AP Bio chapters Flashcards

Terms Definitions
The statement "Improving the intelligence of an adult through education will result in that adult's descendants being born with a greater native intelligence" is an example of
Lamarckism.
Acid precipitation is precipitation with a PH lower than...
5.6
If one assumes that Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium applies to the population of colonists on this planet, about how many people will have attached ear lobes when the planet's population reaches 10,000?
100
How many half-lives should have elapsed if 12.5% of the parental radioisotope remains in a fossil at the time of analysis?
three
Mating fruit flies recognize the appearance, odor, tapping motions, and sounds of members of their own species, but not of other species.
behavioral
Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of the Earth's ancient age?
Charles Lyell 
Cohesion is the attraction of...
Like molecules
In a population that is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the frequency of the allele a is 0.3. What is the percentage of the population that is homozygous for this allele?
9
The naturalist who synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin was
Alfred Wallace.
How often do water molecules form bonds with new partners?
Constantly
Compared to other liquids, does water have a greater or lesser surface tension?
Greater
What is adhesion?
The attraction of unlike molecules
Surface tension acts like an ___________ ________.
Elastic skin
If the half-life of carbon-14 is about 5,730 years, then a fossil that has one-eighth the normal proportion of carbon-14 to carbon-12 is probably __________ years old.
16,800
The scarlet oak is adapted to moist bottomland, whereas the black oak is adapted to dry upland soils. 
habitat
Two species of garter snakes live in the same region, but one lives in water and the other lives on land.
habitat
Which of the following is not considered an intrinsic reproductive isolating mechanism?
geographic isolation
Which of the following statements about species, as defined by the biological species concept, is (are) correct? I. Biological species are defined by reproductive isolation. II. Biological species are the model used for grouping extinct forms of life. II
I and III
What is heat measured in? Temperature?
Heat- Calories Temperature-celsius
How many bonds can one water molecule form?
4
What type of charge does the oxygen region have? The hydrogen region?
Oxygen-negativeHydrogen-Positive
What happens to PH has H increases?
It declines
Which combination of the following species characteristics would cause the greatest likelihood of fossilization in sedimentary rock? I. aquatic II. tropical III. hard body parts IV. presence of organic material V. flight VI. long duration as a species
I, III, and VI
Most copies of harmful recessive alleles in a population are carried by individuals that are
heterozygous for the allele.
If four of the original colonists died before they produced offspring, the ratios of genotypes could be quite different in the subsequent generations. This is an example of 
genetic drift.
Racemization of amino acids might be a useful technique for dating all of the following except
petrified trees. 
What acts as a buffer to blood?
Carbonic acid (H2CO3)
What do buffers do?
Allow biolgoical fluids to resist changes in PH when acids/bases are introduced
What are the bonds called that hold atoms in water molecules?
Polar Convalent
Surface tension is the result of what force?
Strong cohesion
What is the internal PH of most living cells?
7
The best index fossils for assigning relative ages to different strata are those of
widespread, shelled marine organisms.
Which statement is most consistent with the natural theology that was prevalent in Europe and America during Darwin's life?
Nature reflects God's intelligent design.
Darwin's mechanism of evolution differed from Lamarck's by proposing that
inherent variations in the population are more important in evolution than variations acquired during individual lifetimes.
How do you find the PH of a number?
-log [H+]
Are proteins water soluable?
If ionic/polar regions are on the surface
When heat is absorbed what does it do to hydrogen bonds?
Breaks them
What allows people to skip rocks on a pond?
Surface tension
Two closely related species can best remain distinct biological species by
reproductive isolation from one another. 
What happens as ice begin to absorb heat, causing the temperature to rise? (3 steps)
1.hydrogen bonds are broken2.crystalline collapses3.Molecules are free to slip closer together
Why does evaporative cooling occur?
The hottest molecules, those with the greatest kinetic energy, are the most likely to leave as a gas.
What does an acid do?
Increase the H+ concentration in a solution
What is a mole?
The number of grams of a substance that equals its molecular weight in daltons and contains avagadro's number
What type of substance repel water?
non ionic and non polar substances
Which of the following can be used to determine the absolute age of fossils?
the half-life of isotopes 
The fossil record of a hypothetical taxon is likely to be incomplete if
A, B, and C are true.
What is a calorie?
The amount of heat it takes to raise 1g of water 1c and vice versa.
What is heat of vaporization?
the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g to be converted into a gas
What does acid precipitation do to the soil?
Affects solubility of soil minerals
What is avagadros number?
