Lesson - The Nervous System Flashcards

white matter
Terms Definitions
ad-
to
oligo
few
hemi-
half
-plegia
paralysis
graph/o
record
-graph
to record
constrictor muscle
parasympathetic
CVA
Cerebrovascular Accident
Arachnoid
Middle layer
Longitudinal Fissure
Surface Area
GAD
GENERALIZED PERSONALITY DISORDER
CNVI
abducens
motor-eye movement
origin: pons
destination: extrinsic eye muscles
path/o
disease, suffering, feeling emotion
__ types of neurons
3
Collateral Gang.
postgangli. sympathetic neurons
innervate abdominopelvic viscera
postgang. axons from collateral gang. enter into plexuses by way of visceral nerves
Lobotomy
Incision into a lobe
Inflammation of the brain.
encephalitis
coccyg/o
coccyx / tailbone (root word)
Inhibitory Transmission
inhibitory transmitter receptor interaction raises post synaptic neuron's membrane potential.  This causes hyperpolarization of the post-synaptic membrane
Tibial Nerve
gastrocneius, soleus, tibialis posterior
crista ampullaris
receptor for angular movement
glob/o-
shaped like a globe; comprehensive
Dendrite
cytoplasmic processes that radiate from the neuron cell bodytypically a branching pattern
The sypathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
autonomic
somatic
of the body; bodily; physical.
round window
flexible membrane that transmits pressure back into the middle ear cavity
After the action potential is generated there is a high amount of ______ in the cell so it is transported outside the cell.
K+
nerve impulse
electrochemical changes that transmit information
Temporal Lobe
Memory; sense of hearing structures
 
Brainstem
 
attaches the brain to spinal cord
-midbrain
-pons
-medulla oblongata
unipolar
single processfound in sensory neurons in PNS (ganglia)
Cerebrum
The cerebral hemispheres & structures of the diencephalon.
Sciatica
Severe pain radiating from the buttocks down to the feet.
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord
_______ carries impulses toward the cell body.
dendrites
oligodendrocytes
resemble astrocytes but smaller cell bodies and fewer processes. provide myelination.
***Shingles
Acute infection caused by the latent/dormant varicella zoster virus (Chicken pox).
Paraparesis
partial paralysis of the lower extremities
autoregulation
the continual automatic adjustment or self-regulation of a biochemical, physiological, or ecological system to maintain a stable state.
chemoreceptor
a sensory receptor that responds to chemical stimuli
cell body
contains the nucleus and other organelles and has fiberlike extensions (Dendrites and Axons)
If a synapse's receptors open sodium channels on the postsynaptic neuron, it is a(n) ___________ synapse.
excitatory
bipolar
1 dendrite and 1 axon
 
Brain and spinal cord
corpus collosum
fiber tracts connecting the two cerebral hemispheres
Brain Stem
includes midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata; ascending and descending tracts; many small gray matter areas
mechanoreceptor
in an earthquake, which type of sensory receptor is most likely to sound the first alarm?
Meningitis
inflammation of the meninges of the brain and spinal cord
 
can be fatal caused by bacterial or viral infection
Commissures
fiber tracts found in the cerebral hemisphere white matter running from one hemisphere to another
This plexus supplies the buttocks, perineum, and part of the lower limbs.
Sacral plexus
Treatment Procedures of the Nervous System - Brain and Head - electroconvulsive therapy, also known as?
electroshock therapy
graded potenital's (1) varies w the strength of the stimulus
magintude
PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM (PNS)
SPINAL NERVESCRANIAL NERVESSENSORY & MOTOR DIVISIONSCOMMUNICATION LINES BTWN CNS & THE REST OF THE BODY
neurotransmitter
chemical released by one neuron to affect the transmembrane potential of another
How long can an axon grow?
3 feet
electrical potential
results from separation of charges. one (+) is outside the cell membrane, the other(-) is inside the cell at rest
Multiple Cartilagenous Exostoses
benign proliferative lesions of epiphyseal regions
axon
the appendage of the neuron that transmits impulses away from the cell body.
-graphy
the process of producing a picture or record
Radial Glia
Special glia with fibers that grow radially outward from the ventricular zone to the surface of the cortex; provide guidance for neurons migrating outward during brain development.
What is the resting potential of a cell?
-85mV
sensory neurons
a neuron that transmits an impluse from a receptor to the central nervous system
sensory system
part of the peripheral nervous system. also known as afferent system. carries incoming signals from sensory receptors.
Glioblastoma multiforme
highly malignant form of an astrocytic tumor, spreads in white matter of the brain
semicircular canals, vestibule
ear structures not involved with hearing
neural integration
ability of neurons to process info, store and recall it, and make decisions
T/F: the spinal cord is approximately 24-25 inches long
False 17-18
DESCENDING TRACTS
CARRY MOTOR COMMANDS TO THE SPINAL CORD.
Myelinated Axons
Called white fibers found in white matter of brain and spinal cors & nerve trunks
The space between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of the cell body of the next neuron is called the __________.
snapse
cerebral cortex
motor and sensory areas separated by the central sulcus
Polysomnography
Measurement and record of a number of functions while the patient is asleep.
functional divisions of PNS
somatic - voluntary
autonomic - involuntary
interneuron
any neuron having its cell body, axon, and dendrites entirely within the central nervous system, especially one that conveys impulses between a motor neuron and a sensory neuron.
spinal cord
the cord of nerve tissue extending through the spinal canal of the spinal column.
Voltage-Gated Ion Channel
A specialized ion channel that opens or closes in response to changes in membrane potential
Passive or Leakage Channels
Always open; Potassium always leaks out of cells
enteric nervous system
part of the peripheral nervous system. consists of verve plexuses in wall of digestive tract.
transient ischemic attack
a ministroke; fleeting symptoms of a CVA
Axodendritic Synapse
Synapse between an axon terminal and a dendrite. Carry input signals to neurons.
The parietal lobe is primarily used for...
 
