AP Bio Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
troph
feed
loc
place
moll
soft
feedback inhibition
look
hyper-
above; beyond; over
Aphotic Zone
little light penetrates
Large intestine
-Ascending, traverse, descending
-Symbiotic bacteria (breakdown cellulose/make gas)
Crossing Over
-Produces recombinant chromosomes, which combine genes inherited from each parent.
-Begins very early in Prophase I, as the homologous chromosomes pair up gene by gene
-Homologous portions of two nonsister chromatids trade places
lysosome
membrane-bound sac of hydrolytic enzymes that the cell uses to digest macromolecules
tracheophytes
vascular plants, lycophyta and pterophyta
Binary Fission
asexual reproduction of single-celled eukaryotes
Gametophyte
Multicellular haploid stage caused by a spore dividing mitotically
Learning
A behavioral change resulting from experience.
chimeras
organisms with a mixture of genetically different cells
Opisthokonts
organisms from an ancestor with posterior flagellum (includes fungi, animals, and some protists)
cell differentiation
The structural and functional divergence of cells as they become specialized during a multicellular organism's development.
Artherosclerosis
hardening of the arteries, arteries become clogged, and restricts blood flow which increases blood pressure
Simple plant tissue that supports mature plant par
sclerenchyma
insertion
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
terminator
In prokaryotes, a special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene.
evaporative cooling
occurs because the hottest molecules, those with the greatest kinetic energy are the most likely to leave as gas.
Map Unit
used to geographically relate the genes on the basis of these frequencies
Biogeography
study of distribution of species in the past and today
pore complex
an intricate protein structure; lines each pore of the nucleus and regulates entry and exit of macromolecules and particles
mineral nutrients
Humus is a reservoir. Essential chemical elements absorbed from the soil in the form of inorganic ions.
Macrophages
Phagocytic white blood cells that are long-lived and well-positioned to attack.
vascular cambium
A lateral meristem that produces secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside
thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
transcription initiation
RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter region of DNA strand, and synthesis begins
Effector
A muscle cell or gland cell that performs the body's responses to stimuli; responds to signals from the brain or other processing center of the nervous system
electronegativity
the attraction of an atom for the electrons of a covalent bond
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme encoded by some certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
What is ester linkage
bond between HYDORXL AND CARBOXYL
Pollination
Transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of a plant
central vacuole
large vacuole in mature plant cells that have diverse roles in storage, waste disposal, reproduction, growth & development (plants elongate as it absorbs water)
cell fractionation
the disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centrifugation.
polytomy
a branch point from which more than two descendant groups emerge
signal transduction
The linkage of a mechanical, chemical, or electromagnetic stimulus to a specific cellular response.
recessive trait
doesn't appear if dominant trait is present
Ecosystem Ecology
The study of energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem
biological species concept
According to what theory by Ernst Mayer, a species is a population that has the potential to interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring?
Physically linked
genes that are on the same chromosome as one another
bottleneck effect
Type of genetic drift that is the result of the drastic reduction of a population usually by natural disaster. The surviving population no longer is genetically representative of the original population.
Specific Heat
Energy needed to raise 1g of substance by 1 degree Celsius
absorption spectrum
The range of a pigment's ability to absorb various wavelengths of light.
Nucleiod
This is not a nucleus. It is found in prokaryotic cells: it is the region were the cell's DNA is located
Krebs Cycle Step 6
2 hydrogens are transferred to FAD. forming FADH2
The genetic material found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
• both have spindle fibers
• prokaryotes have a single chromosome with mostly DNA and some associated protein (less than eukaryotes)
• eukaryotes have chromosomes with DNA and many associated proteins; histone proteins organize the chromosome
• prokaryotes lack a nucleus and other membranous organelles and the chromosome appears as a nucleoid, an irregular shaped region that is not enclosed by membrane
• In eukaryotic cells, the nucleus appears as chromatin, tangled mass of thin threads
To break down carbohydrates to provide ATP for the cell
What is the purpose of cellular respiration in eukaryotic cells
coel
hollow
heat
therm-
toxic
poison
ule
diminutive small
ecto, meso, endo
platy
food vacuole
forms from phagocytosis
achondroplasia
dwarfism; dominant inherited disorder
alcohols
organic compounds containing hydroxy groups
heteromorphic
meaning the sporophytes and gametophytes are structurally different.
DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
Ribosome
the site of protein synthesis; composed of RNA and protein
P+Q=1
what is the allele frequency equation?
neutron
a subatomic particle having no electrical charge (electrically neutral). mass= 1.7x10{-24}. found in the nucleus of an atom.
sac fungi
asci are commonly called this
ovary
produces ovules, part of the carpel
Nucleic Acids
A polymer (polynucelotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins and, through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities. The two types are DNA and RNA.
osmosis
diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
taxis
movement directly toward or away from stimulus
density
the number of individuals per unit area of volume
Radiometric dating
a method paleontologists use for determining the ages of rocks and fossils on a sclae of absolute time, based on the half-life of radioactive isotopes
artificial selection
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits.
intertidal zones
periodically submerged and exposed by the tides, twice daily on most marine shores. oxygen and nutrient levels are generally high.
isomers
compounds w/ same chem. formula but diff structures--diff properties
Mesophyll cells
A loosely arranged photosynthetic cell located between the bundle sheath and the leaf surface
vascular cambium (448)
lateral meristem that produces secondary phloem and secondary xylem
signal peptide
polypeptide of proteins destined for endomembrane system or for secretion are marked by a _______ ________, which targets the proteins to the ER
Transgenic organism
organism that contains genes from another species
amphipathic
has regions that are hydrophilic and regions that are hydrophobic
polyphyletic
pertaining to a grouping of species derived from two or more different ancestral forms
Starch
A polymer of glucose and the main storage substance of plants. It is insoluble in water.
emigration
8 movement of individuals out of a population
DNA polymerase
~elognation~ attaches to RNA primers + begins!
Prokaryotic cell
A cell that has no distinct, membrane-bounded organelles
methyl group
A chemical group consisting of a carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The methyl group may be attached to a carbon or to a different atom.
Chemiosmosis
process in which energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane is used to drive cellular work
gene flow
The transfer of alleles from one population to another, resulting from the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes.
biogeochemical cycles
any of the various nutrient circuits, which involve both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems
Homosporous
A term referring to a plant species that has a single kind of spore, which typically develops into a bisexual gametophyte.
small interfering RNAs
(siRNAs) Rna of similar size and function as miRNAs
Sporangium
A capsule in fungi and plants in which meiosis occurs and haploid spores develop
What is the name for having three true cell layers?
Triploblastic
Four types of Eukaryotes
1. phototrophs (energy from light)
2. chemotrophs ( energy from chemicals in environment)
3. autotrophs (need an inorganic compound as a carbon source)
4. heterotrophs (require at least one organic nutrient, such as glucose as a carbon source)
cell cycle control system
a molecular signaling system which cyclically switches on the appropriate parts of the cell cycle machinery and then switches them off
Blending model of heredity
idea that genetic material contributed by the two paretns mixes in a manner analogous ot the way blue and yellow paints blend to make green; predicts that over many generations a freely mating population will give rise to a uniform population of individuals; however our everday observations and the results of breeding experiments with animals and plants contradict such a prediction; also fails to explain other phenomena of inheritance such as traits treappearing after skipping a generation
allosteric site
site away from the active site on an enzyme, where a noncompetitive inhibitor bonds to
Positive pressure breathing
Type of breathing that forces air in as muscles of the oral cavity drop (in amphibians).
What are the classes in the phylum arthropoda?
Insecta, Crustateans, Arachnids, Myriapods
Plants vs. funguys lol ya get it
the difference is in the cell wall structure. Plants have celulose in the cell wall as well as peptoglycands. the fungi's cell wall is filled with cytin.
audi
hear
jellyfish
cnid
ob-
against
rect
right correct
Deletion
Delete a base
Bacteriophages
Viruses that infect bacteria
archegonia
female gametangia-multicellular organs that produce gametes- vase shaped organ that produces a single egg retained within the base of the organ. male gametangia-antheridia.
operant conditioning
trial and error learning
organelle
various functional components that make up cells
Vili
Fingerlike projections that help increase surfave area(also have microvill) that are exposed to the lumen(basis for term brush border)
calmodulin
An intracellular protein to which calcium binds in its function as a second messenger in hormone action
insertion sequences
the simplest transposable elements; they exist only in bacteria
transport proteins
help hydrophilic substances travel through membrane (channel)
hypertonic
In comparing two solutions, referring to the one with a greater solute concentration.
Pseudopodia
Cellular extensions that are often used by amoeba to bring movement. Formed by squeezing sol into the direction desired by assembling microfilaments in the cortex where the sol does not want to go
energy
The capacity to cause change, especially to do work (to move matter against an opposing force).