The number of molecules in a mole 6.02 x 10^23
What is actually transferred when water dissociates?
A hydrogen Ion (since the hydrogen leaves its electron behind) which is a single proton with a charge of +1
What is the equation for the dissociation of water
H20 (double arrows) H+ + OH-
What do buffers do when H ions are in excess?
It accepts them
What happens if the PH of blood raises?
Carbonic acid dissociates replenishing H
Peat bogs can have pHs as low as 3.8. Animals classified as fossils have been exhumed from such bogs with most of their bodies intact (except bones), and with DNA still present. What probably accounts for the persistence of the fleshy parts of these anima
harbor relatively few bacteria.
What does the molecule that dissociates from water bind to and what does it form?
to the other water molecule making an hydronium ion (H30)+
Surface tension is the result of water molecules being more attracted to _______ vs. _______
each other than to air molecules
What is an example of a hydrophilic substance that absorbs water without disolving and how does it do so?
cotton- cellulos has regions of partial positive and negative charges- water adheres to the cellulose fibers
A biologist discovers two new species of organisms, one in Africa and one in South America. The organisms resemble one another closely. Which type of evidence would probably be least useful in determining whether these organisms are closely related or are
analysis of the behavior of the two species 
Which of the following should not be considered fossils? 
All of the below are properly considered fossils. 
A number that is above 7 on the PH scale is a ____________. A number that is below 7 on the PH scale is a _________.
Acid- More HBase- More OH
How does heat of vaporization moderate earth's climate? (4 steps)
1.Solar heat is absorbed by the seas 2.evaporation3.moist tropical air circulates poleward4.releases heat as it condensese to form rain.
How much lense dence is ice compared to liquid water at 4C? Why?
10% less desne because the hydrogen bonds are far enough apart
When two objects are brough together, how does heat pass from one object to the other?
Heat passes from the warmer object to the cooler object until they are the same temp.
Natural selection is based on all of the following except 
use or disuse of organs during one generation causes modifications of these same organs in subsequent generations.
What happens if the PH of blood drops?
Bicarbonate ion acts as a base and removes H+
Explain what NaCl is and how it is dissovled in water (4 steps and result).
NaCl= ionic compound1. Na and Cl ions aer exposed to solvent2. Ions and water molecules have a mutual affinity-O attracted to Na cation-H attracted to Cl anion3. Water molecules surround ions and shield one from another4. This forms a hydration shellResult- homogenous mixture
How do bases do "what they do" (3 ways)
1. some directly accept H+ (ex: NH3 ammonia vs. NH4 ammonium)2.dissociate to form OH ions which comebine with H in solution to form water3. more OH then H2.
What does acid rain do to Ca, Mg, and Al? And what as this caused?
It washes away Ca and Mg.It increases the solubility of Al which is a toxic.It has casues a decline in European forests and some in North America.
Why can you burn your fingers on an iron pot handle, when the water in the pot is still luke warm?
Iron has a specific heat that is 10 times less than water. It only takes .1 Calorie to raise the temp. of iron.
Why is water close to but not a universal solvent?
It if it were in could not be stored in any container, including our cells.
What is a solvent?
Dissolving agent
In a Hardy-Weinberg population, the frequency of the a allele is 0.4. What is the frequency of individuals with Aa genotype?
0.48
two species of meadowlarks with different mating songs 
behavioral
What are sugars?
Polar and water soluable
two species of orchids with different floral anatomy
mechanical
What range are most biological fluids found in?
6-8
What type of attractions exist between water molecules?
Electrical
Catastrophism was Cuvier's attempt to explain 
the fossil record. 
Active tectonic subduction zones are characterized by 1. trenches. 2. earthquakes. 3. volcanoes. 
all of these
Two species of pine shed their pollen at different times.
temporal
In a population with two alleles, A and a, the frequency of a is 0.6. What would be the frequency of heterozygotes if the population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
0.48
Which of the following applies to both anagenesis and cladogenesis?
speciation
What does the polarity of water molecules result in?
Hydrogen bonding
What is present in the Xylem walls that makes them hydrophilic?
Cellulose
What percentage of cells are made up of water?
70-95%
What shape do molecules resist because of surface tension?
Water droplets
If two continental land masses converge and are united during continental drift, then the collision should bring about
all of the above.
All of the following are usual methods for dating fossils except 
molecular clocks.
Which of the following is the unit of evolution? In other words, which of the following can evolve in the Darwinian sense?
population
Water striding above the rim glass is an example of what?
Surface tension
What is the shape of a water molecule?