A) motor functions.
B) perception of auditory stimuli.
C) sensory functions.
D) perception of visual stimuli.
E) none of the above.
C) sensory functions.
What do the upward arrows mean?
the stimulis is applied
lateral geniculate nuclei
project visual info to the visual cortex of the occipital lobe
Most neurons in the brain and spinal cord are this type?
MULITPOLAR NEURONS
motor neuron
a nerve cell that conducts impulses to a muscle, gland, or other effector.
vagus nerve
either one of the tenth pair of cranial nerves, consisting of motor fibers that innervate the muscles of the pharynx, larynx, heart, and thoracic and abdominal viscera, and of sensory fibers that conduct impulses from these structures to the brain.
What is presynaptic inhibition?
Occurs when the release of excitatory neurotransmitter by one neuron is inhibited by the activity of another neuron via axoacnonix synapnse.
2 Types of Cells in Nervous System
supporting cells and neurons
What is Cranial Nerve VII?
The facial nerve, responsible for facial expression.
Pathology of the Nervous System - Disorders of the Brain - Sleep Disorders - somnolence
unnatural sleepiness or subconsciousness, almost a coma but can be reached through verbal stimuli
motor (efferent) division
carries signals from the CNS to gland and muscle cells that carry out the body’s response; • effectors – cells and organs that respond to commands from the CNS-- somatic motor division – carries signals to skeletal muscles– visceral motor division (autonomic nervous system) - carries signals to glands, cardiac muscle, and smooth muscle
what is white matter
brain or cord tissue composed of myelinated axons (tracts) in the CNS only
oligodendrocytes and schwann cells
2 types of glia that form insulating myelin sheaths around neuron axons
 
Modulation of info transfer
allowed by changes that can take place at the synapse:
-one neuron can communicate with one or more neurons
-communication can be excitatory or inhibitory or occur with some or all of the other neurons
-nerve impulses involve hundreds of synapses as they traverse pools of neurons
REGULATION BY THE NERVOUS SYSTEM PROVIDES
SWIFT BUT BRIEF RESPONSE TO STIMULI
Evoked Potential Studies (EP studies)
A group of diagnostic tests that measure changes in brain waves elicited by visual, auditory, or somatosensory stimuli. Visual evoked response (VER) is a response to visual stimuli. Auditory evoked response (AER) is a response to auditory stimuli.
What does the Somatic Nervous System (SNS) consist of?
-SENSORY NEURONS THAT CONVEY INFORMATION FROM SOMATIC RECEPTORS IN THE HEAD
-BODY WALL
-LIMBS FROM RECEPTORS FOR SPECIAL SENSES OF VISION, HEARING, TASTE AND SMELL TO THE CNS.
INTO THE VEINS AND ARTERIES
WHERE DO THE WASTE PRODUCTS FROM THE CEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID GO?
What does the Perineurium do?
Dense layer of cells that assists with diffusion of ions needed for action potential
The Central Nervous System - Meninges - what does the epidural space contain?
fat and supportive connective tissues to cushion the dura mater
cell body of a typical neuron
1. contains most of the oranelles typically found in cells ego nucleus, mitochondria, goigi complex, etc.2. nissi bodies (chromatophillic bodies)3. neurofibrils- represent the cytoskeleton of neuron. it helps to remaintain the structure
What structures make up the synapse? What is a synaptic cleft?
Cleft, pre and post membranes and vesicles in pre and receptors in post.
Voltage gated channels for the most part are located:
On the axon hillock, all along unmyelinated axons, and at the nodes of Ranvier in myelinated axons.
Structures of the Nervous System - Myelin Sheath, what is it and what is it made up of?
the white protective covering for the spinal cord, the white matter of the brain and most peripheral nerves, made of glial cells
what is white matter and where is it found?
neuronal axons with their myelin sheaths. found in every region of the CNS
The Central Nervous System - Parts of the Brain - Brainstem - midbrain and pons functions
control reflexes for eye and head movements in response to visual and auditory stimuli, link some nerves to the cerebellum and are involved in motor control and sensory analysis
What is ALS (Lou Gehrig's Disease) and what does it cause?
It is a progressive destruction of the anterior horn and pyramidal tract neurons, leading to a gradual paralysis and eventual death.
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