AP Bio : Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
embryo sac
megagametophyte
hypotonic
high water
simple leaf
one blade
fibrous root system
monocot
Endodermis
Innermost layer of cortex
vein
vascular bundles in leaves
Cotelydons
Food for germinating seed
cotyledons
stores and digests reserve materials
Terminal buds
Tip of the stem
sclerenchyma
-support
-have secondary cell walls strengthened by lignin
-often dead at functional maturity
-found in part of plant that has stopped growing
-fiber cells and sclereids
mold
A rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungus.
Antheridium
Male reproductive structure in plants.
sucrose
main component of phloem sap
xylem
vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots of the rest of the plant
tracheophytes
vascular, xylem/phloem, true leaves roots stems, spores (gametangia)
male:antheridia wim flagellated
female: archegonium, zygot-sporophyte 2n
archegodium
produces eggs in bryophytes and ferns
Parenchyma cells
-Function: Support the plant, synthesize and store organic products
-least specialized of plant cells
-primary walls are thin and flexible
-lack secondary cell wall
-large central vacuole
-ALIVE
abscicic acid (ABA)
inhibits growth; seed dormancy
node
point at which leaves are attached
Rhizomes
lateral roots; under surface of ground
monoecious
both staminate (male) and pistillate (female) flowers occur on the same plant
phloem
vascular tissue responsible for the transport of nutrients and the carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis
perforations
hole made by puncturing a surface
Grafting
another way plants can reproduce asexually; this involves grafting the tissues of two plants together
meristem
embryonic tissue that aids in indeterminate growth
trachids
primitve vascular - overlap with pores
Gametophyte
haploid plant, because it produces haploid gametes and these gametes then combine to form a diploid plant
root
anchoring the plant, absorbing mineral and water, storing organic nutrients
Ray Initials
Cells within the vascular cambrium that produce xylem and phloem rays, radial files that consist mostly of parenchyma cells.
primary tissues of roots (3)
1)protoderm
2) procambium
3)ground meristem
Ploem
Living cells at maturity that transfer sugar and photosynthesis products throughout plant
incomplete flowers
lack one or more floral parts
4 organs of flowers
sepals, petals, stamens, carpels
vessel elements
A short, wide, water-conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants. Dead at maturity, they are aligned end to end to form micropipes called vessels.
rhizoids
Long tubular single cells or filaments of cells that anchor bryophytes to the ground.not composed of tissues, they lack specialized conducting cells, and they do not play a primary role in water and mineral absorption.
pollen grains
The structures that contain the immature male gametophytes.
companion cells
living parenchyma cells that lie adjacent to sieve-tube members
Thigmotropism
refers to how plants respond to touch
Vascular Tissue
Transports materials between the roots and shoots
basal cell
formed from the original zygote; continually divides to form the suspensor
translocation
transport of organic nutrients in a plant
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
stoma
sieve tube elements and companion cells
alive, companion
apical bud
responisble for the vertical growth of the plant
secondary growth
thickening of roots and shoots (at lateral)
fiber cells
elongated and occur in bundles (cell types)
vascular cambium
lateral meristem that adds layers of vascular tissue called secondary xylem and secondary phloem
conidia
A naked, asexual spore produced at the ends of hyphae in ascomycetes.
circadian rhythm
A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists even in the absence of external cues.
endogenous rhythm
internal clock that continues to keep time
Long-Day Plants
plants which require short periods of darkness
initials
cells that stay as sources for new cells
vascular tissue system
carries out long distance material transport btw. roots and shoots
sieve tube members
transport sugars and nutrients between sources and sinks
dont have mito ribo or nucle so campanion cells maintian
GYMNOSPERMS AND ANGIOSPERMS
the seeded plants and what tracheophytes can be further divided into
ovary
in flowering plants, the lower part of a pistil that produces eggs in ovules.
Cyclic Electron Flow
The process in which electrons are transferred only by light reaction, in which case they are recycled from ferredoxin back to the intermediate carriers.
Double Fertilization
joining of haploid gametes to create a diploid zygote, and the simultaneous joining of a second sperm cell with a fusion nucleus to create a triploid nucleus (which becomes the endosperm).
Monocots
* flower parts in groups of 3's
* leaf: parallel vein network
* 1 seed coat
* scattered vascular bundles in stem
ex. irises, tulips, daffodils
heterokaryon
A mycelium formed by the fusion of two hyphae that have genetically different nuclei.
Vegetative Propogation
refers to parent plants which are able to reproduce asexually, that is, using leaves, stems or roots to produce another plant
how does PS 1 work
postive charge attracts depleted electrons
energeticelectrons used to reduce ndap+ to nadph
day nuetral plant
light does not affect the flowering of a plant
closes stomata, inhibits growth, seed dormancy, withstand drought
functions of abscisic acid (4)
cell division, elongation, differentiation
zones in the stages of primary growth, from tip to the interior
zone of maturation or differentiation
zone of primary growth in roots where cells complete their differentiation and become functionally mature
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