AP Bio 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
poly-
many
tarso
ankle
rhin
nose
Neur/Nerv
Nerve; tendon
mela melan
black dark
bacteria
extremely small, single-celled organisms without a nucleus; prokaryotic cells, most ancient lineage
complete dominance
Pp = purple
Biogeography
undersimilar conditions diff. species look alike use geo. To describe dist. Of species
Carotenoids
Accessory pigment, aids in photosynthesis (yellow and orange)
liver
makes bile which emulsifies fats
Population
Localized group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
Hybridization
Mating, or crossing, of two true-breeding varieties
development
orderly transformation from the first cell to an adult
secondary succession
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
Tumor Antigen
A foreign macromolecule, associated with a tumor, which does not belong to the host organism and that elicits an immune response
systematics
A scientific discipline focused on classifying organisms and determining their evolutionary relationships.
Epithelial Tissue
Membranous tissue covering internal organs and other internal surfaces of the body.Closely joined, many of these are riveted together in tight junctions.Also acts against mechanical injury, microbes, and fluid loss.
where adjoining populations are interbreeding and
hybrid zone
deletion
(1) A deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage. (2) A mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene.
hydrogen bond
the partially negative charged oxygen atoms of water molecules attract the partially positively charged hydrogen atoms of nearby water molecules
denaturation
when the protein unravels and loses its native conformation
coevolution
joint evolution in which one species exerts selective pressure on the other species
mesoderm
middle layer gives rise to everything else. includes bones, muscles as well as excretory, ciruclatory, and reproductive systems
plastids
a family of closely related plant organelles containing organelles such as chloroplast
Histamine
Signals released by body cells in response to tissue injury
quaternary structure
the overall protein structure that results from the joining together of the different polypeptide subunits
apoplast
external to the plasma membrane and includes cell walls, xylem vessels etc., through which water and solutes passes freely and the symplast, the total cytoplasmic compartment
homeobox
a 180 nucleotide sequence within the homeotic genes and some developmental genes that is widely conserved in animals, also in plants.
5'cap
A modified form of guanine nucleotide added onto the nucleotide at the 5' end of a pre-mRNA molecule
Metabolic Pathway
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathway).
Brush Border
the epithelial lining of the deudenum and produces several digestive enzymes
wild type
the normal phenotype for a character is called the ____ _______
what is a steroid
lipids characterized by carbon skeleton consistin of FOUR FUSED CARBON RINGS
emergent properties
New properties that arise with each step upward in the hierarchy of life, owing to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases.
free energy
the portion of a biological system's energy that can perform work when temperature and pressure are uniform throughout the system. (Change in free energy is calculated by the equation ΔG = ΔH - TΔS where H is enthalpy, T is absolute temperature, and S is entropy)
sodium-potassium pump
A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
F2 generation
product of allowing f1 hybrids to self-pollinate; second filial generation
life history strategies
Represent a balance between two conflicting forces, survival and reproduction. R vs. K selection
Sulfhydryl
SH (Loses H to bond with other sulfhydryls making disulfide bridges)
dominant species
those species in a community that are the most abundant or have the most biomass, exert a powerful control over occurance/distribution of other species
microtubule
A hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells & in cilia, flagella, and the cytoskeleton.
genetic drift
a process in which chance events cause unpredictable fluctuations in allele frequencies from one generation to the next. effects of genetic drift are most pronounced in small populations
term used to describe earth in ice age
snowball earth
Parts of a complete flower
Sepals, petals, stamens, and carpels
punnett square
A diagram used in the study of inheritance to show the results of random fertilization.
The sperms sex chromosome...
determines the gender of the next generations child.
Animal Pole
The portion of the egg where the least yolk is concentrated; opposite of vegetal pole.
16) when applying the process of science which of these is tested?
Question and result type answers
What is an example of a vestigial structure in humans?
Appendix, wisdom teeth, ear wiggling muscles.
Phon-
sound
-ule
diminutive
pulmo
lung
Paleo
Old; ancient
liqu
become fluid liquid
Protein:
three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids
retrovirus
HIV is a _________
Euchromatin
loosely bound to nucleosomes.. Actively transcribed
Photosystem I
(P700) Absorbs far red
r-selected species
exponential growth, opportunistic species
Cladogenesis
Called branching evolution. Is the splitting of a gene pool into two or more seprate pools, which give rise to one or more new species. Promotes biological diversity by increasing number of species.
