AP Bio Quiz 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
color
chrom-;-chrome
Bi
two
catalyst
enzyme
glob-
ball; round
Apoptosis
programmed cell death
Anabolism
Endergonic; + Delta G
down
diffuses ________ the [gradient]
parasite
derives nourishment from another organism which is harmed
Limiting Factors
predation, resource availability, competition, abiotic factors, disease, parasitism
lycophyta
club mosses, spike mosses, quillworts
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
Ecosystem
Living and nonliving components within a defined area
chromosomes
structures that carry the genetic information
mycorrhiza
A mutualistic association of plant roots and fungus.
multifactorial
Referring to a phenotypic character that is influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors.
glomeromycete
Member of the fungal phylum Glomeromycota, characterized by a distinct branching form of mycorrhizae (mutualistic relationships with plant roots) called arbuscular mycorrhizae.
Translocation
The transport of organic products throughout the plant via ploem tissue
endospore
resistant cell created to withstand severe environments
Pseudogenes
genes that have become inactivate by mutations, genetic "noise" is free to accumulate in all parts of a gene.
mitochondria
the organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
epistasis
Inheritance pattern in which one gene masks the expression of another gene that is at a different locus and is independently inherited.
Intertidal Zone
this aquatic biome is periodically submerged and exposed by the tides, twice daily on most marine shores.
local regulators
a chemical messenger that influences cells in the vicinity
3 Kinds of Cellular Work
mechanical, transport, chemical
dihybrid
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to two genes of interest. All the offspring from a cross between parents doubly homozygous for different alleles are dihybrids. For example, parents of genotypes AABB and aabb produce a dihybrid of genotype AaBb.
action potentials travel deep within muscle fibers via ___________
T tubules
Homeotic gene
master control gene that determines the identity of a body structure of a developing organism, presumably by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells. (In plants, such genes are called organ identity genes)
osmosis
water movement from low [solute] to high [solute]
Ground meristems
A primary Mersitem that differentiates cells into the pith, cortex, or mesophyll
cnidarians (jellyfish)
have radial symmetry, body plans are polyp (vase) and medusa (upside down bowl). Carry out extracellular and intracellular digestion
biogeography
the study of the past and present distribution of species
Biomass
sum weight of all individuals in a population
Mate-Choice Copying
Behavior in which individuals in a population copy the mate choice of others, apparently as a result of social learning.
mesoderm
located in the middle of endoderm and ectoderm, forms the muscles and most organs located b/w the digestive tract and outer covering of the animals.
kinetoplastid
A protist, such as a trypanosome, that has a single large mitochondrion that houses an organized mass of DNA.
endomembrane system
lipids are assembled and proteins are produced/modified; in direct contact w/ vesicles (sacs). NE, ER, Golgi, lysosomes, vacuole
signal transduction
The linkage of a mechanical, chemical, or electromagnetic stimulus to a specific cellular response.
polar covalent bonds
occur when electrons are unevenly shared
Bohr shift
A lowering of the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, caused by a drop in pH. It facilitates the release of oxygen from hemoglobin in the vicinity of active tissues.
flower
In an angiosperm, a short stem with up to four sets of modified leaves, bearing structures that function in sexual reproduction
Anatomy
the study of the form of an organism's structures
5' cap
added to from of mRNA, Protects, at the beginning
Ovaries
Located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis(abdominal cavity), functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone, and eggs
covalent bond
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electrons.
primary growth
The growth in plants from its initial state, a seed, with growth primarily in the apical meristems.
pyramid of numbers
size of each block is proportional to the number of individual organisms present in each trophic level
sugar sink
organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar.
FAP (Fixed action patterns)
A sequence of behavioral acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried to completion once initiated. The FAP is triggered by an external sensory stimulus known as a sign stimulus (stimuli are usually obvious)
If a phenotypic polymorphism lacks a genetic component, then
B) natural selection cannot act upon it to make a population better adapted over the course of generations.
con
with/together
somn-
sleep
carpal-
wrist
phore
bear carry
solute
substance that desolves
in- (1)
to, toward, into
ATP
An adenine-containing nucleoside triphosphate that releases free energy when its phosphate bonds are hydrolyzed. This energy is used to drive endergonic reactions in cells.
Polymer
large compound formed from combinations of many monomers
trocophore
larval stage of some invertebrates
ER lumen
internal compartment of ER
Coenzyme
nonprotein organic molecule that aids the action of the enzyme to which it is loosely bound
nucleolus
A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes & active in the synthesis of ribosomes.