Wide V
What is the product in any solution of the H and OH concentrations?
10^-14
What types of bonds are two water molecules held together by?
Hydrogen Bonding
What is heat?
The measure of the total kinetic energy due to the molecular motion of a body of matter.
What is the name of the person who devised a taxonomic system that used morphological (i.e., anatomical) features as the primary criteria for classifying organisms? 
Carolus Linnaeus 
On which of the following did Linnaeus base his classification system?
morphology and anatomy 
During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck while reaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement most accurately corrects the student's miscon
Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are not passed on through genes.
What do changes in the concentration of H and OH do to cells?
They affects cells proteins
What two compounds cause acid precipitation?
Sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides
What is a weak acid and base pair called?
A buffer
What happens to the surface of a liquid as the liquid evaporates?
It cools down
What is a solution?
Homogenous mixture of two or more substances
What is temperature?
The measure of the intensity of heat due to the average kinetic energy of molecules
Give two examples of adhesion
1. Water attraction to soil particles2. water attraction to the sides of xylem wallas (counteracts the pull of gravity and prevents the walls from breaking)
All of the following statements are part of the Darwin-Wallace theory of natural selection except
characteristics that are acquired during the life of an individual are passed on to offspring.
What is the most important missing evidence or observation in Darwin's theory of 1859?
the source of genetic variation 
What is true of speciation? It
occurs via anagenesis or cladogenesis, but only the latter increases biodiversity.
When water freezes what does it become locked into? How many partners are each molecule bonded to?
A crystalline lattice- 4
Are cell membranes hydrophobic or hydrophilic? Why?
Hydrophobic- molecules related to oil are major ingredients of cell memebranes
What is an aqeuous solution?
One in which water is the solvent
How long do hydrogen bonds last?
A few trillionths of a second
How long did life spend evolving in water?
Over three billion years
What is specic heat?
The amount of heat that must be absorbed or released in order for 1g of a substance to change its temp by 1c
What thing causes acid precipiation?
1. burning of fossil fuels- electrical power plants are the biggest users
What effect do sexual processes (meiosis and fertilization) have on the allelic frequencies in a population? 
They have no effect on allelic frequencies. 
How do the concentration of water molecules compared to teh contration of H and OH ions compare when an equilibrium is achieved with the dissociation of water?
The concentration of water molecules greatly exceeds the number of ions
What is pure water?
Water in which h+ and OH- are equal (onlye one molecule in every 554 million is dissociated)
Which is more electronegative, oxygen or hyrogen?
Oxygen- which is why the electron spends more time closer to the oxygen atom
What are two examples of cohesion?
1. Transport of water in plants against gravity2. Transpiration through leaves- tugs water up veings of stalk then to the leaves- great tensile strength
Why does high humidity increse discomfort?
The high concentration of water vapor in the air inhibs evaporation of sweat from the body.
What is the most reasonable conclusion that can be drawn from the fact that the frequency of the recessive trait (aa) has not changed over time?
The two phenotypes are about equally adaptive under laboratory conditions.
Linnaeus' concept of taxonomy is that the more closely two organisms resemble each other, the more closely related they are in a classification scheme. In evolutionary terms, the more closely related two organisms are, the
more recently they shared a common ancestor.
Why is vegetable oil hydrophobic?
The bonds between C and H in vegetable oil are non polar bonds that do not share electrons equally
When does the acid surge effect fish?
It effects them when they are reproducing
At temperatures above 4C how does water behave?
Like other liquids- expanding as it warms and contracting as it cools
What are some examples of fluids that many polar molecules are dissolved in? (3)
Blood, plant sap, cytoplasm of cells
Insects with mutations that prevent flight (e.g., the "vestigial wing" mutation in fruit flies) usually can't survive long in nature. But in four of the following environments, flightlessness could be selected for. Which environment should favor the survi
a cage in which food cannot be reached by sole use of the legs
What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
The Earth is 6,000 years old and populations are unchanging.
What are two reasons why it is important that water has a high specific heat?
1. Creates a stable ocean temperature that is favorable for marine life2. Allows life to resist changes in their temperatures b/c bodies have a high composition of water
What happens to molecules that are moving fast enough to overcome their attraction to other molecules?
They can enter the air as a gas.
What is a weak acid/ weak base?
acids and bases that do not dissociate completely; the reactions are reversible
What happens when a water molecule dissociates?
The H atom shared by two water molecules shifts from one molecule to another, leaving its electron behind
What does floating ice due to the liquid below it?
it insulates the liquid water and prvents it from cooling.
