Terms Definitions
See distribution.
See aerobic respiration.
Any form of life.
a group of populations
nonliving components of an ecosystem
found in proteins
importance of nitrogen
1/2 k
most sustainable population level
secondary consumers
carnivores that eat herbivores
A measurement of biological diversity considering richness and relative abundance.
a plot of temperature and precipitation in a particular region.
nutrient cycles
humans affect so many _________________ that scientists have to take these effects into account when trying to understand any cycle
Oligotrophic lake
Nutrient poor, oxygen rich lake
Physical and chemical processes in which solid rock exposed at earth's surface is changed to separate solid particles and dissolved material, which can then be moved to another place as sediment. See erosion.
rainfall, sunlight, temperature
how mountains affect climate
obligatory mutualism
necessary for both species survival
mixture of learning and innate behaviors, Konrad did this when he was teaching the goslings how to fly. must happen during the critical period
permanently frozen stratum that exist in some biomes
What is positive feedback?
raises population density.
R Selection
The concept that in certain (r-selected) populations, a high reproductive rate is the chief determinant of life history.
is the addition of artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates, through fertilizers or sewage, to an aquatic system. This process has bad effects, such as eventual fish loss from lakes.
The ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information obtained by its sensory receptors.
mark-recapture method
capturing a group of individuals, marking them, letting them mix with the rest of their population, and capturing another group. Then counting how many in the new group are marked. then use the formula x/n=m/N where x is the number of marked animals recaptured in the 2nd sample, n is the total number of individuals recaptured, m is the number of individuals marked and released in the first sample, and N is the estimated population size.
consumers that get their energy from detritus
7.8-10.8 billion
population ecologists project a global population of approximately _____________ people in 2050
global warming
most scientists believe such warming will bring about a temperature increase of 3 degree Celsius that will occur rapidly this century
Character Displacement
competing organisms of similar species evolve different characteristics to coexist in an environment
Organism that digests parts of dead organisms and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms by breaking down the complex organic molecules in those materials into simpler inorganic compounds and then absorbing the soluble nutrients. Producers return most of these chemicals to the soil and water for reuse. Decomposers consist of various bacteria and fungi. Compare consumer, detritivore, producer.
genetic diversity
Variability in the genetic makeup among individuals within a single species. See biodiversity. Compare ecological diversity, functional diversity, species diversity.
liquid, frozen
forms of water available to life
all the organisms living in an area
The study of animal behavior in natural conditions
automatic movement toward or away from a stimulus
ecological succession
gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance
dense covering formed by the leafy tops of tall rain forest trees
classical conditioning
learning with a reward or punishment
process by which ammonium is oxidized to nitrite and then nitrate
Population Cycles
fluctuations in population size in response to varying effects of limiting factors.
Age Structure
description of the abundance of individuals of each age in a population.
A life history in which adults have but a single reproductive opportunity to produce large numbers of offspring, such as the life history of the Pacific salmon. Also known as "big-bang reproduction."
Mullerian Mimicry
A mutual mimicry by two unpalatable species.
Marine Biome
largest biome, most stable with little variation in temperature, provides most of earth's food and oxygen, divided into regions based on amount of light they receive
anaerobic respiration
Form of cellular respiration in which some decomposers get the energy they need through the breakdown of glucose (or other nutrients) in the absence of oxygen. Compare aerobic respiration.
ocean, land
The global hydrologic cycle supports a net flow of atmospheric water vapor from ____ to ____.
decomposition, sedimentation, weathering
key processes involved in the phosphorous cycle (3)
Type I
type of survivorship curve used by R-selection
Classic Conditioning
A type of associative learning; the association of a normally irrelevent stimulus with a fixed behavioral response.
Operant Conditioning
type of learned behavior, trial and error learning. example, learning what to eat and skinner's box
life table
a table of data summarizing mortality in a population.
primary succession
plants and animals invade a region that was lifeless
which animals behave in a way that reduce their fitness or increase it
an animal that eats plants. Can either eat the entire plant(granivore) or only part of it (browsers) or grazers
List all biotic factors
- predation
- parasitism
- disease
- competition
- food resource
Inclusive Fitness
The total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring and by providing aid that enables other close relatives to increase the production of their offspring.
net primary production
the gross primary production minus the energy used by the primary producers for respiration.
