Villi and microvilli
(brush border) causes the large surface area of the small intestine. enormous microvillar greatly increase the rate of nutrient absoprtion.
linkage map
a genetic map based on recombination frequencies is specifically called a ______ ______
Organismal Ecology
The branch of ecology concerned with the morphological, physiological, and behavioral ways in which individual organisms meet the challenges posed by their biotic and abiotic environments.
The process by which a liquid changes to a gas.
activation energy
the amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start.
hypotonic solution
In comparing two solutions, the one with a lower solute concentration.
recessive allele
has no noticeable effect on the organism's appearance
hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles
organic molecules
molecules that contain both carbon and hydrogen atoms
biodiversity at equator vs. poles
tropical habitats have greater diversity, main factors are evolutionary history (the equator is older and has longer growing season=more time for biodiversity) and climate (solar energy input and water availability- evapotranspiration)
cell cycle
An ordered sequence of events in the life of a eukaryotic cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into 2; composed of the M, G1, S, and G2 phases.
a grade change in a character along a geographic axis
Periodic table
a t able used to group elements according to certain characteristics
control treatment
part of an experiment which does not contain the experimental factor
replication fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
Evolutionary Signifigance of Sexual Reproduction within Populations
Contributes to the genetic variation in a population, which ultimately results from mutations.
zero population growth
when the birth rate equals the death rate
What are the major elements of life
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphate
Which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on Earth?
b. All organisms use essentially the same genetic code.
thread, filament
somatic cell
body cells
Muscle to bone connections
beta cells secrete _________
nuclear envelope breaks down, kinetochore near centromere develops for each sister chromatid
Usable energy decreases
in exergonic reactions
substances that stimulate the production of memory cells
Smallest unit that can actually evolve.
molecules or cellular structures that respond to stimulation
star-shaped structure formed in the cytoplasm of a cell having fibers like rays that surround the centrosome during mitosis
K+, H+
secreted at distal convoluted tubule
A stemlike structure of a seaweed.
(zoology) a protective layer of epidermis in mollusks or brachiopods that secretes a substance forming the shell
Evolutionary Adaptation
An accumulation of inherited characteristics that enhance an organisms ability to survive and reproduce in specific enviroments.
cell division resulting in 4 gametes 1/2 number of chromosomes
A type of prokaryotic nutrition where the organism uses light energy to generate ATP from an organic carbon source
the type of ribosomes that are suspended in the cytosol
multiple species evolve over time, and go through few changes between species. Until the macroevolution is complete, w/ comparing starting species w/ current species.
A transition area between river and sea.
Faciliated Diffusion
Transport protein speeds up the movement of solute across a membrane
antidiuretic hormone
post. pit.
• Increases water reabsorption in kidneys (collecting duct)
• Reduces urine volume
-OH; found in alcohols, helps dissolve sugar molecules
One of the often brightly colored parts of a flower immediately surrounding the reproductive organs
10 million molecules
_________________ of ATP are consumed/regenerated per second per cell
An independently folding part of a protein
Multicellular Organism
An individual living thing composed of many cells
A series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle are used to convert ADP into ATP.
Community Ecology
The study of how interactions between species affect community structure and organization.
one gene-one polypeptide
theory that genes cod for proteins
oxidative phosphorylation
produces majority of ATP, from energy of redox reactions
directional selection
eliminating one extreme from an array of phenotypes, genes promoting extreme become less frequent
small molecule that binds to a larger one
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape
tumor treatment
a tumor that appears to be localized can be treated with high-energy radiation which damages DNA in cancer cells much more than it does in normal cells apparently because cancer cells have lost the ability to repair such damage; to treat known or suspected metastatic tumors, chemotherapy is used in which drugs that are toxic to actively dividing cells are administered throug hthe circulatory system, as you might expect chemotherapeutic drugs interfere with specific steps in the cell cycle, side effects are due to the chemo effects on normal cells: nausea from effecst on intestinal cells, hair loss from effects on hair follicle cells, susceptibility to infection from effects on immune cells
Artificial Selection
A process in which humans modify other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits
classical conditioning
a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. A neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning.
origins replication
Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
Sperm+ Egg fuse? What does it mean?
it triggers meosis II
The idea behind vaccination is to induce _____ without requiring the vaccinated individual to get sick. (Concept 43.3)
the primary immune response
Why is variable group R different
glyceren is different in side chains
If two modern organisms are distantly related in an evolutionary sense, then one should expect that
b. they should share fewer homologous structures than two more closely related organisms.
million great
sulfur and hydrogen
when pyruvate is oxidized
like molecules are attracted
multicellular organism with haploid cells
the X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromotids that have exchanged genetic material thorough crossing over during meiosis
Class Echinoidea
Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars
larger and
many vacuoles in plant cells
Integumentary system
protects against mechanical injury, infection, excessive heat or cold, and drying out
A family tree describing the occurrence of heritable characters in parents and offspring across as many generations as possible.
pigment used to detect blue light
triacylglycerol (tryglyceride)
glycerol (triple alcohol molecule) combined with three fatty acid chains by ester linkages
Reproductive isolation
When an organism can't breed
primary structure
the level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids
maximum likelihood
this principle states that, given certain rules abotu how DNA changes over time, a tree can be found that reflects the most likely sequence of evolutionary events
Tertiary structure
Further shaping of proteins by hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions and formation of disulfide bridgers
convergent evolution
aquire of similar characteristics due to sharing similar ecological roles
A symbiotic relationship in which both the host and the symbiote benefit
The first stage of mitosis; the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact
enzyme-substrate complex
the temporary complex formed when substrate molecules bind to an enzyme.
supports the anther, part of the stamen
obligate anaerobes
organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen is present
particles made of ribosomal RNA and protein are the organells that carry out prite
an embryoninc stage in mammals; a hollow ball of cellspreduced one week after fertilization in humans
Hypersensitive Response
A plant's localized defense response to a pathogen.