All of the following are criteria for maintaining a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium involving two alleles except
the frequency of all genotypes must be equal.
Can hydrophilic be used to describe a substance even if it is not dissolved?
Yes- the molecules may be too large for example
Why is water effective as a heat bank?
It can absorb or release a large amount of heat with only a slight change in its own temperature.
Is water less dense as a solid or liquid? Why?
Solid because water expands as it solidifies due to hydrogen bonding.
When is the effects of acid rain most pronounced? Why?
the spring (when the snow melts) b/c all acid accumulates in bodies of water at the same time
Does water have a high or low heat of vaporization and why?
High- Hydrogen bonds must be broken before molecules can leave the liquid
What happens to the molecule left behind when water dissociates?
It becomes an OH ion with a charge of -1 since it lost a proton
Why does a calorie of heat cause a relatively small change in the temperature of water?
Much of the heat energy is used to disrupt the hydrogen bonds, before the water molecules can begin moving faster.
endo
inner
Polyploidy
...
phyto
a plant
Orthologous Genes
...
P Generation
true-breeding parents
Chloroplast
Photosynthetic organelle, converts energy from sun to chemical energy stored in sugar molecules (plant cells only)
Feces
Waste (but really poop)
salts
Another name for Ionic Compounds
Organic chemistry
Study of carbon compounds
sepals
outermost structure of flower. protects and encloses flower in bud stage
chaparral
midlatitude coastal region, rainy winter and long, dry summer, shrubs and small trees, deer, goats, birds
phytochrome
plant pigment that controls developmental and other phenomena in plants
complement cells
cells that make/secrete antimicrobial proteins of the complement system.
adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances
semelparity
one shot pattern, the big band
Cytoskeleton
Reinforces cell's shape, funciton in cell movement, made of protein, contains microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
G protein
GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor
Testcross
breeding an organism of unknown genotype with a recessive homozygote
Neutral Variation
Nucleotide differences in noncoding sequences which appear to confer no selective advantage or disadvantage.
Endothermic
Warmed by heat generated through metabolism
gibberellins
__________ are hormones that stimulate stem elongation; help loosen cell walls, allowing expansion of cells and therefore of stems; also used to break dormancy
PhyloCode
System of classification of organisms based on evolutionary relationships: only groups that include a common ancestor and all of its descendents are named
Hexapods
Subphlum of Arthropod. Include insects and their relatives; more species than all other forms of life combined (beetles the most); have a ventral nerve cord
glycogen
glucose polymer used for energy storage in animals (stored in muscles and liver); more branched than amylopectin
interleukin I
Interleukin-1: A protein produced by various cells, including macrophages, interleukin-1 raises body temperature, spurs
the production of interferon, and stimulates growth of disease-fighting cells, among other functions. Abbreviated IL-1
biosphere
The regions of the surface and atmosphere of the Earth (or other planet) where living organisms exist
sensitive period
a specific developmental period in which strong association is learning (e.g., time period when a duckling will follow whatever moves near it)
savanna
warm year round but with somewhat seasonal variation, scattered trees
Kinetic energy
Energy associated with the relative motion of objects
Protein kinase
Enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to a protein
Energy levels
Different states of potential energy of electrons in an atom
Character
a heritible feature that varies among individuals
seminiferous tubules
inside testes, where sperm is produced
Phylogenetic Tree
Represents the evolutionary history of a group of organisms through a branching diagram.
Columnar Epithelia
Having cells with relatively large cytoplasmic volumes , often located where secretion of the active absorption of substances is
autotroph
an organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from them
macroevolution
the pattern of evolution over large time scales
thigmotropism
___________ is directional growth in a plant as a response to a touch.
pH
A measure of the hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log[H⁺] and ranging in value from 0 to 14
Intrasexual Selection
A direct competition among individuals of one sex (usually the males in vertebrates) for mates of the opposite sex
Habitat differentiation
sympatric speciation that arises from part of the population taking advantage of different habitat or resource
Mycelium
An interwoven mass of hyphae that functions as the feeding structure of a fungus by infiltrating the material on which the fungi feeds. Also acts to maximize surface to area volume.
Photoheterotrophs
Organisms that use light for energy, but must also obtain carbonic in organic form.
disruptive selection
natural selection in which individuals on both extremes of a phenotypic range survive or reproduce more successfully than do individuals whith intermediate phenotypes.
heat
The movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature
Recessive allele
Allele which has no noticeable affect on an organism's appearance
Potential energy
Energy that matter possesses due to location or structure
labia minora
slender skin folds that border the vestibule
Microevolution
A change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.