Food Chain
A pathway along which energy (in the form of food) is transferred from one trophic level to another; never more than 4-5 trophic levels because energy is lost from one level to the next; relies on decomposers to recycle nutrients, although they are never shown on a food chain
Area over which we can find a species. See range.
all the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact
Altruistic Behavior
putting your life in danger to save the family, kin selection, increasing survival of close relations
Production efficiency
What is the fraction of energy stored in food that isn't used for respiration?
true predator
an animal that kills and eats another animal
What is the scientific method?
a proccess/princibles that are necessary for scientific investigation.
Energetic Hypothesis
he concept that the length of a food chain is limited by the inefficiency of energy transfer along the chain.
ecological niches
the sum of a species usage of the biotic and abiotic resources found in their environment
temperate grassland
a biome that covers huge areas in the temperate and tropical regions of the world; contains no woody plants
Batesian Mimicry
A type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is posionous or others harmful to predators
Character displacement (niche shift)
As a result of resource partitioning, certain characteristics may enable individuals to obtain resources in their partitions more successfully. Leads to divergence of features, or character displacement.
What are 7 properties of life?
- Evolutionary adaption
- Order
- Regulation
- Energy
- Growth and Developement
- Response to the Environment
- Reproduction
Type III, fish
type of curve that shows a high death rate in the young; death rates decline after individuals reach a certain age + example
What is a prokaryotic cell?
The DNA isn't seperate from other organelles.
what are the characteristics of human impact with Coral Reef?
- reduced by poisoning, explosion, coral collecting and over fishing.
- global pollution has cause coral mortality.
what are the characteristics of chemical environment with Coral Reef?
- requires high amount of oxygen
- are excluded by high inputs of fresh water and nutirents
can heat or cool air masses, then pass over land
how bodies of water influence climate
See biosphere.
the global ecosystem
Living organisms. Compare abiotic.
study of animal behavior
Pertaining to water. Compare terrestrial.
Social Behavior
interactions between individuals. examples are, communication, agonisitic behavior, dominance heirarchy, cooperation, and altruistic behavior
dense, spiny, evergreen shrubs, coastal areas, mild rainy winters, hot long dry summers
Resource Partitioning
The division of environmental resources by coexisting species such that the niche of each species differs by one or more significant factors from the niches of all coexisting species.
endangered species
in danger of becoming extinct
main nutrient lost through agriculture because agriculture has the greatest impact on its cycle
Variety of different species (species diversity), genetic variability among individuals within each species (genetic diversity), variety of ecosystems (ecological diversity), and functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of species and biological communities (functional diversity).
food, predation
causes of population cycles (2)
biome with the most extreme temperature fluctuations of any biome
Large geographic areas with similar climates and ecosystems
kin selection
natural selection that favors altruistic behavior by enhancing the success of relatives
What is negative feedback?
lowers population density.
A symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont benefits but the host is neither helped nor harmed.
Benthic zone
the bottom of all aquatic biomes
in a stable regional human population birth rate _________ death rate
Parts of dead organisms and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms.
Group of organisms that resemble one another in appearance, behavior, chemical makeup and processes, and genetic structure. Organisms that reproduce sexually are classified as members of the same species only if they can actually or potentially interbreed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
nitrogen cycle
Cyclic movement of nitrogen in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment.
affect producers, skin cancer
consequences of ozone depletion
many small young
type of young for R-selection
pelagic zone
located away from the ocean bottom
R- selection
The concept that in certain (r-selected) populations, a high reproductive rate is the chief determinant of life history. density independent 1 seed
Sign Stimulus
An external sensory stimulus that trigers fixed action
carrying capacity
maximum population that can be supported by the environment
biogeochemical cycles
process in which elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another
keystone species
most abundant species in a community
density-independent factors
factors occur independently of the density of the population. Natural disaster and extremes of climate are common examples.
What is DNA?
deoxyribonucleic acid, it makes chromosomes.
A change in activity or turning rate in response to a stimulus.
The study of social behavior based on evolutionary theory.
Name the terrestrial biomes
tropical forest, desert, savanna, chaparral, temperate grassland, northern coniferous forest, temperate broadleaf forest, tundra
demographic transition
the movement of population toward a low birth rate and low death rate
(Growth Patterns) k-strategists
few, large young per individual, intensive parenting, slow maturation, and reproduce many times
tertiary (higher-level) consumers
Animals that feed on animal-eating animals. They feed at high trophic levels in food chains and webs. Examples are hawks, lions, bass, and sharks. Compare detritivore, primary consumer, secondary consumer.
