shorter irregularly shaped
generally live two years
|photosystem I reaction center||
live for many years
-rigid thick secondary walls
-DEAD at maturity
-two forms: fibers & sclerids
includes cork and cork cambium
Referring to a multinucleated condition resulting from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division.
crescent-shaped surfacewhich forms at the top of the water column
specialized plastids containing starch grains; found in the root cap
tip of main shoot
includes cell walls, extracellular spaces, interionr of dead cells
water conducting element in the xylem
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Usually above ground, supports leaves and flowers
developmental response that occurs due to mechanical stimulation
(flowering plants) bears seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seeds.
xylem which remains active in transport of water
H2C=CH2 gas promoting ripening of fruit
provides structural support and aids in photosynthesis; the typical plant cell
Transports sugars from leaves to plant. Sieve-tube members or elements. Cell seperated/ connected by sieve plates, Have companion cells-support sieve elements
|Types of bryophytes:||
pollen grows to reach the female gametophyte
all tissues external to the vascular cambium
-phloem, cork cambium and cork
Female sex organ where eggs are made
-pores flanked by guard cells
-for gas exchange, also major source of water loss through transpiration
-most are on underside of leaf to reduce water loss
2 lateral meristems function in this
-rare in monocots
-happens in most dicots
-occurs in ALL gymnosperms
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
a single layer of tightly packed cells
promotes plant growth by facilitating elongation of developing cells
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds—seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers.
the stem below the cotyledons; becomes the roots of the plant
pattern of vascular bundles in stems of monocots
________ potassium means a closed stomata + _______ water potential
stems and leaves, flowers in angiosperms
serves itself and sieve tube element
A flowering plant clade that evolved later than basal angiosperms but before monocots and eudicots. Extant examples are magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants.
The vascular tissue of a stem or root.
Don't flower in response to daylight changes...They use other cues such as water or temp.
-generative nucleus divides by two to make 2 sperm nuclei
-one sperm fertilizes the egg and forms zygote
-one sperm combines with the 2 polar nuclei to form endosperm
|Vascular/ Non seeds||
* Conduct water internally, must release reproductive cells into water droplets
examples: ferns, clubmosses
clock measuring length of daylight and night
allow for gas exchange through bark in plants
a string of cells within a seed connecting the embryo to the parent plant
|The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.||
required water to seim to the eggs
forms a layer between the two daughter cells in a plant
enhance the absoration of water for a plant
connects the leaf to a node of the stem
A fruit such as a blackberry that develops from a single flower that has several carpels.
cells that make up phloem and form fluid-conducting columns
a seed's intake of water (from dry to moist)
|Charophyceans and land plants both:||
1. Synthesize cellulose
2. Have peroxisomes
3. Have flagellated sperm
4. Have phragmoplasts (cytoskeleton along the midline of the dividing cell)
|zone of cell division||
(root) located closest to root top, includes apical meristem
refers to the part of the life cycle of plants where the sporophyte plant divides and produces spores through meiosis; produces haploid cells; dominant in byrophytes
are locate at the tips of roots and shoos and at the axillary buds of shoots
|Difference between stele & Cortex||
Cortex is the tissue btwn epidermis & vascular tissue separated from the stele by the Casparian Strip. Stele is the inner central vascular tissue