Trypsin and Chymotrypsin
Enzymes specific for peptide bonds adjacent to certain amino acids- break down large polypeptides
digestive system
the system that makes food absorbable into the body
solute
A substance that is dissolved in a solution
Polyphyletic
Pertaining to a group of taxa derived from two or more different ancestors
Brown Algae
The largest and most complex algae. Also called Phaeophytes. Common in temperate coasts were water is cool.In cludes many of the species commonly called seaweed.
Penicillin
A drug whose effectiveness lies in its inhibition of peptidoglycan cross linking thus preventing formation of functional cell wall, particularly in gram positive bacteria.
paedomorphosis
the retention in an adult organism of the juvenile features of its evolutionary ancestors.
single bond
A covalent bond in which two atoms share one pair of electrons.
Genetic map
Ordered list of the genetic loci along a particular chromosome
Bottleneck Effect
A severe drop in population size can cause this. If certain alleles are overrepresented among the survivors, they will have substantial effects on the gene pool.
sexual selection
a form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates
organ system
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
Regulatory gene
it code the genes proteins and allows for transcription
cline
a graded change in a character along a geographic axis.
ribonucleic acid (RNA)
stores and transfers info from the dna that is essential for the manufacturing of proteins
oceanic pelagic biome
a vast realm of open blue water, constantly mixed by wind-driven oceanic currents and covers about 70% of the Earth's surface.
Cellular Slime molds
A protist in which the feeding stage is likely to consist of solitary fcekks that function individually. Haploid organisms with no flagellated stages.
molecular mass
The sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule; sometimes called molecular weight
how do behavioral ecologists define behavior
everything an animal does and how it does it
symmetr
symmetrical
Half-life
...
fusi
a spindle
Radiometric Dating
...
F factor
Fertility Factor
Exons
Coding regions of DNA
craniates
chordates with a head
cofactors
nonprotein helpers needed by enzymes
Crossing over
Genetic rearrangement between nonsister chromatids, occurs during prophase I
Solvent
Dissolving agent of a solution
petals
angiosperm flowers: sterile modified leaf. attract pollinating insects
eutrophic
nutrient-rich and oxygen-poor (aquatic biomes)
protonema
branched, filamentous structure that moss gametophyte develops into after spore germination
peristalsis
involuntary contraction of the smooth muscle in the digestive system that keeps food moving throughout it.
polar covalent bonds
Uneven sharing of electrons.
Phosphate
-PO4 (organic phosphates), carry a negative charge → molecule is anion
Amniocentesis
Extraction of amniotic fluid results in possession of fetal cells upon which karyotypes can be performed
Hemophilia
sex linked recessive disorder defined by the absence of one or more of the proteins required for blood clotting
Balancing Selection
Occurs when natural selection maintains two or more forms in a population. When the fitness of a phenotype declines if it becomes too common in the population
Vitamins
13 are essential to humans- coenzymes
translocation
Phloem transports organic products of photosynthesis from the leaves throughout the plant in a process called ___________.
Phototrophs
Organisms that obtain energy from chemicals
Porifera
Phylum of animals that includes sponges. Are simple,sessile animals, that live as suspension feeders.
polymers
chainlike moleules formed from the linking together of many similar or identical small molecules
molecule
the smallest physical unit of an element or compound, consisting of one or more like atoms in an element and two or more different atoms in a compound
qualitative data
Data you collect usuing your senses
negative taxis
directed movement away from a stimulus
interspecific interactions
interactions with species in the community
Local regulators
Messenger molecules secreted by the signaling cell which only travel short distance and influence cells in the local vicinity
snRNPs
Located in nucleus, composed of RNA and protein, recognize splice sites on DNA sequences
Active site
Region of enzyme molecule which actively engages and binds to the substrate
Codominance
two alleles both affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways
gastrulation
-some cells at surface of blastula migrate to the interior
-creates 2 layered embryo called a gastrula
-ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm
-invagination
-blastopore
Archaea
Consists of a diverse group of prokaryotic organisms that inhabit a wide variety of environments. Some use hydrogen as an energy source, while others were the chief source of gas deposits found throughout the Earth's crust.