Oogonia
Begins oogenesis in the female embryo
Codon
Three-base sequence in messenger RNA that causes the insertion of a particular amino acid into a protein, or termination of translation
Parasitoidism
Insects-usually- small wasps- lay eggs on or in living hosts.
chemical reaction
rearrangement of electrons between atoms to form a new substance
conservation biology
the integrated study of ecology, evolutionary biology, physiology, molecular biology, and genetics to sustain biological diversity of all levels
proton pump
active transport in plasma membrane (h+ gradient)
Energy levels
Different states of potential energy of electrons in an atom
pH
the negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration
fragmentation
species split up, cant move if conditions bad, leads to inbreeding
aqueous solution
solution where water is the solvent
cytoplasmic streaming
A circular flow of cytoplasm, involving myosin and actin filaments, that speeds the distribution of materials within cells.
Lignin
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that functions as an important adaptation for support in terrestrial species.
chemoheterotrophs
An organism that must consume organic molecules for both energy and carbon.
Gastrovascular cavity
digestive compartment with a single opening, the mouth
What are capsids made of?
protein called capsomeres
adhesion
faithful support for a religion or cause or political party
Ovoviparous
Refers to animals in which the young hatch from eggs that are retained in the uterus of the mother
biota
all organisms in an ecosystem that are part of an individual environment
female choice
females choose those males which have the better qualities
hydroxyl
in this group a hydrogen atom is bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of the organic molecule
G protein
a protein that binds the energy-rich molecule GTP
generation time
the average span between birth of individuals and birth of their offspring.
F plasmid
The plasmid form of the F factor.
Redox Reaction
A reaction that involves the oxidation of one substance and the reduction of another.
urinary bladder
saclike organ in which urine is stored before being excreted
AIDS
The name of the late stages of HIV infection, defined by a specified reduction of T cells and the appearance of characteristic secondary infections
saturated fatty acid
have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms possible and no double bonds
alleles
different forms of a gene for the same trait
emergent properties
properties that are exist in one level of a system but not the other
van der Waals interactions
hot spots of positive and negative charges that enable all atoms and molecules to stick to one another
Humoral immune response
A branch of the acquired immunity that activates and clones B cells, which results in the production of certain antibodies.
Of the following, which is probably the most common route for membrane flow in the endomembrayne system?
rough ER--> vesicles--> Golgi--> plasma membrane
Electrons exist only at fixed levels of potential energy. However, if an atom absorbs sufficient energy, a possible result is that
an electron may move to an electron shell farther out from the nucleus
sperma
seed
radi
ray
phylogeny
evolutionary history
physiology
biological function
plasmids
small, circular, self-replicating loops of double stranded DNA
clone
an individual that reproduces asexually gives rise to a _____, a group of genetically identical individuals
Are echinodermata prostomes or deuterostomes?
Deuterostome
consanguineous matings
matings between close relatives
aquatic community of primarily microscopic autotro
plankton
Population Ecology
analyzes factors that affect population size and how and why it changes through time
Acid
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
microevolution
evolutionary change below the species level; change in the allele frequencies in a population over generations
Xylem
Transports water. Hollow, dead cells that act as pipes, must be dead to function, so organelles don't get in the way!!! Bundled up! Water must get here to be transported.
Stomach
Organ that stores food and digests.
landscape
the overall appearance of an area
Nitrogen Fixation
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants.
binomial
The two-part latinized name of a species, consisting of the genus and specific epithet.
compound
molecules with two or more different elements in standard proportions
Family
A taxonomic group containing one or more genera
Isomers
compounds with the same formula but different structure
hypotonic
In comparing two solutions, the one with a lower solute concentration.
transcription
creation of RNA using a DNA template
columnar epithelium
Type of epithelial tissue with cylindrical cells.
commensalism
A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits but the other is neither helped nor harmed.
meristems
Plant tissue that remains embryonic as long as the plant lives, allowing for indeterminate growth.
pyrimidines
One of two families of nitrogenous bases found in nucleotides. Cytosine (C), thymine (T), and uracil (U) are pyrimidines.
cell junctions
strucutre that connects cells w/in tissue to one another
tertiary structure
the overall three dimensional shape of a polypeptide
Amoebozoans
member of a clade of protists that includes amoebas and slime molds and is characterized by lobe-shaped pseudopodia
away
To elongate the other new strand of DNA, the lagging strand, DNA polymerase III must work in the direction ____ from the replication fork.
serial endosymbiosis
a hypothesis for the origin of eukaryotes consisting of a sequence of endosymbiotic events in which mitochondria, chloroplasts, and perhaps other cellular structures were derived from small prokaryotes that had been engulfed by larger cells
Genetic code
Universal code that has existed for eons; specifies protein synthesis in the cells of all living things. Each codon consists of three letters standing for the DNA nucleotides that make up one of the 20 amino acids found in proteins
plasmodial slime molds
multinucleate, but one cell membrane; brightly pigmented and heterotrophic; plasmodium: amoeboid mass that feeds (diploid), form sporangia that go through meiosis to produce spores that germinate and fuse
Integumentary system
The outer covering (skin, hail nails) that provides insulation and protection.