Human Interferon
interferes with replication of viruses. used in medical research treating some cancers.
relative fitness
a contribution an individual makesto the gene pool
selective permeability
the plasma membrane exhibits ________ ________; it allows some substances to cross it more easily than others
Electron microscope
Focuses beam of electrons though specimen
chitin
1 complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi and the external skeletons of arthropods
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation
•Light-driven ATP synthesis in which water is the electron donor and NADP the electron acceptor.
ratites
consist of the ostrich, rhea, kiwi, and cassowary, and emu, and are all flightless
Respiration
releasing of energy in carb bonds stored by photosynthesis
2 types of lateral meristems
-vascular cambium
-cork cambium
Smooth muscle
involuntary muscle found in internal organs
dermal tissue
The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.
water potential
the physical property predicting the direction in which atwer will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure
Conservation Biology
The integrated study of ecology, evolutionary biology, physiology, molecular biology, and genetics to sustain biological diversity at all levels.
RNA processing
this process modifies the RNA molecule with deletions and addtitions
canopy
The uppermost layer of vegetation in a terrestrial biome.
gastric juice
A digestive fluid secreted by the stomach.
membranes are bifacial
internal and external faces of membrane are diff in composition; lipid composition/proteins have distinct directional orientations/carbs can only be on external surface
anaerobic respiration
process in which substances other than oxygen accept electrons at the "downhill" end of the transport chain.
Glycosidic Linkage
A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
substrate level phosphorylation
occurs in the glycolysis, Link reaction and krebs cycle. NAD and FAD gets reduced. A net production of 4 ATP are produced. Glucose gets broken down.
C4 photosynthesis
sugarcane, corn, and crab grass all conduct______
Methanol, Ethanol
What are two kinds of Alcohol Groups?
protista, fungus
oomycota belong to the kindom ____ and are ___ like, water mold, mildew, parasites, or sabprobes
Apical meristems
Located in roots and shoots of plants, posess perpetually embryonic tissues responsible for continous growth of new organs
Uric Acid
1. Insects and birds excrete this acid as their major nitrogenous waste
2. Uric acid is largely insoluble in water and can be secreted as a paste with little water loss
Map Units
A unit of measurement of the distance between genes. One map unit is equivalent to a 1% recombination frequency.
specific epithet
Second part of a binomial, refers to the specific group inside a genus
Sporocyte
A diploid cell, also known as a spore mother cell, that undergoes meiosis and generates haploid spores.
functional group
1 the portion of a molecule that is active in a chemical reaction and that determines the properties of many organic compounds
ribosomal RNA
a ribosome is made up of 2 subunits, called the large and small subunits, which are constructed of proteins and RNA molecules called __________ ___
another name for large intestine
colon absorbs most of water not absorbed while in small intestive
It has been observed that organisms on islands are different from, but closely related to, similar forms found on the nearest continent. This is taken as evidence that
a. island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors.
sarc
flesh
hermaphrodite
platy
multi-
many
embolus
transported thrombus
Down Syndrome
Trisomy 21
capsid
protein shell around virus
symbiont
Each partner in symbiosis
adaptation
characteristic that enhances survival and reproduction in specific environments
producer
plants and other photosynthetic organisms that convert light energy to chemical energy
Hemophilia
sex-linked recessive disorder defined by the absence of one or more proteins required for blood clotting
isotonic
Having the same solute concentration as another solution
nucleoid
without a bacterium, certain proteins cause the chromosome to tightly coil, densely packing it so that it fills only part of the cell, called the _____________
amphipathic molecules
Amphipathic molecules have both hydrophobic regions and hydrophilic regions <phospholipids>.
Integrin
Surface receptor protein embedded in the membrane that connect to the fibronectin and other proteins. They transfer changes from outside the cell to inside
metabolic pathways
organization of an organism's metabolic reactions
lipid functions
potential energy cushion protection shape insulation
genetic variation
due to sexual recombination of alleles
endocytosis
the cell takes in macromolecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane
Desmosome
Only in animal cells, fucntion as rivets, fasten cells together into strong sheets
triglycerides
1 long term energy storage molecules formed during condensation synthesis between 3 fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol
pterosaurs
were the first tetrapods to exhibit flapping flight
ATP Synthase
found in inner membrane of mitochondrion, makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phopsphate
IAA
the most pervasive auxin in nature that growers use to yield fewer but larger fruit
Skeletal muscle
Vouluntary, striated muscle that moves bones, works in pairs and is attatched to bones by tendons
mesophyll
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
vessel elements
A short, wide, water-conducting cell found in the xylem of most angiosperms and a few nonflowering vascular plants. Dead at maturity, vessel elements are aligned end to end to form micropipes called vessels.
