ap bio plant vocab Flashcards

Terms Definitions
senescence
aging
archegonia
female gametes
Tendrils
Help plants climb
stamen
the sperm/pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower; consists of the anther and filament
NADP+
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, an acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
photoperiodism
physiological response to photoperiod
upper epidermis
secretes cutin
contains stomata
anothophyta
angiodsperms-flowering plants, pistol, ovary, style, stigma, stamen, stalk anther, petals(attraction pollinator), reproduction (pollen)
mesophyll
ground tissue inside the leaf
apomixis
production of seeds without fertilization (dandelions)
filament
The stalk of a stamen.
adhesion
molecular attraction between unlike substances
leaf, stem elongation
functions of gibberellins
herbaceeous stem
only has primary growth
ethylene
promotes fruit ripening, triple response in seedlings
Rubisco
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
Apical dormance
Inhibits growth of ax. buds
thigmotropism
-directional growth in response to touch
-curling vines or tendrils
-chronic mechanical manipulation (artificial with stick, natural with wind) results in increased ethylene which stuns growth
sugar source
organ producing sugar by photosynthesis or breakdown of starch
dermal tissue system
the outer protective covering
frond
a large leaf of a fern
pallisade mesophyll
parenchyma cells equipped with numerous chloroplasts and large surface areas, specializations for photosynthesis
tropism
growth movement whose direction is determined by the direction from which the stimulus strikes the plant.
auxins
responsible for lateral growth; ie bushy plants
Xylem
Transports water and minerals, major support (wood), dead at maturity, tracheid cells, vessel elements
Gametangia
Protects the gametes (egg/sperm) from drying out.
dormant
must be broken for germination to occur. can be broken with fire, water, chemicals
Roots depend on...
sugar and other organic nutrients
Long-day plants
Require short period of darkness (short-night plant) (spring & summer)
endosperm
a 3n food storing tissue
-divides and develops into nutrient rich multicellular tissue
--monocots it remains to supply nutrients in germination
--dicots most of its food reserves are transferred to cotyledons and the endosperm is missing in the mature seed
angiosperm
A flowering plant, which forms seeds inside a protective chamber called an ovary.
terminal bud
includes developing leaves and a compact series of nodes and internodes
germination
the process whereby seeds or spores sprout and begin to grow
pericycle
several layers of cells where lateral roots arise
sclerenchyma cells
Sclerenchyma is a supporting tissue. Two groups of sclerenchyma cells exist: fibres and sclereids. Their walls consist of cellulose and lignin. Sclerenchyma cells are the principal supporting cells in plant tissues that have ceased elongation. Sclerenchyma fibres are of great economical importance, since they constitute the source material for many fabrics (flax, hemp, jute, ramie).
cytokinins
prevent cell aging; used to keep plants fresh
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
meristem
sieve tube elements
form phloem, alive at maturity
carpels
innermost part of a flower that produce the female gametophytes.
Crassulacean Acid Metabolism
An adaptation for photosynthesis in arid conditions, first discovered in the family Crassulaceae. In this process, a plant takes up CO2 and incorporates it into a variety of organic acids at night; during the day, CO2 is released from organic acids for use in the Calvin cycle.
Adventitious Root
Above ground roots that cling to things except for soil
dicot stems
vascular bundles arrange in ring with pith inside ring and cortex outside ring, xylem on pith side of bundle, phloem on cortex side
three tissue systems
* Ground tissue
* Dermal tissue
* Vascular tissue
homosporous
Referring to plants in which a single type of spore develops into a bisexual gametophyte having both male and female sex organs.
guttation
formation of small droplets of sap on ends of leaves of grasses and small herbs early in the morning
Companion Cells
make up Phloem cells; provide support to sieve tube elements
Ground Tissue
Anything that isn't dermal or vascular tissue
basal, terminal cell
forms after the fertilized zygote undergoes mitosis
The outer protective covering of plants.
dermal tissue statement
xylem cells
dead at maturity, tracheids are found in the xylem of all vascular plants, vessel elements, conduct water, vessels align end to tend to form long micropipe called vessels
adventitous roots
when roots appear on the stem where roots normally dont appear
axillary buds
embryonic side shoots in angle of leaf and stem (usually dormant)
defense against pathogens
-1st line of defense: epidermis & periderm
-invaders may get in through injury or natural opening
fibrous root system
a mat of generally thin roots spreading out below the soil surface, with no root standing out as the main one
pits
Pit, the single seed in the center of a cherry, peach, plum, olive, avocado or other fruit.