Pepsin
An enzyme that begins the hydrolysis of proteins
landscape ecology
focuses on the factors controlling exchanges of energy, materials, and organisms across multiple ecosystems
paraphyletic
group, which consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all, of its descendants
parasitic
_______ plants, such as mistletoe, are not photosynthetic and rely on other plants for their nutrients.
atomic nucleus
An atom's central core, containing protons and neutrons
Analogy
Similarity between two species that is due to convergent evolution rather than to descent from a common ancestor with the same trait
Episome
a genetic element that can replicate as part of the chromosomes or independently
Commensalism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits, while neither helping or harming the other organism in a significant way.
reproductive isolation
the existence of biological barriers that prevent two species from reproducing.
coenzyme
a small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes
hydration shell
sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
Cyclin
Protein that gets its name from its cyclically fluctuating concentration in the cell
follicle
-consist of one egg cell surrounded by layers of follicle cells which nourish and protect developing egg cell.... also produce estrogen
-all are formed before birth, but usually only one matures and releases its egg each month (puberty to menopause)
Paraphyletic Clade
Only consists of an ancestral species and some, but not all of its descendants.
Fluid Feeders
Make their living by sucking nutrient- rich fluids from a living host
polytomy
a branch point from which more than two descendant groups emerge
circulatory system
the organs and tissues involved in circulating blood and lymph through the body
electron shell
An energy level represented as the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom
Vestigial Structures
A structure of marginal, if any, importance to an organism. Vestigial structures are historical remanents of structures that had important functions in ancestors
Larva
The immature form of an animal that looks very different from the adult,usually eats different food, and may even have a different habitat
fatty acid
n organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils Ex. fatty acids are simple molecules built around a series of carbon atoms linked together in a chain of 12 to 22 carbon atoms
Law of segregation
The two alleles for a heritable character separate (segregate) during gamete formation and end up in different gametes
ecosystem
All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; a community and its physical environment
Germ Layers
Tissues layers in the embryos of all animals except sponges, which have no true tissues that form the various tissues and organs of the body.
punctuated equilibria
in fossil record, a long period in which a species doesn't undergo morphological change.
free energy of activation
The amount of energy that reactants must absorb before a chemical reaction will start; also called activation energy.
Effects of Genetic Drift
1. Genetic drift is significant in small populations
2. Genetic drift can cause allele frequencies to change at random
3. Genetic drift can lead to a loss of genetic variation within populations
4. Genetic drift can cause harmful alleles to become fixed
unsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids with double bonds in their carbon skeletons; creates a kink in the shape of the molecule and prevent the fat molecules from packing closely together and becoming solidified at room temp; oils
biological species concept
definition of a species as a group fo populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring, but do not produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other such groups.
how does temp and precip impact the distribution of terrestrial biomes?
biomes overlap, places with higher temp and precipitation (like tropical forests) will host life that can survive there, trees, plants, forest animals, etc
derm
skin
trachei
the windpipe
posterior
tail end
monosaccharides
single sugar molecules
dalton
Unit of atomic mass
holoblastic cleavage
-mammalian development
-equal cleavage
-blastomeres equal in size
homology
Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.
Gamete
Sperm cells and egg cells
Variation
Offspring differ somewhat in appearance somewhat from parents and siblings
Transduction
Bacteriophages (the viruses that infect bacteria) carry bacterial genes from one host cell to another; a type of horizontal gene transfer.
mulluscs
snails, slugs, oysters, clams, octopus, squid
species
most narrow category of classification, a group of organisms with similar structure, function, and behavior
carbohydrates
Organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in the proportion of
ethology
scientific study of how animals behave, particularly in natural environment
Sister chromatids
Contain identical DNA molecules, attached by adhesive proteins along their lengths, most closely attached at the centromere
Kinetochore
Structure of proteins associated with specific sections of chromosomal DNA at centromere, spindles attach during prometaphase
budding
new individuals splitting off from existing ones
phloem
Vascular plant tissue consisting of living cells arranged into elongated tubes that transport sugar and other organic nutrients throughout the plant.
F plasmid
contains genes for sex pili
Fungi
Heterotophic organisms that feed by absorption.
Myriapoda
Subpylum of Arthropoda. Distinct head bearing antennae and chewing mouthparts; terrestrial; millipedes are herbivores and have 2 pairs of walking legs per trunk segment; centipedes are carnivorous and have one pair of walking legs per trunk segment and poison claws on first body segment.