Primary Producer
An autotroph, usually a photosynthetic organism. Collectively, autotrophs make up the trophic level of an ecosystem that ultimately supports all other levels.
urea
mammals convert NH3 to _____ in their livers
benthic zone
The bottom surface of an aquatic environment.
metastasis
the spreading of a disease to another part of the body
pharynx
An area in the vertebrate throat where air and food passages cross.
hypotonic environment
cell gains water by osmosis; cell swells and may burst (lyse)
Logistic/sigmoid population model
a model describing population growth that levels off as population size approaches carrying capacity
Enatiomer
One of two molecules that are mirror images of each other.
Amino Group
R-NH2
Weak base, H+ acceptor. Once it accepts H+ ions, it has a positive charge.
Polar, water soluble.
Found in amino acids and nitrogenous bases.
nondisjunction
the failure of one or more chromosome pairs or chromatids of single to properly separate during mitosis or meiosis
Fats
What is insoluble in water and can dissolve in certain solvents?
telomerase
this enzyme attaches to the end of the template strand and extends the template strands by adding a short sequence of DNA nuecluoteids over and over again. This allows elongation of the lagging strand to continue
Telophase I
As telophase begins, each half of the cell has a haploid set of chromosomes; each chromosome still consists of 2 sister chromatids.
labia majora
a pair of thick, fatty ridges that enclose and protect the labia minora and vestibule
Embryonic Lethals
A mutation with a phenotype leading to death of an embryo or larva.
Outgroup
A species or group of species that is closely related to the group of species being studied, but clearly not as closely related as any study-group members to each other
Lycophyte
An informal name for any member of the phylum Lycophyta, which includes club mosses, spike mosses, and quilworts.
suppressor cell
T cell that tells B cells and other immune cells to stop the attack.
radial symmetry
a body plan in which the body parts are arranged in a circle around a central point
molecular mass
the sum of the masses of all atoms in a molecule
nucleolus
shsg
allopatric
geographically seperate
Energy Pathway
Glucose-->H-->NADH-->ETC-->ATP
anther
produces the pollen
plasm-; -plast
form; formed into
animal
Multicellular, heterotrophic organism (belonging to the kingdom Animalia)
stress-induced proteins
special molecules, including heat-shock proteins, that are produced within cells in response to exposure to marked increases in temperature and to other forms of severe stress such toxins, rapid pH changes, and viral infections
kinetoplastids
a single large mitochondrion associated with a unique organelle, the kinetoplast, that houses extranuclear DNA
Outcome
-Urine hypotonic to interstitial tissue of kidney
-Urine hypertonic to blood
Hydrocarbon
an organic compound containing only carbon and hydrogen.
Hornwort
A small, herbaceous nonvascular plant that is a member of the phylum Anthocerophyta
Ecology
the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment. These interactions occur at a hierarchy of scales that ecologists study, from organismal to global.
F2 generation
Offspring resulting from interbreeding of the hybrid F1 generation.
peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
gametes
sexual reproductive cells (eggs and sperm) (each with N chromosome #) produced by meiosis
microfilaments
actin (tension bearing elements ) muscle contraction
Chlorophyll A
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
paleontological species concept
focuses on morphologically discrete species known only from the fossil record
Genetic recombination
The production of offspring with combinations of traits differing from those found in either parent
embryophyte
name for land plants, zygote develops into an embryo within the female
Chemical Equilibrium
Reached when forward and reverse reaction rates are equal
reduced by glycolysis
2 NAD+ -> 2 NADH
local regulators
A secreted molecule that influences cells near where it is secreted.
mutualistic
both parties gain from association w/ each other; ex. intestinal bacteria
monocot
Member of a clade consisting of flowering plants that have one embryonic seed leaf/cotyledon.
oligosaccharins
A type of elicitor (molecule that induces a broad defense response in plants) that is derived from cellulose fragments released by cell wall damage.
clade
taxon (or other group) consisting of an ancestral species and all of its descendants (forming a distinct branch on a phylogenetic tree)
mammals
vertebrates that live on land, fur or hair covers body, live birth, warm blooded.
pinocytosis
when a very small patch of plasma membrane dimples inward as it surrounds extracellular fluid and buds off into cytosol as a tiny vesicle.
half-life
the time required for 50% of the parent isotope to decay
photorespiration
occurs when stomata close on hot, dry days and plant accepts O2 instead of CO2
amphibians
vertebrates that live in water and on land, smooth skin covers body, lay eggs, cold blooded.