adipose tissue
A type of connective tissue that contains stored cellular fat
Chaetae
tiny hairs on a blackworm, similar to setae on an earthworm
primary consumer
An herbivore; an organism that eats plants or other autotrophs.
adjust rate of heat exchange
-hair, feathers, fat
-vasodilation and vasoconstriction
-counter-current heat exchanger
Water Cycle
1. Evaporation of liquid water by sun. 2. Condensation of water vapor into clouds. (Transpiration by plants also helps the movement of water). 3. Precipitation (Rain) onto land and ocean which percolates through soil, into runoff groundwater, and evaporates once again into the atmosphere.
free energy
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
Casparian strip
A water-impermeable ring of wax in the endodermal cells of plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls.
apical meristems
the tips of roots and shoots where growth occurs
One of the cells that receive and integrate signal
nerve cell
H+ + ________ + ADP + P -> ATP
ATP Synthase
3rd condition to HW Equilibrium
No mutation [ Can't control mutations]
A cells fate is the function of both
differential gene expression and morphogenesis
hepat-
liver
cide
killing
intra-
within; inside
lith-, -lite
stone, petrifying
polyribosomes
strings of ribosomes
Gonads
Reproductive glands-male, testes; female, ovaries
consumer
get energy and nutrients indirectly
Spirochetes
Helical shaped, corkscrew movement, large cells, saprophytic and parasitic
galact ; galax
milk; milky fluid
peristalsis
rhysthmic waves of contraction of smooth muscle that push food along the digestive tract
Hybrid Vigor
Increased superior qualities arising from the crossbreeding of genetically different plants or animals. Also called heterosis.
pressure-flow model
explanation for phloem transport; osmotic pressure following active transport of sugar into phloem brings a flow of sap from a source to a sink
Glycolysis
this evolved to generate ATP anaerobnically
RNA processing
alteration of RNA transcripts involving splicing and changing the 5' and 3' end
receptor
a protein that undergoes a conformational change in response to a stimulus.
desmosome
bind adjacent cells together with protein filaments that extend into the interior of the cell
stabilizing selection
Natural selection in which intermediate phenotypes survive or reproduce more successfully than do extreme phenotypes
Bile
Contains salts that act as detergents that aid in digestion and absorption of fats. They make the fats dissolve-able so that they can be digested.
facilitated diffusion
when molecules can diffuse across membranes only with the aid of specific transport proteins either channel proteins or carrier proteins.
Pheromone
In animals and fungi, a small, volatile chemical that functions in communication and that in animals acts much like a hormone in influencing physiology and behavior.
relative fitness
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals in the population
diffusion
the tendency of molecules of any substance to spread out in the available space it is driven by intrinsic kinetic energy (thermal motion or heat) of molecules
Aliementary canal
Digestive tube running between the mouth and anus
artificial selection
humans have modified other species over many generations by selecting and breeding individuals that possess desired traits
electron
A subatomic particle with a single negative electrical charge and a mass about 1/2,000 that of a neutron or proton. One or more electrons move around the nucleus of an atom.
Brown Algae
algaelike protist, giant seaweed or kelp
evaporative cooling
warmest molecules (most KE) leave liquid and go to gaseous state
becomes a pollen grain in gymnosperms or angiosper
microscore
krebs cycle
a cyclic series of reactions occurring in the matrix of mitochondrion in which the acetyl groups from the pyruvic acids produced by glycolysis and broken down to CO2 accompanied by the formation of ATP and electron carriers
Enzyme-Substrate Complex
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
brown fat
a special tissue in some mammals located in the neck and between the shoulders, that is specialized for rapid heat prodouction
What is needed for a test cross?
Purebreed Recessive
solution
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substance (liquid)
Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials (EPSPs)
An electrical change (depolarization) in the membrane of a postsynaptic cell caused by the binding of an excitatory neurotransmitter from a presynaptic cell to a postsynaptic receptor; makes it more likely for a postsynaptic cell to generate an action potential.
parasites
an organism that lives in or on another organism, deriving nourishment at the expense of its host, usually without killing it
systems biology
an approach to studying biology that aims to model the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems; allows for predictions when one variable of a component changes
denaturation
un ravel and lose shape, caused by environmental changes like heat
Chemical Reactions
the process in which chemical bonds are broken and/or formed
Cell body
The portion of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus but does not incorporate the dendrites or axon. Also called soma.