Multifactorial
Many factors, both genetic and environmental, collectively influence phenotype
phospholipids
polar phosphate containing head with two fatty acids attached
sympatric
(of biological species or speciation) occurring in the same or overlapping geographical areas
Eosinophils
1.5% of all leukocytes, main contribution to defense is against larger parasitic invaders
kingdom
A taxonomic category, the second broadest after domain.
Direction
The differences between veins and arteries are defined in this way, NOT by the charecteristics of the blood they contain. Arteries carry blood from the heart to the capillaries, while Veins carry blood from the capillaries back to the heart
Viroid
naked circular RNA that infects plants.
mutualism
a symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit
gradualism
principle that profound change is a cumulative product of slow but continuous processes
enantiomers
are molecules that are mirror images of each other
Globular Stage (early eudicot embryo)
ball of cells
smooth muscle
involuntary muscle found in internal organs, not striated
desmosomes (anchoring junctions)
animal cell intracellular junction that functions like rivets; fastens cells together into strong sheets and reinforced by intermediate filaments
Phagocytosis
The ingestion of invading organisms by certain types of white cells
hydrogen bonds
relatively weak bonds that form between the positively charged hydrogen atom of one molecule and the stongly electronegative N or O of another molecule
transfer cells
companion cells with outgrowths to increase tranfer abilities
pattern formation
development of spatial organization in which the tissues and organs of an organism are all in their characteristic places
Mutagen
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation
Chyme
The semifluid mass into which food is converted by gastric secretion and which passes from the stomach into the small intestine.
The small intestine
major organ of digestion and absorption
parental types
when half the offspring inheritd a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes
What is a gene
amino acids sequence of polypeptide
kilocalorie (kcal)
A thousand calories; the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1°C.
competitive inhibitors
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
electrochemical gradient
The diffusion gradient of an ion, representing a type of potential energy that accounts for both the concentration difference of the ion across a membrane and its tendency to move relative to the membrane potential.
norm of reaction
the range of phenotypic possibilities for a single genotype, as influenced by the environment
companion cell
phloem cell that surrounds sieve tube elements
Isomers:
compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures hence different properties
biomass
the total mass of all individuals in a population
G2 phase
This third subphase of interphase is a period of metabolic activity and growth. During this phase the cell makes final preparations for division.
hybrid zone
a region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry
negative feedback
accumulation of an end product of a process slows that process
generation time
the period between the birth of one generation and the birth of the next generation
Somatic Cell
Any cell other than a gamete- has 46 chromosomes
primary cell wall
thin and flexible wall which exists in young plant cells
what is a geometric isomer
same covalent but differ in spatial arrangement
What is a transcription intiation complex?
the whole complex of RNA polymerase II and transcription factors
hollow
coel
sepsis
Infection
deci-
tenth
intra-
within; inside
interphase
during ____________centrosome replicates
homeostasis
regulation (ex: waste, sweating)
hypotonic
plants want ____________ solutions
endoparasites
parasites that live in host
photoautotrophs
photosynthetic organisms that capture light energy and use it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2.
taproot
dicotyledons have a ______ root
eudicots
(eudiocotyledons) plants that have two cotyledons
Interspecific competition
Competition among individuals of different species
Chromatin
a complex of proteins and DNA
biocapacity
an estimate of the sustainable resources and waste-absorbing capacity actually available on Earth. While related to the concept of carrying capacity explained in Chapter 26, both the footprint and biocapacity calculations are subject to change as new technologies change the way people use resources.
water
reabsorbed by descending Loop of Henle
zygomycete
Member of the fungal phylum Zygomycota, characterized by the formation of a sturdy structure called a zygosporangium during sexual reproduction.
Segmented
having the body divided into successive metameres or segments, as in earthworms or lobsters
fimbrae
short appendages on some prokaryote species
Stabilizing selection
acts against extreme phenotypes and favors intermediate variants. this mode of selection reduces variation and maintains the status quo for a particular phenotypic character.
detritivore
a consumer that derives its energy from nonliving organic material; a decomposer.
nucleus
the most prominent organelle in an animal cell
Coral Reefs
formed largely from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals. Shallow reef building corals live in the photic zone of relatively stable tropical marine environments with high water clarity, primarily on islands and along the edge of some continents.
