AP bio animals Flashcards

Cnidaria
Terms Definitions
amoebocyte
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The
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Order Urodela
(Amphibia)
-tailed
-salamanders
Class Gastropoda
(Mollusca)
-stomach foot
-snails
Class Bivalva
(Mollusca)
-2 shells
-clams
Parazoa
no true tissue
cnidocytes
special cells with nematocysts
Class Mammalia
-hair
-mammary glands (millk)
-Endothermic (maintained by hair & fat)
-4 chambered heart
-internal fertilization
-viviparous (besides monotremes)
-differentiation of teeth
-include eutherians, monotremes, and marsupials
New World Monkeys
-arboreal
-tails
-South America
Phylum Rotifera
-(Eumetazoa, Bilateria, Pseudocoelomate)
-complete digestive tract (mouth and anus)
-parthenogenesis
Phylum Cnidaria
-(Eumetazoa, Radiata)
-hydra, jelly fish, sea anemonem coral
-gastrovascular cavity
-single opening for mouth/anus
-polyp and medusa form
-nematocysts
-sexual and asexual reproduction
-muscles and nerves in simplest form
Phylum Chordata
-(Eumetazoa, Bilateria, Coelomate, Deuterostome)
-notochord
-dorsal, hollow nerve cord
-pharyngeal gill slits
-muscular, post-anal tail
-segmented
Phylum Ctenophora
-(Eumetazoa, Radiata)
-similar to Cnidaria
-comb jellies
-move by cilia fused into combs
Class Aves
-birds
-closest relative to dinos
-amniotic egg
-hollow bones
-one ovary, toothless
-endothermic
-4 chambered heart
-internal fertilization
-keeled sternum
-feathers (light & strong, probably evolved from endothermy originally for insulation)
Class Chondrichthyes
-cartilage fish
-sharks, skates, rays
-lateral line system
-internal fertilization
-oviparous, ovoviviparious, and viviparous
-have to move to keep water over gills
-2 chambered heart
Lucy
best skeleton of Australopithecus afarensis, species remained unchanged for 1 million years until over taken
amnion
extraembryonic emebrane of amniotes, outer layer of a fluid filled sac inside which the embryo develops
Marsupials
-young born early and small
-must crawl to pouch where they nurse and complete development
Subclass Actinopterygii
(Osteichthyes)
-ray finned fish, most fish known today
-bass, salmon, perch, etc.
Order Primata
-early ones arboreal, insectivorous, nocturnal
-gave rise to binocular vision
-nails instead of claws, grasping hands
-earliest were presimians (premonkeys)
-probably gave rise to anthropoids (monkeys, humans, apes)
-new & old world monkeys
endoderm
"yellow" lines the digestive tube (archenteron)
cephalization
concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body
choanocytes
flagellated collar cells in sponges that filter food
keeled sternum
anchors huge pectoral muscles necessary for flight
amniote
member of a vertebrate lineage produces eggs having 4 extraembryonic membranes. -> reptiles, birds, mamamlals
stimulates the corpus leteum in femals
LH
blastula
hollow ball of cells formed by cleavage
metanephridia
each segment has 2 to excrete metabolic waste
ovoviviparous
eggs hatch inside uterus after being nourished by yolk
Superclass Gnathostomata
- includes fish, reptiles, birds, mammals, and amphibians
-jaws work up and down
-2 sets of paired appendages
After sperm cells are produced they are mainly stored in the?
Epididymis
Class Amphibia
-close ties with water
-must lay eggs in water or moist environment
-eggs are no shelled and dry out easily
-need moist skin to absorb oxygen from air
-external ferilization
-3 chambered heart
-(3 orders to remember)
Multiregional model
modern humans arose in parallel in several areas around the world
Homo erectus
-java man & beijing man
-found inside and outside of Africa
-migration because of meet eating?
-1.8 million years ago to 250,00 years ago
-larger brains
-include Neanderthal Man?? (130,000 - 35,000 years ago)
-abstract thought (burial rituals)
-speech?
Monogenesis model
modern humans arose in africa only from H. erectus and spread to other areas eventually replacing other hominids that had migrated earlier
What is the narrow opening of the human uterus called?
