AP Bio evolution test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
flora
plants
stabilizing polymorphism
the intermediate
maximum likelihood
most molecular homologies
paedomorphism
retention of juvenile characteristics
speciation
formation of new species
protobionts
collection of abiotically produced molecules surrounded by a membrane or membrane-like structure
homoplasies
Analogous structures that evolved independently
anagenesis
parent species becomes new species
smallest unit that can evolve
population
stabilizing selection
Natural selection that favors intermediate variants by acting against extreme phenotypes
heterozygous advantage
greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared to homozygotes, tends to presever variation in gene pools
cambrian explosion
many species of animals arise
modern synthesis
blended Darwon's ideas with Mendel's
Darwin
descent from common ancestor, natural selection
allopatric speciation
a population becomes separated from the rest of the species by a geographical barrier so that they can't interbreed (i.e. a mountain separates two populations of ants which eventually evolve into two different species)
phyla
A taxonomic category. are divided into classes, example: chordata
intersexual selection
Individuals of one sex (usually females) are choosy in selecting their mates from individuals of the other sex, also called mate choice.
balancing selection
Natural selection that maintains two or more phenotypic forms in a population (balanced polymorphism)
homeotic genes
altering these alters the body plan
Industrial Melanism
In Preindustrial England most moths were light colored, and then the sooty dark environment gave dark moths the advantage, and they changed majorities quikly
biogeography
the study of the distribution of flora and fauna in the environment
Genetic variability
Caused by random mutation; means that no 2 individuals have identical sets of alleles
polytomy
in a phylogenetic tree, a branch point from which more than two descendant taxa emerge. A polytomy indicates that the exoutionary relationships among the descendant taxa are not yet clear.
phylogenetic tree
a branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms
Theory of Natural Selection(A)
Popilations grow exponentially and exceed their resources, overpopulation results in a struggle for survival. in every population, variation leads to an unequal chance for survival. only the best fid individuals will survive and reproduce.
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
proposed a theory that acquired traits were inherited and passed on to offspring; "use or disuse"; both were proven to be wrong later
vestigial structures
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
conditios for Hardy Weinberg
no natural selection, no genetic drift, no gene flow, no mutation, no selective mating
horizontal gene transfer
the transfer of genes from one genome to another through mechanisms such as transposable elements, plasmid exchange, viral activity, and perhaps fusions of different organisms
order of "stuff" in early earth
inorganic materials form organic, formation of protobionts, RNA arises, first prokaryotes found, oxygen appears, eukaryotes arise
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