ultra centrifuges
machine used for cell fractionation, can spin as fast as 130,000 revolutions per minute (rpm) and apply forces on particles of more than 1 million times the force of gravity (1,000,000g)
phosphorylation
referring to a molecule that is covalently bonded to a phosphate group
morula
blastomeres divide into ball of cells (8 cells) called _____
_________ is highly soluble in water and highly toxic and is exreted by organisms who live in water
ammonia
mesenteries
A double layer of peritoneum attached to the abdominal wall and enclosing in its fold certain organs of the abdominal viscera
equilibrium
no net change in products or reactants, low delta G
scherenchyma cell
rigid, thick, secondary walls with lignin; dead at maturity
Karl Von Frisch
scientist known for his extensive studies of honeybee communications and the famous bee waggle dance
fluid mosaic model
currently accepted model for the arrangement of molecules in membranes; membrane is a fluid structure with various proteins embedded in or attached to a bilayer of phospholipids
peptide bond
the covalent bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the other (dehydration reaction)
Associative Learning
The acquired ability to associate one stimulus with another; also called classical conditioning.
Lagging Strand
moves 3' to 5' makes Okinaze strips
facilitated diffusion
polar molecules and ions span membrane with help of transport proteins. spontaneous. passive transport
prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells (bacteria and archaea) are called prokaryotes.
action spectrum
A graph that profiles the relative effectiveness of different wavelengths of radiation in driving a particular process.
protein kinase
name for an enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein.
noncompetitive inhibitors
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing the enzyme's shape so that the active site no longer functions effectively.
acetyl CoA
Molecule made up of a 2-carbon acetyl group attached to a coenzyme A. During cellular respiration, the acetyl group enters the citric acid cycle for further breakdown
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism
One base-pair variation in the genome sequence
Telomerase
long piece at end of DNA containing no genes
Secondary Oocyte
An oocyte in which the first meiotic division is completed. The second meiotic division usually stops short of completion unless fertilization occurs.
plasma membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
ribosomal RNA
A type of RNA transcribed from DNA in the nucleolus and found in the ribosomes
sugar sink
organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar.
what is a condensation reaction (dehydration)
monomers are connected by reaction where 2 molecules are covalently bonded through the loss of water
The correct sequence from the most to the least comprehensive of the taxonomic levels listed here is
b. kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species.
tree
dendri
ante
before
zym
yeast
con-
with; together
spec-; spic
look at
nonpolar covalent
electrons shared equally
Class Gastropoda
Slime trail, univalve
catabolic pathway
breakdown which releases energy
arthropoda
spiders, insects, crustaceans, and others, well developed nervous system, exoskeletons
altruism
behavior that reduces an individual's fitness while increasing the fitness of another individual
Contest Competition
involves social or chemical interactions used to limit access to important resources
mRna
one strand of corresponding nucleic acid sequence
heterozygote advantage
Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared to homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in gene pools.
recombinant
An offspring whose phenotype differs from that of the parents; also called recombinant type.
homologous structures
similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor, similar tissues (comparitive anatomy)
Meiosis
(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
prokaryote
a unicellular organism lacking a nucleus
Habitat Isolation
(Pre), The populations remain isolated because they breed in different habitats.
incomplete dominance
Inheritance pattern in which the offspring has an intermediate phenotype, as when a red-flowered plant and a white-flowered plant produce pink-flowering offspring.
Biotic
living factors, all organisms that are part of the individuals environment and that influence the distribution and abundance of organisms.
catalyst
A substance that increases the speed at which a chemical reaction occurs without being used up in the reaction. Enzymes are biological catalysts.
homozygous
Having two identical alleles for a given gene.
Together the hindbrain and the midbrain are known as the __________
brain stem
modern synthesis
a comprehensive theory evolution that integrated ideas from many other fields
contractile vacuole
freshwater protists pump excess water from cell through these to maintain suitable concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell
Mesophyll
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
roots
serve to absorb, anchor, and store for the plant. The epidermis is modified to absorb and the cortex serves storage purposes through parenchymal cells and plastids. The endoderm surrounds the vascular cylinder to decide which minerals get through. The vascular cylinder contains vascular tissue.