The infant mortality rate is __ times higher in developing countries than in developed countries
ecological niche
an organism's use of abiotic and biotic resources
reproductive rates
studies the reproductive output of a cohort from life to death
A behavior in which an animal defends a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals usually of its own species.
what are domains?
The highest taxonomic rank, higher system than kingdom
Gross Primary Production
The total primary production of an ecosystem.
type 2 survivorship curve
intermediate with a constant death rate over the organism's life span.
(Growth Patterns) r-strategists
many, small young, little or no parenting, rapid maturation, and only reproduce once
tropical rain forest
main source of CO2 in the atmosphere
regulationg pH
The oceans affect the biosphere in all of the following ways except
Fixed Action Patterns
sequence of behaviors that an action cannot be stopped until the action is completed
an insect that lays its eggs on a host. After the eggs hatch, they obtain nourishment
what are the characteristics of photosynthetic organisms with lakes?
photosynthetic organisms: eutrophic lakes have > amount of oxygen than oligotroph lakes. Littoral zones are shallow and are well lighted (closer to shore). Limnetic zone are so deep to support rooted aquatic plants.
A plot of the number of members of a cohort that are still alive at each age; one way to represent age-specific mortality.
oceanic pelagic zones
realms of open blue water that is constantly mixed by wind driven currents. the photic zones are deeper in these zones
secondary ecological succession
occurs in an area destroyed by a disturbance; contains fertile soil, supporting a return to the initial condition
Fixed Action Pattern
A sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried in completion once initiated
what are emergent properties?
This is when individual compnents come together to create a interactive function.
Fixed Action Pattern (FAP)
A sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried to completion once initiated.
zero population growth
occurs when the # of people at each age group is about the same and birth/death rates are equal
what are the characteristics of Anmals with wetlands?
has a diverse community of invertebates and species.
what are the characteristics of physical environment with Oceanic Pelagic?
oceanic pelagic biome - a vast realm of water, that is constantly mixed.
- the surface temp turn over during the fall through spring.
- photic zone extends to greater depths because of higher water clarity.
what is the definition of a tissue?
All group of tissues have a similar cell. All of each tissue has a cellular structure.
innate behaviors
developmentally fixed
opportunistic; organisms that reproduce rapidly when the environment is uncrowded and resources are abundant
Ongoing developmental changes in neuromuscular systems.
the study of population statistics
A polygamous mating system involving one female and many males.
Cryptic Coloration
Camouflage, making potential prey difficult to spot against its background.
Organismal Ecology
how an organism's structure, physiology and behavior meet challenges posed by the environment.
transition areas between seas and rivers, water flows up and down the channel with the rising and lowering of the tides, inhabited by photosynthetic prokaryotes, heterotrophs, and vegetation
Habitat Destruction
massive destruction of habitats throughout the world has been brought about by agriculture, urban development, mining, forestry, and environmental pollution
Consumer organism that feeds on detritus, parts of dead organisms, and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms. The two principal types are detritus feeders and decomposers.
type 3
survivorship curve for an oyster
describes how individuals in a population are distributed. They may be clumped ( humans) uniform ( trees in an orchard) or random ( trees in some forests)
Ecosystem Ecology
emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling between organisms and the environment.
a +/- interaction when an organism eats parts of a plant or algae
biological magnification
the accumulation of toxins in successive trophic levels of a food web
Trophic Efficiency
The percentage of energy transferred from one trophic level to the next; usually ranging from 5-20%
Smallest living unit of an organism. Each cell is encased in an outer membrane or wall and contains genetic material (DNA) and other parts to perform its life function. Organisms such as bacteria consist of only one cell, but most of the organisms we are familiar with contain many cells. See eukaryotic cell, prokaryotic cell.
Organism that uses solar energy (green plant) or chemical energy (some bacteria) to manufacture the organic compounds it needs as nutrients from simple inorganic compounds obtained from its environment. Compare consumer, decomposer.
transitional area where a river merges into the ocean; contains non-mixing, stratified water; nutrient rich
Interspecific interactions
Relationships between species of a community
biotic potential
maximum rate of increase per individual for any population that is growing under ideal conditions
Proximate Causes
how and what questions, immediate stimulus and mechanisms
trophic structure
The different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling
organisms that live attached to or near the ocean floor
biological augementation
using organisms to add essential materials to a degraded environment
green world hypothesis
According to which hypothesis, terrestrial herbivores consume relative little plant biomass because they are held in check by a variety of factors, including predators, parasites, and disease?
interspecific competitions
when resources are in short supply
simple type of learning that involves the loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no info.