Cervix
amniotic egg
shelled egg that retains water and can be laid on land or dry places
What causes menopause?
a decline in production of estrogens by the ovaries
After gastrulation, the outer to inner sequence of tissue layers in a vertebrate is
ectoderm, mesoderm, endoderm
What part of the sperm first contacts the egg plasma membrane?
the acrosomal membrane
What are the 3 phases of the ovarian cycle?
follicular, ovulation, and luteal
anterior
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Order Chelonia
(Reptilia)
-Turtles
Order Apoda
(Amphibia)
-legless
-caecilians
visceral mass
contains organs
Subphylum Urochordata
-Phylum Chordata
-Invertebrate
-sessile as adult
Phylum Nematoda
-(Eumetazoa, Bilateria, Pseudocoelomate)
-round worms
-many free living, some parasitic
-hookworm, pinworm, Trichina
oviparous
eggs hatch outside body
Subclass Sarcopterygii
(Osteichthyes)
-lobe-finned fish/lung fishes
-not many left, once dominant predator in shallow water
-can gulp air into lungs when ponds dry up
-gave rise to amphibians
Class Crustacea
(Arthropoda)
-crabs, lobsters, shrimp
-2 pr. antennae
-appendages on thorax and abdomen
Which cells are diploid?
Spermatogonia
Class Diplopoda
(Arthropoda)
-millipedes
-2 pr. leg per segment
-eat decaying matter
Phylum Annelida
-(Eumetazoa, Bilateria, Coelomate, Protostome)
-segmented worms (earthworm)
-closed circulatory system
-cerebral ganglia & nerve cords
-metanephridia
Monotremes
egg laying mammals
-duck billed platypus and spiny anteater
Phylum Mollusca
-(Eumetazoa, Bilateria, Coelomate, Protostome)
-snails, slugs, oysters, octopus
-separate sexes or hermaphrodites (snails)
-muscular foot
-visceral mass
-mantle
-radula
-(3 classes to remember)
Protostomes
spiral, determinate cleavage (cells have designated purpose right away), blastopore becomes mouth
amphibian
thinskinned vertebrate that spends time on land but lays eggs in water
notochord
flexible rod between digestive and nerve cords
radula
rasping organ that scrapes up food
Class Insecta
(Arthropoda)
-wings are extension of cuticle
-most successful terrestrial
-tracheal system for gas exchange
-maliphigian tubules for excretion of metabolic waste
-cerebral ganglium
-many undergo complete or incomplete metamorphosis
endothermic
they control their body temperature internally through metabolism
altruism
lower an indivs reproductive success but imrpove others
The anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the maturation of the follicle in the ovary during the beginning of the menstrual cycle
FSH
parthenogenesis
process in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual
coelom
mesoderm lined body cavity besides the digestive cavity
Homo sapiens (wise man)
-modern man
-multiregional and monogenesis models
One function of the
produce progesterone and estrogen
viviparous
give birth to live young that receive nourishment from mother's blood
diploblastic
have only 2 germ layers (ectoderm and endoderm)
osculum
A large opening on a sponge through which filtered water is expelled
Homo habilis (handy man)
-had larger brain
-used tools
-arose 2.5 millions years ago
-say separate line from Australopithecenes
Which developmental sequence is correct?
cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula
lateral line system
row of tiny organs sensitive to changes in water pressure, help detect sound waves and splashing
In vertebrate animals, spermatogenesis and oogenisis differ in that?
Oogenisis produces one functional ovum, whereas spermatogenesis produces four functional spermatozoa
'there are 5 hormones regulating the human menstrual and ovarian cycles. Which of these structures secretes theses hormones?
A & C
Arrange the following stages of fertilizaton and early development into a proper sequence
4 2 5 1 3
Evidence of models for modern man
-only Africa contains fossils of ALL proposed stages of hominid evolution
-Neanderthal s and H. sapiens fossils coexisted and did not interbreed for 40,000 years in Israel
-mtDNA traced all modern humans back to Africa 200,000 years ago
How do the estrous and menstrual cycles compare?
Endometrial bleeding occurs during the menstrual cycle; the endometrium is reabsorbed by the uterus during the estrous cycle
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