Monocot
an angiosperm that has only one seed leaf
Greenhouse Effect
CO2 and water vapor intercept and absorb much of the reflected infrared radiation
What is the class of large biological molecules that consists of hydrophobic molecules and doesn't consist of polymers
Lipids
Ventral
Nearest to or facing toward the axis of an organ or organism
stramenopile
A protist in which a "hairy" flagellum (one covered with fine, hairlike projections) is paired with a shorter, smooth flagellum.
cell fractionation
The disruption of a cell and separation of its organelles by centrifugation.
bicoid
A maternal effect gene that codes for a protein responsible for specifying the anterior end in Drosophila.
adipose cells
fat is stored in ________________ in humans and other mammals
lymphocyte
A type of white blood cell that mediates acquired immunity. The two main classes are B cells and T cells.
macroclimate vs. microclimate
BIG (global, local level) vs. SMALL (under a rock, in a log, etc)
phototropism
Growth of a plant shoot toward or away from light.
linked genes
genes are close together and can be inherited together
Alkaline
What the ph of sperm can be described as, helps it survive longer in the vagina( which is slighlty acidic).
double bond
A double covalent bond; the sharing of two pairs of valence electrons by two atoms.
axillary buds
a structure that has the potential to form a lateral shoot or branch. The bud appears in the angle formed between a leaf and a stem.
competitive exclusion principle
when wo species compete for the same limited resources, one population will use resources more efficiently and have a reproductive advantage that will lead to the elimination of other populations
shared ancestral character
A character, shared by members of a particular clade, that originated in an ancestor of the taxon
Thomas Hunt Morgan
He was the first man to associate a gene with a chromosome discovered that fruit flies have 4 pairs of chromosomes (3 autosomal and 1 sex-linked).
Damage of the DNA structure can come from:
body heat, chemicals from internal environment, chemicals from external environment.
dorm
sleep
sess-
sit
calor-
heat
Chaparral
Midlatitude, coastal regions
-ism
a state or condition
cell division
reproduction of cells
Mycorrhizae
Symbiotic relationship between fungi and plant roots.
subunits
most enzymes with allosteric regulation have 2 or more __________
exocytosis
The cellular secretion of biological molecules by the fusion of vesicles containing them with the plasma membrane.
carcinogen
A chemical agent that causes cancer.
Vascongestion
Filling of a tissue with blood
Translation
Process whereby ribosomes use the sequence of codons in mRNA to produce a polypeptide with a particular sequence of amino acids
Dispersion
the pattern of spacing among individuals within the boundaries of the population
orbital
three dimensional space where an electron will most likely be found 90% of the time
Patterns of evolution
Divergent evolution, Convergent evolution, Parallel evolution, and co-evolution.
bioremediation
the use of organisms or their components to restore polluted and degraded ecosystems
600 to 1
H2O lost : CO2 used
Valence electrons
Electrons in the outermost shell (valence shell)
disaccharide
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis.
conservation biology
aims to survey range, investigate origins, and find ways to maintain biodiversity
visible light
Electromagnetic radiation that can be seen with the unaided eye
radiolarian
A protist, usually marine, with a shell generally made of silica and pseudopodia that radiate from the central body.
radioactive decay
the spontaneous disintegration of a radioactive substance along with the emission of ionizing radiation
microspores
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a male gametophyte with antheridia.
Omnivores
animals that ingest both plants and animals, such as humans, crows, cockroaches, and raccoons
Organ
group of tissues performing a specific function
turgor pressure
the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall
Amniote
An animal that is contained by an amniotic egg at a certain point in development. The egg is shell-protected and water-retaining which enables them to complete development in terrestrial environments. (alligators, turtles, birds, snakes).
littoral zone
shallow well lighted zone close to shore. where rooted and floating aquatic plants live
Transposons
jumping genes are able to move have the same effects as a mutation
amino
this group consists of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms and to the carbon skeleton
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight.
character displacement
the tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species.
NAD+
A coenzyme and an electron acceptor in respiration, functions as an oxidizing agent during respiration, helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
host
an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
Habituation
A simple type of learning in which an animal loses responsiveness to stimuli that it has learned to associate with neither a positive or negative result- any stimuli that conveys no info.
temperate phage
A phage that is capable of reproducing by either the lytic or lysogenic cycle
low specific heat
if something heats up easily it has
Species Richness
The number of species in a biological community.
Genetic Recombination
The general term for the production of offspring that combine traits of two parents
systems biology
to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems
molecular weight
the sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule
Cell-mediated immune response
A branch of the acquired immunity that activates and clones T cells, which results in the destruction of target cells.