Inner Chloroplast Membrane:
Contains enzymes needed to make glucose during photosynthesis. Encloses stroma (liquid) and thylakoid membranes.
Relative Fitness
The contribution of one genotype to the next generation compared to that of alternative genotypes for the same locus.
set point
In animal bodies, a value maintained for a particular variable, such as body temperature or solute concentration, to achieve homeostasis.
Ecological Succession
Occurs when areas colonized which are gradually replaced by other species.
a type of learned behavior with a significant innate component, acquired during a limited critical period
A protist in a clade that includes many species that parasitize animals.
growth factors
the plasma membranes of cells have recepetors for external molecules aka THIS that stimulate a cell to divide
basal angiosperms
Member of a clade of three early-diverging lineages of flowering plants. Examples are Amborella, water lilies, and star anise and its relatives.
peptide bond
form between the amino acids in a protein; these are formed by dehydration reactions, where a water molecule is given off
G-protein coupled receptor
A signal receptor protein in the plasma membrane that respnds to the binding of a signaling molecule by activating a G protein. Also called a G protein-linked receptor.
Anchorage Dependence
the requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to a solid surface.
point mutation
change of one base in one gene; sometimes harmful, like in sickle cell disease, usually harmless though. Occasionally, a point mutation might make an individual more suited for its enviroment, enhancing fitness and reproductive success i.e. HIV
differential gene expression
The expression of different sets of genes by cels with the same gene
second law of thermodynamics
The principle stating that every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. Ordered forms of energy are at least partly converted to heat.
mass number
the # of protons plus the # of nuetrons
In the wall of the small intestine are enzymes for digesting proteins and nucleic acids. ______ digests proteins and __________ digests nucleic acids?
Protases, phosphates
saturated fatty acid
a fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton.
Which of the following is a characteristic of acquired immunity? (Overview)
It has the ability to detect pathogens with tremendous specificity.
reproductive cells
most successful phyla?
yolk sac
encloses the yolk
Thymine and Cytosine
one circle
Elastic Fibers
Stretchy and retain shape
integral proteins
transmembrane proteins; hydrophobic regions completely span hyddrophobic interior of membrane
development of an egg without fertilization
Feedback Inhibition
Product slows down (Negative Feedback)
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
Social behavior
kind of interaction between animals
Ionic bonding
attraction between negatively and positively charged ions
layers of sporophyte tissue that envelop and protect the megasporangium in gymnosperms.
inner membrane
oxidative phosphorylation occurs here in mitochondria
Theory that each boundary between strata represents a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that destroyed many of the species living at the time.
ion channels
a transmembrane protein channel that allows a specific ion to flow across the membrane down its concentration gradient
The mutual influence on the evolution of two different species interacting with each other and reciprocally influencing each other's adaptations
green world hypothesis
herbivores comsume little plant bilmass because they are held in check by a variety of factors
a glycoprotein that helps animal cells attach to the extracellular matrix.
Genetic Structure
Frequencies of different alleles at each locus and the frequencies of genotypes in a Mendelian population.
a polymer of glucose that animals store in liver and muscle cells
causes disease even if prokaryote not there, proteins secreted by prokaryotes, cholera & botulism
when cancer cells detach from a malignant tumor and invade other healthy tissue
food + water + gastric juices.... yum
isotope takes 50% original sample to decay
Body cover. Of plants, a transparent covering of w
the splitting in half of a glucose molecule; the first stage of cellular respiration and fermentation
What can take place with or without geographic separation?
Marcroclimate Patterns
Climatic patterns that work at the global, regional, or local level.
Genetic Variation: Discrete Characters
Ex. Flower Color...determined by single locus with different alleles that produce distinct phenotypes.
when it binds to a receptor protein located on the cells surface or inside the cell
contractile vacuole
protozoa have _____ _____ as an excretory organ
passive immunity
short term immunity conferred by the transfer of antibodies, as occurs in the transfer of maternal antibodies to a fetus or nursing infant.
gap junction
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells.
one of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass
immune system functions to
protect against pathogens and hazardous foreign substances.
Some functions of membrane proteins?
Transport, enzymatic activity, signal transduction, cell-cell recognition, intercellular joining, attachment to the cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix.
A disorder in which the ability of an immune system to protect against pathogens is defective or absent.
allosteric site
(1) A regulatory site located on a protein that is separate from the functional site. The binding of a specific regulator to the allosteric site alters the conformation and function of the protein; (2) A site on an enzyme other than the active site, to which a specific substance (other than the normal substrate) can bind, thereby changing the shape and activity of the enzyme.
cell differentiation
the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function
response of a plant to the force of gravity
specific epithet
the second part of a species' name is the ______ ______, which is unique for each species within the genus
Calvin Cycle Phase 2 Reduction
Regeneration of the CO2 acceptor (RuBP)- Each molecule of 3-phosphoglycerate receives an additional phosphate from ATP, creating a 3-biphosphoglycerate. A pair of electrons from NADPH then reduce the 3-bisphosphoglycerate, causing it to lose a phosphate group, becoming G3P, which stores more potential energy. The cycle began with 15 carbons worth of carbohydrate in the form of three molecules of RuBP. Now there are 18 carbons worth of carbohydrate in the form of six molecules of G3P.
What are three alternate classification systems?
6 kingdoms, 3 domain, 8 kingdom.
Logically, which of these should cast the most doubt on the relationships depicted by an evolutionary tree?
e. DNA sequence evidence fully disagreed with morphological evidence.
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