AP Bio Exam Review - Vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
myria-
many
antero-
front
Dependent variable
Macromolecules are
Macromolecules are
Fish
ichthyes = ___
ab-
away from; out from
lipo-
(G) fat;lipids: fat molecules
OrganicInorganic
Two types of evolution
Cytoskeleton
Made up of microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. For cellular structure, support, motility and regulation. It provides anchorage for organelles, it is always changing. Important in cilia and flagella for motility. Important in muscle cells and in forming a "monorail" system for neurotransmitters.
soma-
(G) body;somatic cells: body cells
chitin
component of exoskeleton of arthropods; structural support for cell walls of many fungi; can be used as surgical thread
During Cellular respiration, electrons move through a series of electron carrier molecules. Which of the following is true?
E) NONE
interneurons
integrate sensory input and motor input
Photorespiration
Decreases the output of photosynthetic output by taking out organic material from the Calvin Cycle. Evidence it is evolutionary baggage.
Community
An association of populations of different species living together in a defined habitat with some degree of interdependence
Which enzyme attaches to the nucleotides?
Polymerase.
rene-
(L) kidney;renal artery, the artery that supplies blood to the kidney
single nucleotide polymorphisms
-single-base differences between individuals.  to be a polymorphism but be present in less than 1% of the population.
-many SNPs are in linkage disequilibrium (tendency of genes not to be randomized) -> idea of haplotypes (regions of chromosomes not being exchanged by recombination)
Paradigm
A powerful scientific theory that explains diverse observations and guides active research. Such as Darwin's theory of common descent of life.
cellular digestion and disposal of biological molecule occurs inside this organelle
lysosome
cilia
A short cellular appendage containing microtubules. A motile cilium is specialized for locomotion and is formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules.
corpus callosum
a broad transverse nerve tract connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
Polyphyletic
Pertaining to a taxon whose members were derived from two or more ancestral forms not common to all members.
Chaperonins
Chaperone proteins which act to help other proteins fold correctly. Protect the protein from denaturization.
Stroma
The fluid outside the thylakoids which contains the chloroplasts DNA, enzymes and ribosomes.
Mitotic Spindle
an apparatus of microtubules that control chromosome movement during mitosis. Includes aster, spindles, centrosomes
Nucleolus
A structure within the nucleus where rRNA is made and ribosomes are assembled.
Prokaryotic Diversity
• Coccus (Cocci) • Bacillus (Bacilli) • Spiral • Almost all are unicellular • Some associate in filaments (but still unicellular) But most diversity is related to metabolism, not morphology
___ pairs of autosomes human somatic cells contain
22
DNA vaccine
depends on the cellular immune response
Phylum Chordata
1. Bilateral symmetry; segmented body; three germ layers; well developed coelom2. Notochord3. Single, dorsal, tubular nerve cord4. Pharyngeal pouches5. Endostyle or thyroid gland6. Postanal tail7. Complete digestive system8. Segmentation
this organelle is involved with lipid prodcution and proteins transport!!! TRANSPORT!!!
golgi
____ are often more numerous near areas of major cellular activity
Mitochondria
asexual reproduction
reproduction, as budding, fission, or spore formation, not involving the union of gametes.
synapse
gap b/w synaptic terminal on an axon and a target cell
Plate Techtonics
theory of global tectonics in which the lithosphere is divided into a number of crustal plates, each of which moves on the plastic asthenosphere more or less independently to collide with, slide under, or move past adjacent plates
phosphorylated
referring to a molecule that has been the recipient of a phosphate group.