Which of the following solutions has the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions (H+)?
gastric juice at pH 2
why is a low ph in the stomach good?
to unfold proteins, and increase exposure to peptide bonds
malle
hammer
compressor
look
septic
putrefaction; infection
-gest
carry; produce
growth regulators
plant hormones
pre-
before; ahead of time
Natural Selection
fit survive, weak don't
Neutron
electrically neutral particle (a particle having no electrical charge), found in the nucleus of an atom
sporangium (418)
structure that produces spores
pedigree
family tree describing the interrelationships of parents and children across generations; shows one trait; from a pedigree we would like to be able to work backward to determine mode of inheritance and genotypes
ribosomes
the sites of translation are __________, complex particles that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains
Induction
Process that allows chemical signals through the gap junctions to be transmitted to neighboring cells
Steroids
Lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
carvnivore has a large expandably stmoach yes or no?
yes
Glycolysis Step 3
phosphofructokinase (an enzyme) transfers another molecule of ATP to the sugar molecule. (1 ATP used now a total of 2 ATP used)
protostomes
broad classification of organisms that tend to share certain embryological traits; among these the formation of the "mouth first" (hence the name) during gastrulation, before the future anus. (The site of gastrulation initiation, the blastopore, becomes the mouth.)
spores
reproductive cells that can develop into another organism without fusing with another cell.
Multicelluar
Many celled (most found in the kingdoms of fungi, planate, and animalia
bioinformatics
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data sets
Catabolic Pathways
A metabolic pathway that releases energy by breaking down complex molecules to simpler compounds.
stromatolites
layered rocks that form when certain prokaryotes bind thin films of sediment together
demography
the study of vital statistics of populations and how they change over time.
Syndrome
group of symptoms that appear together and tend to indicate the presence of a particular disorder
osmoregulation
The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
active transport
movement of molecules through the plasma membrane aided by a process that requires energy
pharynx
throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
Turners Syndrome
condition seen in individuals carrying single X chromosome but no other sex chromosome (XO)
ileum
The terminal portion of the small intestine extending from the jejunum to the cecum
polyphyletic
Pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors.
Pepsinogen
The inactive form of pepsin that is transformed into pepsin by hydrochloric acid after it reaches the lumen of the stomach by positive feedback.
Extracellular Matrix
The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
Monosomy X (Turner's Syndrome)
Nondisjunction of sex chromosomes; only 1 X chromosome
Adenylylcyclase
converts ATP to cAMP in response to cellular signal
carnivore
Consumer in a food chain that eats other animals.
ionic bond
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ions.
primer
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
taxon
the named taxonomic unit at any given level of classification
density dependent
a limiting factor that depends on the size of the population, resources that animals can "run out of" like food, water, oxygen, nesting places, and waste disposal sites
Free Ebergy Equation
Free energy = total energy - temperature(k) * change in systems entrophy
viral envelope
A membrane that cloaks the capsid that in turn encloses a viral genome.
thigmomorphogenesis
change in the form of a plant that results from mechanical disturbance
cyclic electron flow
an alternative path to linear electron flow that uses photosystem I but not photosystem I
What are polysaccharides good for
storage material and building material for structures that protect cell
cotyledons
A leaf of the embryo of a seed plant, which upon germination either remains in the seed or emerges, enlarges, and becomes green. Also called seed leaf.
Cell wall (and function)
Outer layer of cellulose or chitin, or absent (protection, support)
pachy-
thick
acou-
hearing
Data
Recorded observations
Somatic Cells
Diploid (2n)
Zoology
Study of animals
caryo
nucleus of a call
phyto-
(G) plant;phytochromes: plant pigments
Autotrophs
Self-feeders, they sustain themselves without eating anything derived from other organisms. They are the ultimate sources of organic compounds for all nonautotrophic organisms. Producers.
recognition proteins
act as molecular fingerprints
cloning
reversal of cell determination
-For Dolly, mammary cells and egg cells were surgically combined via somatic cell nuclear transfer
-Implanted into reproductive tracts of surrogate mothers
-suffers from low success rate and age-associated diseases due to genomic imprinting (genes are expressed differently depending on parental origin)
Diploblastic-Tripoblastic
-germ layer development; radiata diplobastic, no mesoderm-ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm = bilateria
saltatory conduction
jumping from node to node
Thylakoids
A system of interconnected, flattened sacs. The chlorophyll is located in the membranes here.
which macromolecule is synthesized at the ribosome?
Proteins
Gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Rhizoids
Delicate and colorless, they anchor bryophytes to the ground.
glyphosate
broadleaf plants have been genetically engineered to be resistant to this, allows no-till planting.
polymer
long molecule consisting of many similar or identical monomers linked together
Anticodon
The three nucleotide combination on the transfer RNA that matches up with the three letter combination on the messenger RNA
phenotype
the observable constitution of an organism.
Vacuoles
Contains food, water or waste, in plant cells, sometimes in animal cells
Eurkaryote
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles, present in protists, plants, fungi, and animals
Polysaccharides
Macromolecules made up of 100's to 1000's of monosaccharides. Some function as energy storage.