cortex, pith
the two types of ground tissue in stems
casparian strip
a water-impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls
stomatal opening triggers at dawn
-1. light: blue light receptors activate proton pumps
-2. depletion of CO2: occurs when photosynthesis begins
-3. circadian rhythm: 24 hour cycles
Sporophyte Generation
refers to the part of the life cycle of plants where a diploid zygote divides by mitosis and develops into a multicellular embryo that is supported and protected by the gametophyte plant; dominant in tracheophytes
determinate growth
some plants organs cease to grow at a certain size
The Photosynthetic equation
6 CO2 + 6 H2O + Light Energy --> C6H12O6 + 6 O2 + 6 H2O
short day plants (long night plants)
will flower only if dark is at least a certain number of hours (if interrupted by a flash of light, won't flower)
senescences
falling off
phloem
moves sugar
radicle
will become root
scattered vascular tissue
monocot
Primary xylem/phloem
Main water/food source
coiling vines
examples of thigmotropism
VASCULAR Tissues
xylem and phloem
coleoptile
the tip of the plant
Vascular Tissue System
Xylem and phloem
pith
central core of parenchyma cells
perennials
plants that live many years
Rhizoid
Threadlike sturctures that anchor nonvascular plants to the ground
raspberry, strawberry
examples of aggregate fruits
main photosynthetic organ; generally consist of a blade and a stalk (petiole)
leaf
microsporangia
produce microspores (male spores) (meiosis)
Microspores(4)-grow up-pollen grain-3 cells flowering-4 cells-conifer-tube/vegetative-pollen tube
heterosporous
has two distinct types of spores
nodes
where leaves are attached to stems
Vegetative Propagation: Tubers
Underground stems ex) potatoes
dioecious
have staminate and carpellate flowers on separate plants (2 houses)
Root system
area of active growth underground
nitrogen fixation
the assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by soil bacteria and its release for plant use on the death of the bacteria
plasmodesmata
thin tubes of cytoplasm maintain physiological support to nuclei-lacking sieve-tube members
Gibberellins
a hormone which promotes stem elongation, especially in dwarf plants
lemon, peach, nut
examples of simple fruits
c4 plants
two reactions to carbon fixate
GYNOsperms
.woody plants
.perennial - live year after year
.tree rings - dead xylem, tree's annual growth
lycophyta
club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts, sporophyte, fluid transport vascular, sperm transport flagellated sperm, dispersal units spores
Double Fertilization
A mechanism of fertilization in angiosperms, in which two sperm cells unite with two cells in the embryo sac to form the zygote and endosperm.
quiescent center
slowly dividing cells; serve as replacement cells in the event of damage to the meristem
Secondary Growth
Lateral meristems that increase the width of the plant
leaf epidermis
often covered by a waxy cuticle
Parenchyma Cell
l A relatively unspecialized plant cell type that carries out most of the metabolism, synthesizes and stores organic products, and develops into a more differentiated cell type.
sori/sorus
Clusters of fern sporangia on the backs of green leaves or on special, non-green leaves (sporophylls). may be arranged in various patterns, such as parallel lines or dots, that are useful in fern identification.
embryo
organism in its early stage of development
tracheids
Long, tapered cells with pitted walls that form a system of tubes in the xylem and carry water and solutes from the roots to the rest of the plant. One type of xylem cells.
Stigma
the "sticky" portion of the pistil that captures pollen grains
Stems
Primary function is to display the leaves
collenchyma
found in young stems (ie stalks), unevenly thick cell walls
cam plants
open stomata at night
pep carboxylas fixes co2 with pep -> oxalo -> malic acid. when malic is decarboxylated during the day, co2 is relase, allowing rubp to be fixes correctly
Water Movement in Xylem
Evapotranspiration or TAC (Tension-Adhesion-Cohesion)
critical day lenght
determines when the plant will flower
zone of maturation
-located farthest from root tip
-where new cells become specialized
lenticels
spongy regions of bark (kind of like pores) that allow living cells inside trunk to exchange gases with air
self incompatibility
biochemical block even if pollen lands on stigma of same plant
-self regulation blocks growth of pollen tube
-enzymes destroy pollen tube
-block may be in stigma itself
guard cells
regulate the opening and closing of stomata
vessel members
xylem cells shorter and wider than tracheids, long and tapered
Tracheophytes
a phyla of plants that contains the most common and widespread land plants; have vascular tissue
lateral meristem
composed of the vascular and cork cambiums; aids in secondary (width) growth
monocots
stems of these plants contain no pith; instead, only cortex and parenchyma cells
1st reaction of c4
pep carboxylase in mesophyll chorlorplasts fixes co2 to pep -> oxaloacetate -> malic acid -> bundle fibers cells -> changed to pyruvic acid
Roots
where water enters and the anchor of the plant in soil
basal angiosperms
Member of a clade of three early-diverging lineages of flowering plants. Examples are Amborella, water lilies, and star anise and its relatives.
Photosystem I
One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
The female reproductive structure is called___ and the male reproductive structure is called ______
F: Carpel/Pistil M: Stamen
Dicots
* flower parts in 4's or 5's
* network vein in leaf
* 2 seed coats, vascular bundles in ring
karyogamy
The fusion of nuclei of two cells, as part of syngamy.
Carbon Fixation
Where CO2 from the air is incorporated into organic molecules
petiole
the stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem
Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b
Two different types of chlorophyll that absorb the light spectrum in very similar ways.
primary plant body
the parts of the root and shoot systems produced by apical meristems
generative, tube cell
parts of the male gametophyte - 2 types of cells
source, companion cells, sieve-tube members, sinks
organ chronology, from source to sink (4)
A cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem.
root cap
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