equilibrium
:delta" G = 0, otherwise known as dead,maximum stability
Population
A group of organisms of the same species that live in a defined geographicarea at the same time
monomers
small units that make up polymers and distinguishes them
ERBB2 is a
**a. Type of membrane receptorb. Proto-oncogenec. Gene on chromosome 17d. Gene that mutates causing a type of breast cancere. Gene that may be over-exposed resulting in a type of breast cancer
___ is the location of a particular gene on a chromosome
locus
DNA libraries
contain all the DNA in an organism-genomic library = entire genome in a vector.-cDNA = only includes the expressed part of DNA. (uses reverse transcriptase)
Sucrose is formed by 2 monosaccharides by ______
dehydration synthesis
Class Reptilia (Phylum Chordata)
amniotic egg; ectotherms, thickened skin w/ protective keratin scales; prevents dessication; sometimes referred to as having both exo- and endo- skeletons; exclusively internal fertilization; lungs have alveoli to increase surface area for gas exchange
Acetyl COA and citric acid must occur ___ timer per glucose molecule
2
wings
either of the two forelimbs of most birds and of bats, corresponding to the human arms, that are specialized for flight.
Domains Bacteria and Archaea
Both consist of prokaryotes. Originally considered to be the same we know Archaea is as closely related to Eukaryotes as they are to Bacteria
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Accounts for more than half the total membrane in most Eukaryotic cells. A network of tubules and sacs called cisternae. Interior is called the lumen or cisternal space. Continuous with the nuclear envelope. Two distinct, but connected kinds, smooth and rough.
hydrostatic pressure
pressure of fluid against cell wall or membrane
One of the seven properties of life is the ability to respond to stimuli which is also defined as
Irritability
Bt crops
resistant to some insect pests. When insects ingest the Bt toxin, their enzymes convert it to a insect-specific toxin that causes death/paralysis
Chromosomes
The DNA when it is wrapped up tightly around proteins during metaphase
Mitochondrial cristae increase space for more copies of ____ and ____
electron transport change ATP synthase
internal fertilization
The fusion of eggs and sperm within the female reproductive track. The sperm are typically deposited in or near the track.
Cycic electron flow
Uses only photosystem I. It produces ATP but not NADPH.
James Watson and Francis Crick
a. Were both English researchers working at Cambridge Universityb. Performed elegant experiments in DNA chemistry**c. Constructed an accurate model of the DNA molecule illustrating its structural simplicityd. Performed experiments that convinced scientists that DNA is a double-stranded moleculee. All of these
single-copy genes
genes that exist as single copies on a particular chromosome
Which of the following statements is true about energy yields from cellular respiration; A) cellular respiration is _____at harvesting energy than___ are at harvesting gas.
more efficient car engines
What is the place called where the DNA opens up?
The replication fork.
specific vs. nonspecific DNA repair
-specific repair: target a single kind of lesion in DNA and repair only that damage.-nonspecific repair : use a single mechanism to repair multiple kinds of lesions in DNA
Which of the following are produced during the light reactions of photosynthesis?
ATP, NADPH, O2 ( d)
D*The fundamental reason that the various Hawaiian honeycreepers are vulnerable to extinction is
a. The reduction of their habitats**b. That they are so highly specialized for life in their habitats that they cannot live anywhere elsec. The encroachment of humans into their habitatsd. The importation of new predators and competitors into their habitatse. The warming of their habitats, supporting mosquitoes that carry the pathogens for avian malaria
Environmental Effects on Development
- ex: in jack pines seed dispersal can only occur after a fire, thalidomid causes limb defects
- the environment affects normal development (ex larvae do not metmorphose into adults until they find a substance to settle down on, temperature dependent sex determination)
- endocrine-disrupting chemicals interefere w/ the production, transport, or receptor binding of endogenous hormones. Ex DES
The Endoplasmic Reticulum serves two functions. What are they
1. It increases the surface area of the cell2. It functions as the final attachment site for the ribosome, sometimes
Which of the following statements is NOT true about asteroids?
**a. They have had little influence on the history of lifeb. Planets swept up most of them during formation of our solar systemc. Their impacts have produced craters visible in satellite imagesd. One asteroid impacted our planet just prior to the mass extinctions at the K-T boundarye. An asteroid impact releases an enormous quantity of energy
The 2 genes are both on different chromosomes but at the same positions is the most likely explanation for
high rate of crossing over b/t 2 genes.
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