Nuclear Matrix
A framework of protein fibers throughout the nucleus to maintain nuclear shape and possibly function in organizing genetic material.
Archebacteria
Lives in heat, salt, acid conditions and process methane
Genetics
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
Gametangia
Produce the gametes within the cell. Female are called archegonia (makes one egg), male, antheridia, (makes sperm).
Viroids
tiny, naked circular RNA that infect plants, do not code for proteins, but use cellular enzymes to reproduce
prokaryotic regulation
control can be positive or negative.-gene expression is regulated to respond to environmental conditions.-lac and trp operons are examples
NotochordFibrous sheathElastic sheath
3 parts of the Notochord
____ reactions starts with reactants with high potential energy
exergonic reactions
sunlight is a type of ____ energy
electromagnetic
prokaryotic
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and organelles. Organisms with prokaryotic cells are called prokaryotes.
Asexual Reproduction
Process by which a single parent reproduces offspring that are genitically identical to the parent
Binomal nomenclature
The two-part latinized name of a species, consisting of genus and specific epithet
enzyme
a protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
conjugated enzyme
enzyme that is bound to a cofactor
Eukaryote
An orgnism whose cells have nuclei and other membrane-enclosed organelles. Includes protists, fungi, plants, and animals
selective permeability
regulates how much and when substances cross
adhesion
the clinging of one substance to a water molecule
In a chemical reaction, the starting materials are called_____ and the end materials are called______.
Reactants, products.
terminator
the signal for RNA poly to end transcription
Class Oligachaeta (Phylum Annelida)
terrestrial and freshwater segmented worms(earthworms)
____ is the cellular structure that is invoolved in producing ATP during aerobic respiration.
Mitochondria
endosymbionts
a symbiont that lives within the body of the host.
11 Themes that unify Bio
The cell, Heritable Information, Emergent properties, Regulation, Interaction with the Environment, Energy and Life, Unity and Diversity, Evolution, structure and function, scientific inquiry, Science/Technology/and Science
activation energy
amount of energy necessary to push the reactions over an energy barrier
Adenylyn Cyclase
An enzyme that converts ATP to cyclic AMP in response to a chemical signal
Xylem and Phloem.
Two types of materials that conduct materials in a plants vascular system. Xylem carries water, Phloem carries food.
homeotic genes
* genes in which mutants occur that cause normal body parts to appear in inappropriate places.
* bithorax complex = mutations affect thoracic and abdominal segments
* Antennapedia complex = mutations affect anterior end
* Hox genes
coefficient of relatedness
The fraction of genes that, on average, are shared by two individuals.
The enzymes of the citric acid cycle are located in the _____
mitochondrial matrix
haploid cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes.
allosteric regulation
the binding of a molecule to a protein that affects the function of the protein at a different site.
Enzyme substrate complex
complex in which the enzyme binds to its substrate (or substrates, when there are 2 or more reactants)
Class Hydrozoa (Phylum Cnideria)
hydra, Portuguese Man O' War; mostly marine(some freshwater); both poly and medusa; polyp often colonial; alternating sexual and asexual
Noncyclic electron flow
One of the two routes an electron can take during the light reactions. This is the predominant route. Uses both photosystem I and II to create ATP and NADPH from excited e-
True or false. In chemical equilibrium, the reactants and products are equal in concentration.
False. The concentrations are not necessarily equal. They have only stabilized at a particular ratio.
The functioning of a electron transport chain is analogous to:a slinky toy going
A) down a flight of stairs.
*D Which of the following statements is false?
**a. Neutral mutations are not expressedb. The effect of mutation is based upon the environment where it is foundc. Mutations are random but their frequency can be predictedd. Mutations are more likely to be harmful because they represent a difference from alleles that have stood the test of years of selectione. For billions of years mutations have been used as a raw material for change
When does a hydrogen bond form?
When a hydrogen covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is attracted to another electronegative atom. For example, water.
A hypothesis currently getting a lot of attention concerning the origin of biological molecules is that they originated
a. In hot springsb. Near volcanoes**c. Near hydrothermal oceanic ventsd. In salt lakese. In tidal pools
Describes what happens to the surface area to volume ratio as a cell gets bigger
the bigger a cell gets, the smaller the surface area to volume ratio gets
Up to a point, the rate of an enzymatic reaction increases with increasing temperature. Enzymes are most active within the range of pH 6-8
How do temperature and pH affect enzyme activity?
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