Phospholipids
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydorphilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
agglutination
happens when the wrong blood type is transfused. Antibodies are sent and clump to form an ____ and can result in death
obligate anaerobes
organisms that can survive only in the absence of oxygen
Founder Effect
Genetic Drift that occurs when a few individuals become isolated from a larger population and form a new population whose gene pool composition is not reflective of that original population
Mutation
a change in the DNA of a gene, ultimately creating genetic diversity.
Interleukin
A cytokine that is in the process of phagocytizing and presenting antigen
root pressure
upward push of xylem sap from roots uptake of water
Functional Groups
A group of special atoms that gives organic molecules distinctive properties
mitochondrial DNA
A small amount of DNA that is located in the mitochondria of cells.
mechanical work
such as the beating of a cilia; the contraction of muscle cells; and the movement of chromosomes during cellular reproduction
what is NOT an observation or inference on which Darwin's theory of natural selection is based?
poorly adapted individuals never produce offspring
free energy equation
G = H - (T x S) ; H: total energy, T: absolute temp in Kelvins, S: entropy.
deci-
tenth
echo-
house
cocc-
seed
ana-
up
antho-
flower
bronch-
windpipe
alb-
white
lingu-
tongue
loc-
place
somn-
sleep
xanthin-
yellow
zyg-
yolk
ov-
egg
oscu-
mouth
mort-
death
rhin-
nose
rubr-
red
-phyll
leaf
chym-
juice
demi-
half
dorm-
sleep
centr-
center
angio-
vessel
calor-
heat
dactyl-
finger
contra-
against
corp-
body
fract-
break
lign-
wood
macr-
large
odont-
tooth
-cene
new; recent
bactr-
stick; club
iso-
equal; same
meg-
great; million
tachy-
quick; swift
sub-
under; below
palm-
broad; flat
mito-
thread; filament
pleur-
rib; lung
crypt-
hidden; covered
circum-
around; about
ap-
to; toward
agri-
field, soil
haem-; hem-
blood
epi-
on; above
-gest
carry; produce
-itis
inflammation; disease
paleo-
old; ancient
bi-
two; twice; double
orb-
circle; round; ring
chem-
referring to chemistry
acr-; acro-
extreme; peak
eco-
household; home; dwelling
lith-; -lite
stone; petrifying
neur-; nerv-
nerve; tendon
-ine
of or pertaining to
in-
to; toward; into;
Also: not
-oid
like in form or shape
lachry-
tear (drops, from the eye)
-cule; -culus
added to nouns from diminutive
-cide
killing
cucmul-
heaped
atom-
vapor
carpal-
wrist
anemo-
wind
brev-
short
hipp-
horse
lip-
fat
tarso-
ankle
nas-
nose
not-
back
mont-
mountain
oct-
eight
port-
carry
-phore
bearer
dendr-
tree
din-
terrible
dacty-
finger
cephal-
head
baro-
weight
barb-
beard
coel-
hollow
gravi-
heavy
ign-
fire
hypno-
sleep
opthal-
eye
cyst-
bladder; pouch
bath-
depth; height
ampho-; amb-
both
ameb-
change, alteration
-ion
go; come
spec-;spic-
look at
mis-
wrong; incorrect
neo-
new; recent
semi-
half; partly
procto-
rectum; anus
deliquesc-
become fluid
dys-
ill; bad
archaeo-
primitive; ancient
-blast
sprout; germ
echin-
spiny; prickly
cyan-
dark blue
glob-
ball; round
eu-
well; good
intra-
within; inside
cosmo-
world; order; form
acr-, acro-
extreme, peak
mela-; melan-
black; dark
opt-; opsy
eye; vision
ampho-; ambi-
both; around
gyr-
ring; circle; spiral
a-, an-
no; lacking; none
met-; meta-
between; along; after
pter-
having wings or fins
par-
beside; near; equal; bring forth
para-
beside; near; equal; bring forth
-ate
used in forming verbs from nouns
/ 353
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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