What bond is caused when 2 amino acids are positioned so the carboxl group of on is ajacent to the amino group of the other, and enzyme causes them to join by catalyzing a dehydration reaction, with removal of a water molecule?
pephide
Nonsense mutation
a point mutation that changes a codon for an amino acid into a stop codon
Pharyngeal slits
allows for water to enter the body through the mouth and exit without passing through a digestive system
host range
each type of virus can infect and parasitize only a limited range of host cells. This host specificity depends on the evolution of recognition systems of the viruses.
plasmodesma
An open channel in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.
The First Law of Thermodynamics
energy cannot be created nor destroyed, only transferred.
Dynamic Stability hypothesis
long food chains are less stable than short chains
standard metabolic rate
the rate at which heat is given off by an reptilian organism at complete rest
toxico-
poison
port-
carry
tachy-
quick; swift
bactr-
stick; club
ingestion
taking in food
meteor
lofty; high; in air
Bolus
balls of chewed food
Desmosomes
Anchoring junctions; animal cells: fasten cells together in strong sheets (example: muscle cells)
Cerebrum
Controls voluntary movement and cognitive functions.
Lichens
A mass of photosynthetic microorganisms that are merged with fungi.
Cotransport
the coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient
pilli
attachment structures on the surface of some prokaryotes
fimbrae
short appendages on some prokaryote species
anaphylactic shock
a serious, often life-threatening allergic reaction that is characterised by low blood pressure, shock (poor tissue perfusion) and difficulty breathing.
biome
One of the biosphere's major communities, characterized in particular by certain climatic conditions and particular types of plants.
Disaccharide
two monosaccharides that have joined during a dehydration reaction (ex glucose + fructose = sucrose)
excretion
the bodily process of discharging waste matter
redox reactions
chemical reactions involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
Wavelength
The distance between the crests of electromagnetic waves.
myosin
A type of protein filament that interacts with actin filaments to cause cell contraction.
natural selection
natural enviroment "selects" for the propagation of certain traits among naturally occurring variant trats in the population
homeostasis
7 process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
epiphytes
A plant that nourishes itself but grows on the surface of another plant for support, usually on the branches or trunks of tropical trees.
genetic profile
individual's unique set of genetic markers, detected most often today by PCR or, previously, by electrophoresis and nucleic acid probes
Homozygous
Having 2 identical of the same gene
Chaperonins
Proteins which assist in the folding of other proteins
Subphyla Myripoda
distinct head bearing antennae and chewing parts, terrestrial (millipedes and centipedes)
Lipids
-------------- can be used to store energy
aldehyde
any of a class of highly reactive chemical compounds; used in making reisns and dyes and organic acids
consists of a carbonyl center bonded to H
O=CH-
**carbonyl group at end of carbon skeleton
passive transport
movement in cell that DOESN'T require energy (because it is natural), moving a substance across a biological membrance
abscission
6 shedding of flowers and leaves and fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant
cartilage
In adults, _________ is found in parts of the body where flexibility is needed
cellulose
a major component of the tough walls that enclose plants cells
Dihybrid cross
cross between parents that differ in two traits.
secondary succession
if an existing community has been created by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact
blastula
An early form of an embryo undergoing developmental processes, such as cleavage. It is marked by the presence of blastocoel and cells made up of around 128 cells.
Blastula contains a fluid-filled blastocoel surrounded by layers of cells that emerge from series of cleavage. The process involved in the formation of blastula is referred to as blastulation.
In most cells, there are electro chemical gradients of many ions across the plasma membrane even though there are usually one or two electrogenic pumps present in the membrane. The Gradients of the other ions are most likely accounted for by
Cotransport proteins
recognition species concept
The most inclusive population of individual biparental organisms which share a common fertilization system [specific mate recognition system].
specific heat
the amount of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature by 1 degree C
Q=(c)(m)(delta T)
proton pumps
pumps protons out in the form of hydrogen (H)
brain hormone
7 produced by cells in insect brain, promotes development by stimulating that prothoracic glands to secrete ecdysone
cis
one side of the Golgi, the _____ side, is located near the ER.
hybrid vigor (heterosis)
The tendency of a crossbred individual to show qualities superior to those of both parents.
tissue culture propagation
6 a method of growing many identical offspring by obtaining individual plant cells from one parent plant, growing these cells into calluses, and then into whole plants
root pressure
The upward push of xylem sap in the vascular tissue of roots.
zone of maturation
6 The zone of primary growth in roots where cells complete their differentiation and become functionally mature.
What is true about bacteria?
Their cell wall is made of a slime layer that is the same as in plant cell walls, Some are motile due to flagella, They have a cell wall that contains peptidoglycan, and They are all prokaryotes.
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