opsonization
An immune response in which the binding of antibodies to the surface of a microbe facilitates phagocytosis of the the microbe by a macrophage
chemical bonds
An attraction between two atoms resulting from the sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges
temperature
The average kinetic energy of the individual particles
community ecology
deals with arrays of interacting species in community, focuses on predation, competition, disease, and abiotic factors affect community organization
Trisomic
A chromosome is present in triplicate in the fertilized egg, 2n + 1 chromosomes
Proteoglycans
Consists of small core protein with many carbohydrate chains covalently attached, forms network outside cell
Amphipathic molecule
Molecule which contains a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic region (phospholipid)
endergonic reaction
absorbs free energy from it's surroundings
epididymis
coiled tubules (6M long) that transfer sperm from the testes (takes 20 days)
Heterozygous
An individual who has two different alleles for a given locus
Microvilli
Microscopic appendages that lie on the villi. Increases the rate of absorption.
blastula
early embryonic stage, hollow batch of cells
chemical bond
An attraction between two atoms, resulting from a sharing of outer-shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atoms. The bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells.
phototropism
tendency for plants to grow toward light sources
Host
The larger organism in the symbiotic relationship.
Organization of Life
atom, molecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, system, organism, population, community, ecosystem, biome, biosphere
protocells
an abiotic precursor of a living cell.
metabolic pathway
A series of chemical reactions that either builds a complex molecule (anabolic pathway) or breaks down a complex molecule into simpler compounds (catabolic pathway).
ecosystem ecology
emphasis on energy flow and chemical cycling among various biotic and abiotic components
Growth factor
Protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide
Origin of replication
Location where replication begins on bacterial chromosome
epigenesis
idea that the form of an animal emerges gradually from a relatively formless egg
Discrete Characters
Classified on an either-or basis (ex. purple or white flowers) Determined by a single gene locus with different alleles producing distinctive phenotypes.
guard cells
cells that control the opening and closing of stomata
allopatric speciation
gene flow is interrupted when a population is divided into geographically isolated subpopulations
pharyngeal slits
gills slits; they develop into gills or other body parts as the embryo matures
ion
An atom that has gained or lost electrons, thus acquiring a charge
Postzygotic reproductive barrier
Contributes to half-bred offspring not surviving (after embryo)
Mantle
A fold of tissue that encloses the vital organs of a mollusk, makes the mollusk's shell(if one is present), and performs respiration
phospholipids
consist of a glycerol linked to two fatty acids a negatively charged phosphate group to which other small moleules may be attached
compound
a material made up of two or more parts of an element
example of character displacement
variation in beak size between different populations of galapagos finches
Polygenic inheritance
An additive effect of two or more genes on a single phenotypic character, converse of pleiotropy
reproductive cycles
some species only mate at a certain time of year because of this
Bolus
Ball of food after it has been tasted and shaped by the tongue
respiratory system
the system for taking in oxygen and giving off carbon dioxide
Physical Map
A genetic map in which the actual physical distances between genes or other genetic markers are expressed, usually as the number of base pairs along the DNA
Coenocytic Fungi
Fungi that lack septa, and consist of a continuous cytoplasmic mass containing hundred or thousands of nuclei. This results from the repeated division of nuclei without cytoplasmic division.
covalent bond
the bond formed by sharing a pair of electrons between two atoms
Chromosome theory of inheritance
Mendelian genes have specific loci on chromosomes, and it is the chromosomes that undergo segregation and independent assortment
mass number
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus
describe what cognitive ethology studies
it examines the connection between an animal's nervous system and behavior
Cell cycle
The life of a cell from the time it is first formed from a dividing parent cell until its own division into two cells
Monophyletic
...
plast
formed, molded
Maximum Likelihood
...
C6H12O6+6O2----->6CO2+6H20+ATP
aerobic respiration equation
Energy
Capacity to cause change
Stratified
Many layers of cells
Disaccharide
Molecule consisting of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
Map Units
the distances between genes
desert
high temperature, low rainfall, located 30 degrees N and S latitude in interior of continents, cacti, few fauna, reptiles, beetles
Stability
continuing production of hybrid individuals in a hybrid zone
digestive secretions
oral cavity: saliva/salivary amylase (breaks down carbohydrates into simpler sugars). stomach: gastric juice (contains pepsin from chief cells, mixes with food to form acid chyme), hydrochloric acid (parietal cells). pancreas: proteases and other digestive enzymes incl. biocarbonate-rich alkaline solution. liver: bile/bile salts (stored in gallbladder, aid in digestion and absorption of fat).
hydrophilic
having a strong affinity for water
natural selection
differential success in the reproduction of different phenotypes resulting from the interaction of organisms with their environment-->the behavior has become a trait due to natural selection
Substrate
Reactant that an enzyme acts on
Inducer
A specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon
christae
where the electron transport chain occurs--inside the mitochondria
Harmful Chromosomal Changes
Deletions, disruptions, duplications, or rearrangements of multiple loci
Pepsinogen
The inactive form of pepsin, specialized by chief cells in gastric pit
wind
Transpiration can be affected by _______ and light; affects transpiration more than light.