Associative Learning
The acquired ability to associate one stimulus with another; also called classical conditioning.
the study of the past and present distribution of species in the context of evolutionary theory.
aphotic zone
the region following the photic zone in which less light can penetrate through the water
Eutrophication of Lakes
Runoff increases nutrients in lakes and causes excessive growth of algae and other plants; as large populations of photosynthetic organisms die, organic material accumulates at the bottom of the lake and decomposers use up oxygen as they break down excess organic matter; with depleted oxyen, more organisms die and more decomposition occurs, further depleting oxygen and more matter accumulates on lake bottom; ultimately the lake disappears
species diversity
Number of different species and their relative abundances in a given area. See biodiversity. Compare ecological diversity, genetic diversity.
Process in which water is absorbed by the root systems of plants, moves up through the plants, passes through pores (stomata) in their leaves or other parts, and evaporates into the atmosphere as water vapor.
dominant species
species that have the greatest biomass in a community or are the most abundant; affect distribution and frequency of other species
abiotic factor
a nonliving part of the environment that affects other organisms; incl. climate, temperature, water, light, or soil
vegetation demonstrating stratification
Which of the following is characteristic of most terrestrial biomes?
Integrated hypothesis
community is an assembly of closey linked species locked into association by mandatory biotic interation that causes the community to function as integrated unit of superogranism
'why" include studies of the origin of a behaivior and ichange over time and utiltity of he behavior in terms of reproductive success. (ultimately how helpful and why did the behavior form).
zoned reserve
area of land that is relatively undisturbed by humans and is surrounded by buffer zones that are minimally impacted by humans
opportunistic species
species that quickly invade a habitat, quickly reproduce, and then die. Grasses and insects
Agonistic behavior
Aggressive behavior that is the result of competition for food
Oceanic Zone
The region of water lying over deep areas beyond the continental shelf.
Dynamic Stability Hypothesis
Hypothesis used to explain the limited length of food chains. According to this idea, long food chains are less stable than short food chains. Fluctuations at lower trophic levels are magnified at higher levels, potentially causing the extinction of top predators.
infant mortality
number of infant deaths per 1000 live births
Acid Rain
causd by pollutants in the air from combustion of fossil fuels; nitric, nitrous, sulfurous, and sulferic acids; pH of 5.6; damages lakes and destroys ancient stone architecture
marine benthic zone
composed of the seafloor below the ocean surface, includes the neritic and abyssal zones; less sunlight, sufficient oxygen levels
Mark Recapture method
A sampling technique used to estimate wildlife pops
exponential population growth
The geometric increase of a population as it grows in an ideal, unlimited environment.
Type 3 Curve
curves describe species in which most individuals die young, with only a relative few surviving to reproductive age and beyond. R selected
What is Regulation Mechanisms?
this is regulating an orgamisms internal systems by making a narrow limit, despite environmental change.
Survivorship Curves
Type 1: Success of the young, but high mortality in old age; Type 2: Organsims have a death rate that is constant over the life span; Type 3: Organisms show a high death rate among the young, usually fertilize externally
logistic growth
A newly mated queen ant founds a nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. Assuming that no disasters strike the nest, what can best describe the population growth of the new colony?
movement corridor
a series of small clumps or a narrow strip of quality habitat (usable by organisms) that connects otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat
what is community ecology?
this deals with all the interactions in a community.things like biotics factors and abiotic factors that effect the distribution.
Problems with Introduction of New Species
"Killer" honeybee brought from Africa to Brazil in 1956, spread through Americas and caused death of some humans; the zebra mussel native to Asia and transplanted in US and caused millions of dollars of damage by clogging pipes in lakes/rivers and caused extinction of several species by outcompeting them
population growth per unit time
max. net population growth rate per individual per unit time X number of individuals X proportion of resources not yet used
what is an ecosystem?
this is all the abiotic factors with the addition of communtities of species in a certain area.
acid precipitation
rain, snow , or fog with a pH of less than 5.6
what are the characteristics of animals with Coral Reef?
