AP BIO BIOCHEMISTRY REVIEW Flashcards

Terms Definitions
conformation
shape
hydrogen ion
H+
lipids
hydrophobic molecules
hydrophilic
water loving
polysaccharides
polymers of carbohydrates
peptide bond
connects polypeptides
keratin
makes up human hair
solute
that dissolved in a solution
cellulose
makes up plant cell walls
SPONCH
elements that make up protein
polar bond
electrons are shared unequally
glucose + glucose
maltose + water
number of protons and neutrons
mass number
glycosidic
this bond links two glucose molecules
steroid
cholesterol is a type of _____
covalent bonds
form when atoms share electrons
neutrons
isotopes have a different number of _____
adhesion
The clinging of one substance onto another
pH, salt, heat
factors that cause denaturation (3)
steroids
lipids that consist of four fused rings
pH
a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a solution
radioactive
A ______ isotope is where the nucleus decays spontaneously
unique sequence of amino acids
protein - primary structure
fats with double bonds, so there aren't the max number of hydrogens that there could be
unsaturated fats
primary structure
unique linear sequence of an amino acid
unsaturated fatty acid
contains at least one double bond
chemical bonds
The atoms of a compound are held together by _____
alpha helix, pleated sheets; maintained by regularly spaced hydrogen bonds
protein - secondary structure; contains these 2 patterns. how are they maintained?
ratio of hydrogen atoms to oxygen atoms in all carbs
2 to 1
when electrons are shared between atoms
What is a covalent bond?
deoxyribose; ribose
what is the 5 carbon sugar in dna? rna?
a bond is formed
when two atomic nuclei attract the same electron(s)
when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another, attracting these ions of the opposite charge
What is an ionic bond?
carboxyl and amino groups have dehydration synthesis
how do 2 amino acids combine?
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
96% of the mass of all organisms is made up of these four elements
we don't have the enzymes to breakdown the b-glucose polymers in it
why can't humans digest cellulose?
water is a highly polar molecule so
water dissolves all polar and ionic substances because of
chemically, all isotopes of the same element are identical because they have
they have the same number of electrons in the the same configuration causing
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