Retrotransposon
A transposable element that moves within a genome by means of an RNA intermediate, a transcript of the retrotransposon DNA
Extremophiles
First prokaryotes to be classified into the kingdom Archaea. Include Extreme Halophiles, Methanogens, Thermophiles
Isomorphic
In which the sporophytes and gametophytes look similar but differ in chromosome number.
isomers
compounds with the same molecular formula but diff structural arrangements, and thus, diff properties. 3 types: structural, geometric, and enantiomers
catalyst
a substance that accelerates the rate of a chemical reaction without itself changing; a person or thing that causes change
associative learning
associating one feature with another (e.g., associating the bright color of ladybugs with a bad taste)
intertidal zones
periodically submerged and exposed by the tides 2x daily on most marine shores, oxygen, nutrient levels high
Telophase
Daughter nuclei begin to form, nuclear envelopes arise from cellular materials, chromosomes become less condensed
Induced fit
More snug fit in enzyme-substrate complex, brings chemical groups of active site into positions which enhance their ability to catalyze the reaction
Cystic fibrosis
Recessive, inherited disease in which mucus builds up in organs and causes early death
Endocytosis
Intake of macromolecules by the cell through the formation of new vesicles from the plasma membrane
blastocyst
-100 cell stage
-inner cell mass will become embryo
-hypoblast develops will become yolk sac
Binary Fission
Reason for rapid reproduction of prokaryotes, asexual reproduction.
Metabolic Rate
The sum of all the energy
dispersal
The movement of individuals away from their area of origin or from centers of high population density
strata
new layers of sediment cover older ones and compress them into superimposed layers of rock
ethylene
_______ is unusual as a hormone because it is a gas; plays a critical role in programmed cell death, or apoptosis; promotes the ripening of fruits which triggers more of this hormone.
hydrophobic
Having an aversion to water; tending to coalesce and form droplets in water
Hierarchial Classification
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
How was Darwin's theory of evolution evidential through fossil records?
...
Nematocysts
Small capsules that contain a toxin which is injected into prey or predators. Found in cnidarians.
structural isomers
isomers that differ in their arrangement of atoms and often in the location of double bonds
electron carrier
a molecule that conveys electrons; one of the several membrane proteins in electron transports chains in cells. shuttle electrons during the redox reactions the release energy used to make ATP
chemical equilibrium
In a reversible chemical reaction, the point at which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction.
Passive transport
Diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane which requires no energy
Telomeres
Protective structure at each end of a eukaryotic chromosome which serves to prevent damage to the chromosome
Dispersive model
Each strand of both daughter molecules contains a mixture of old and newly synthesized DNA
corpus luteum
-rest of follicle which stays behind in ovary
-secretes more estrogen and progesterone (maintains uterine lining during pregnancy)
-disintegrates if egg not fertilized
Intersexual Selection
Also referred to as mate choice, individuals of one sex are choosy in selecting their mates from the other sex.
Hepatic Portal Vessel
This convergence of capillaries and veins lead to the liver so that the liver has first access to amino acids and the sugars.
population
a group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspring
adipose tissue
a kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy
solution
A liquid that is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Frequency-Dependent Selection
A decline in the reproductive success of individuals that have a phenotype that has become too common in a population
Chordata
Animal phylum in which more than 90% are animals with backbones. However it also includes 3 groups of invertebrates: tunicates, lancelets, and hagfishes.
serial endosymbiosis
a hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotes consisting of a sequence of endosymbiotic events in which mitochroncria and plastids derived from prokaryotic cells.
Middle lamella
Thin layer of cell wall rich in polysaccharides (pectins), glues adjacent cells together
Hybrid Zones
A region in which members of different species meet and mate, producing at least some offspring of mixed ancestry.
paralogous genes
it is a result from gene duplication, so they are founded in more than one copy in the same genome
hydroxide ion
A water molecule that has lost a proton; OH⁻
cholesterol
a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods
glans penis
head of penis / has much thinner layer of skin
Facultative Anaerobes
Organisms that use O2 if it is present -but can also grow by fermentation in an anaerobic environment.
hollow nerve cord
runs along the back and is full of fluid; called the spinal cord
difference in lengths of digestive systems
because plant matter takes a long time and more complex processes to digest than meat, a herbivore will have a longer digestive system than a carnivore.
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