- diverse group of cnidarians are predominant
- fish and invertibrates are highly diverse
arable land, pasture, forest, ocean, built-up land, and fossil energy land
What are the six types of ecologically productive areas which calculate the ecological footprint?
what is the definition of a molecule?
this is a clinical structure that has two or more small chemical units (atoms)
sedimentary rocks
reservoirs of phosphorous
clumped dispersion
individuals aggregated in patches
terrestrial biome associated with caribou, ox, raindeer, bears, and wolves
Food web
elaborate connected feeding relationships in a ecoysytem
A tropical grassland biome with scattered individual trees, large herbivores, and three distinct seasons based primarily on rainfall, maintained by occasional fires and drought.
coral reefs
composed of calcium carbonate skeletons of corals, live in photic zones of tropical areas with high water clarity
Downward movement of water through soil.
the conversion of nitrate, releases N2
located between the limnetic and benthic zones
population dispersal pattern for a range with a heterogeneous distribution of suitable habitats
r-selected species
exhibit rapid growth (J-shaped curve)
Evolutionary Time
longer scale of time; decades, centuries, millennia,
when individuals of two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another.
How Organsims Interact
BY: competition, predation, mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism
Biotic Factors
Living things---all the organisms that are part of any individual's environment
functional diversity
Biological and chemical processes or functions such as energy flow and matter cycling needed for the survival of species and biological communities. See biodiversity, ecological diversity, genetic diversity, species diversity.
Organism that feeds on dead organisms that were killed by other organisms or died naturally. Examples are vultures, flies, and crows. Compare detritivore.
when insects lay eggs on/in hosts; larvae eat and kill the hosts
littoral zone
section of shallow, well-lighted water close to shore
Selection for life history traits that are sensitive to population density or density dependent selection. Health
greenhouse effect
rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration that causes solar radiation to be re reflected back to the earth
one species benefits, while the other is harmed
A type of relationship in which mating occurs with no strong pair-bonds or lasting relationships.
mutualistic symbiosis
also known as mutualism, a +/+ interaction that benefits all the organisms involved
Question: For a species transplant to be successful, what must occur?
Answer: Reproduction!
Animal Defenses
active defenses such as fighting or fleeing from predators
sulfur cycle
Cyclic movement of sulfur in different chemical forms from the environment to organisms and then back to the environment.
fossil fuels, oceans, sedimentary rock
reservoirs of carbon (3)
landscape ecology
focuses on the exchange of energy, organisms, and materials between ecosystems
Life History
The series of events from birth through reproductive and death rates
behavior that causes a change i the behavior of another individual
introduced species
species moved by humans to new geographic areas, either intentionally or accidentally
turnover time
What is the standing crop biomass divided by production?
ozone layer
reduces that amount of penetration of UV radiation from the sun through that atmosphere
density-dependent factors
factors are those agents who limiting effects becomes more intense as the population density increases.
Limnetic Zone
The well-lit, open surface waters of a lake farther from shore.
Competitive Exclusion Principle
The concept that when populations of two similar species compete for the same limited resources, one population will use the resources more efficiently and have a reproductive advantage that will eventually lead to the elimination of the other population.
photic zone
the region where there is a sufficient amount of light for photosynthesis to occur in plants, this is located in the upper area near the surface of the water
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Northeast region of N. America, south of taiga, trees drop leaves in winter, soil rich in humus which comes from the decomposition of thick layers of leaf litter
an area exposed to tides; is high in oxygen/nutrients; stratified, with differences in oxygen, temperature, and salinity
competition, territoriality, health, predation, toxic wastes, and intrinsic factors
What are the density dependent factors?
what is the definition of organelle?
the various function components.
type 3 survivorship curve
drops sharply at the start, reflecting very high death rates for the young, but flattens out as death rates decline for those fer individuals that survive the early period or die-off.
Negative Human Impact on Earth
Eutrophication, Acid Rain, Toxins in the food chain, Global Warming, depleting the Ozone layer, destruction of Habitat
presence of algae
characteristic of the photic zone of a freshwater biome?
evolutionary history and climate
The habitat that supports the most species is that way because of what two factors?
what is a biome?
these are major types of ecological associations that occupy a broad graphical region of land or water.
Gause's Principle of Competitive Exclusion
If two species share an ecological niche (the same resources) they will compete, and one will not survive
species area curve
What is the name of the pattern that the larger the geographic area of a community, the greater the number of species?
Question: How can deserts exist so close to tropics?
Answer: High temperatures in the tropics yield warm, wet air masses. But because of all the precipitation in the tropics, these masses become warm and dry as they move away from the equator.
in a hypothesis, what is falsifiable?
a hypothesis is capable of being falsified.
solar energy input and water availability
What are the two main climatic factors correlated with biodiversity?
What is the cell theroy?
the idea that cells are the basic unit sturcture for every living thing.
what is the difference between theory and fact?
a fact has been supports by many test and is considered correct. a theory has not been supported anough to be considered a fact but has ecidence that it very well could be.
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