ap bio - plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
xanthophylls
yellow
collenchyma
support cells
Vascular cylinder
Xylem/phloem cells
palisade layer
phoysynthesis area
sclerids
shorter irregularly shaped
(pear)
biennials
generally live two years
photosystem I reaction center
p700
perennials
live for many years
Sclerenchyma cells:
function: support
-rigid thick secondary walls
-DEAD at maturity
-two forms: fibers & sclerids
periderm
includes cork and cork cambium
coenocytic
Referring to a multinucleated condition resulting from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division.
meniscus
crescent-shaped surfacewhich forms at the top of the water column
statoliths
specialized plastids containing starch grains; found in the root cap
apical meristem
tip of main shoot
apoplast
includes cell walls, extracellular spaces, interionr of dead cells
tracheids
water conducting element in the xylem
Stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Stem
Usually above ground, supports leaves and flowers
thigmomorphogenesis
developmental response that occurs due to mechanical stimulation
angiosperm
(flowering plants) bears seeds within a layer of tissue that protects the seeds.
sapwood
xylem which remains active in transport of water
ethylene
H2C=CH2 gas promoting ripening of fruit
parenchyma
provides structural support and aids in photosynthesis; the typical plant cell
Phloem
Transports sugars from leaves to plant. Sieve-tube members or elements. Cell seperated/ connected by sieve plates, Have companion cells-support sieve elements
Types of bryophytes:
1. Mosses
2. Liverworts
3. Hornworts
microphlye
pollen grows to reach the female gametophyte
bark
all tissues external to the vascular cambium
-phloem, cork cambium and cork
Archegonium
Female sex organ where eggs are made
stomata
-pores flanked by guard cells
-for gas exchange, also major source of water loss through transpiration
-most are on underside of leaf to reduce water loss
secondary growth
2 lateral meristems function in this
-rare in monocots
-happens in most dicots
-occurs in ALL gymnosperms
bryophytes
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
epidermis
a single layer of tightly packed cells
Auxin/ IAA
promotes plant growth by facilitating elongation of developing cells
Gymnosperm
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds—seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers.
hypocotyl
the stem below the cotyledons; becomes the roots of the plant
scattered
pattern of vascular bundles in stems of monocots
less, high
________ potassium means a closed stomata + _______ water potential
shoot system
stems and leaves, flowers in angiosperms
companion cell
serves itself and sieve tube element
magnoliids
A flowering plant clade that evolved later than basal angiosperms but before monocots and eudicots. Extant examples are magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants.
Stele
The vascular tissue of a stem or root.
Day-neutral plants
Don't flower in response to daylight changes...They use other cues such as water or temp.
double fertilization
-generative nucleus divides by two to make 2 sperm nuclei
-one sperm fertilizes the egg and forms zygote
-one sperm combines with the 2 polar nuclei to form endosperm
Vascular/ Non seeds
* Conduct water internally, must release reproductive cells into water droplets
examples: ferns, clubmosses
circadian rhythm
clock measuring length of daylight and night
Lenticels
allow for gas exchange through bark in plants
suspensor
a string of cells within a seed connecting the embryo to the parent plant
The two cells that flank the stomatal pore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore.
mesophyll
flagellated sperm
required water to seim to the eggs
middle lamella
forms a layer between the two daughter cells in a plant
Root hairs
enhance the absoration of water for a plant
petiole
connects the leaf to a node of the stem
aggregate fruit
A fruit such as a blackberry that develops from a single flower that has several carpels.
sieve-tube members
cells that make up phloem and form fluid-conducting columns
inhibition
a seed's intake of water (from dry to moist)
Charophyceans and land plants both:
1. Synthesize cellulose
2. Have peroxisomes
3. Have flagellated sperm
4. Have phragmoplasts (cytoskeleton along the midline of the dividing cell)
zone of cell division
(root) located closest to root top, includes apical meristem
Gametophyte Generation
refers to the part of the life cycle of plants where the sporophyte plant divides and produces spores through meiosis; produces haploid cells; dominant in byrophytes
apical meristems
are locate at the tips of roots and shoos and at the axillary buds of shoots
Difference between stele & Cortex
Cortex is the tissue btwn epidermis & vascular tissue separated from the stele by the Casparian Strip. Stele is the inner central vascular tissue
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