AP BIO QUIZ: Plant Terms Final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
transpiration
water loss
hypertonic
low water
aquaporins
-recently discovered
-selected channels for water
-increase rate of water transport over simple osmosis
-possibly gated channels
ring vascular tissue
eudicot
parenchyma
-unspecialized
-thin primary cell wall
-large vacuole
-carry out most of plant's metabolic functions
-often store food
-much of fruit is this type of cell
ethylene
the only 'gas' hormone
LIFE CYCLE OF PLANTS
...
annuals
life cycle in one year
Nodes
Point where leaves are attached
leaf abscission
loss of autmn leaves
statoliths
specialized plastids containing dense starch grains, that let plants know up from down.
Endosperm
Nutrient-storing tissue that nourishes the developing embryo of a plant
generative
(generative/tube) cell enters the other and divides to form 2 sperm cells
2/3 of angiosperm species, poppy
eudicot
macrosporangia
produce macrospores (female spores) (meiosis)
Haploid daughter cells-1survive-eggs-flowering inegaments-tissue surrounds macro
imbibition
uptake of water by a seed
monocots (stem)
vascular bundles scattered throughout the ground tissue
-mostly parenchyma cells
sclereids
shorter, much thicker lignified walls, irregular shape (cell types)
Shoot System
1. Stem
2. internode
3. notes
4. leaf system
5. buds/ Nodes
embryophyte
Another name for land plants, recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos.
pollen grain
male gametophyte in seed plants
guard cells
specialized epidermal cells control opening and closing of stomata
Tropisms
a turning response to a stimulus
in 3s
floral parts in monocots (amount)
pterophyta
ferns
have trachid cells- prim vasc
no sec growth
sporophytes - adults
gameto lacks vasc
need water for sperm
gametophyte
in organisms undergoing alternation of generations, the multicellular haploid form that mitotically produces haploid gametes that unite and grow into the sporophyte generation
dicots
angiosperm whose seeds have two cotyledons.
Megaspores
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a female gametophyte bearing archegonia.
vascular tissue system
-Xylem & phloem
-Function: transport and support
-continuous throughout the plant
Auxin (natural IAA)
Promotes plant growth & phototropism
monocot root
has pith, ringed with alternating xylem and phloem
turgor pressure
the pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall.
Primary Growth
Growth produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
annual
flowering plant that completes a life cycle within one growing season
vascular tissue
complex tissue found in vascular plants, meaning that it is composed of more than one cell type. The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These two tissues transport fluid and nutrients internally.
Suberin
blocks the movement of waters and minerals between the endodermal cells
Axillary Buds
Form the branch or lateral shoot
sclerenchyma
cells that are dead after maturing; aid in structural support and strength
procambium
devlopes into xylem and pholem and vascular cambium
Tracheids
long thing and water passes through pits
phloem cells
sieve-tube elemets are alive at functional maturity though they lack organelles, sieve plates are the porous end walls that allow fluid to flow beteen cells along the sieve tube, each sieve-tube element has a companion cell whose nucleus an ribosn serve both cells
Protoplast
The contents of a plant cell exclusive of the cell wall.
companion cells
connected to each sieve-tube member by opeining call plamodesmata.
soil solution
soil particles adhering to root hairs and travels through apoplast to root cortex
Dermal Tissue System
The outer protective covering of plants.
vegetative reproduction
A type of asexual reproduction in plants that does not involve the formation of a seed
gymnosperms
Any of a group of seed-bearing plants whose ovules are not enclosed in an ovary, but are exposed on the surface of sporophylls or similar structures. Each ovule may contain several eggs, all of which may be fertilized and start to develop in a process known as polyembryony.
Microspores (pollen grains)
the plant's gametophytes, or sperm cells
thomas engelmann
chroloplasts worked best at ends of specturm
BRYOphytes versus TRACHEOphytes
Bryophytes - mosses and liverworms, lack vascular tissues (stems, roots, leaves)
Tracheophyta - vascular tissues that enable them to thrive on land by facilitating the transport and storage of water and nutrients
micropyle
in the ovules of seed plants, the opening in the integuments through which the pollen tube usually enters.
Calvin Cycle
The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions), involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
Pollen Tube
Contains 2 sperm that tries to reach the ovule. This is a GAMETOPHYTE generation (n)
Terminal Bud
embryonic tissue at the tip of a shoot, made up of developing leaves a compact series of nodes and internodes
Parenchyma Cells
The most abundant cell type and are present throughout the plant
apical dominance
concentration of growth at the tip of a plant shoot, where a terminal bud partially inhibits axillary bud growth
C3 Plants
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
sugar sink
A plant organ that is a net consumer or storer of sugar. Growing roots, shoot tips, stems, and fruit
greater concentration on dark sides
what Went concluded from his experiments
xylem, mesophyll, airspace, stomata
movement of water loss, from xylem to the air (4)
A type of growth characteristic of most animals and some plant organs, in which growth stops after a certain size is reached.
determinate growth in plant organs like leaves, thorns, flowers
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