AP Bio Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
shape, form
Eukaryotic Translation Location
mammals that lay eggs
aka white blood cells
can be dissolved in something
Pacemaker of respiration(slows or speeds up catabolic process)
microtubules shorten, chromosomes move to ends, both poles have same chromosomes as parent cell
transports sucrose and other organic compounds, including hormones, usually from the leaves to the roots
Both glycoside and peptide linkages result from dehydration synthesis.
are mechanistic, concerned with the environmental stimuli that trigger a behavior, as well as the genetic and physiological mechanisms underlying a behavioral act
the formation of new blood vessels
cytoplasmic determinants
pattern of development determined by:
• mRNAs, proteins, and nutrients deposited unevenly in diff parts of the egg
• eg. transcription factors present on one end of the egg and not another determines the formation of blastopore (gut opening)
A protist with membrane-bounded sacs (alveoli) located just under the plasma membrane.
a squid's internal structure that supports the squid's mantle and serves as a site for muscle attachment. It is made of a chitin-like substance.
Manner of acting orT controlling yourself.
all tissues external to the vascular cambium, consisting mainly of the secondary phloem and layers of periderm
A type of prokaryotic nutrition where the organism uses light energy to synthesize organic compounds
organisms of the domains bacteria and archaea
prezygotic barriers
barriers before mating, not letting the sperm fertilize w/ egg of two diff. species
The evaporation of water from soil plus the transperation of water from plants.
jelly like outer coating of many prokaryotes
glomerulus + renal tubule
nephron = ___ +____
pores on the underside of the leaf
Growth or movement of a sessile organism toward or away from a source of light
tight junctions
keeps plasma membrane pressed against each other, prevents leakage
vascular bundle
plant stem structure that contains xylem and phloem tissue
A small ring of DNA that carries accessory genes separate from those of a bacterial chromosome; also found in some cukaryotes, such as yeast.
central vacuole
mature plants have them, enclosed by the tonoplast, develops by the coalescence of smaller vacuoles, themselves derived from the ER and Golgi aparatus
These are found in both plant and animal cells
Competitive inhibition
similar substrate tries to fit in active site, another substrate makes other enzyme inactibe
DNA Polymerase
enzyme that adds nucleotide to DNA strand
alcohol fermentation
process by which pyruvate is converted to ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
an infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP
Molecular clock hypothesis
The theory that genetic mutations occur in a genome at a linear rate.
Multiple fruit
A fruit derived from an inflorescence, a group of flowers tightly clustered together.
Limiting nutrient
An element needed for production to increase
relatative dating
uses order of rock strata to determine age
platelet-derived growth factor
(PDGF); growth factor made by blood cells called platelets; required for the division of fibroblasts in culture, (fibroblasts= a type of connective tissue cell that has PDGF receptors on plasma membranes), the binding of PDGF to these receptors triggers a signal transduction pathway that allows the cells to pass the G1 checkpoint and divide; PDGF stimulates fibroblast division not only in the artificialconditiosn of cell culture but in an animal's body as well; when an injury occurs platelets release PDGF in the vicinity, the resulting proliferation of fibroblasts helps heal the wound;
components of a nucleotide
nitgrogenous base, sugar and a phosphate
cell mediated
the type of immunity that functions in defense against fungi, protists, bacteria, and viruses inside host cells and against tissue transplants, with highly specialized cells that circulate in the blood and lymphoid tissue.
a polar end of a molecule which is attracted to water
haploid cells
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
What is a gene
codes for a polyptide ( enzyme, structural protein etc
Which type of cell is responsible for causing apoptosis in cancer cells and virus-infected cells? (Concept 43.1)
natural killer cells
What is a saturated fat
all hydrogen it can have, full chain
Which of the following statements is not an inference of natural selection?
e. individuals must adapt to their environment.
without air
ball of capillaries
of or pertaning to
Dehydration rxn
specific condensation rxn
The chromosome-containing organelle of a eukaryotic cell.
penis bone in some mammals
Membrane that surrounds central vacuole
Selflessness; behavior that reduces an individual's fitness while increasing the fitness of another individual.
hypocotyl (mature eudicot embryo)
stem, below cotyledons
(1) The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter. See first law of thermodynamics and second law of thermodynamics. (2) A phenomenon in which external DNA is taken up by a cell and functions there.
protein kinase
the enzyme which catalyzes phosphorylation of proteins
ribosome moves three nucleotides along the the mRNA in the 5' to 3' direction, and relocated the initial tRNA to the E site and ejects it from the ribosome. The growing polypeptide chain is moved to the P site and the next codon is exposed.
individual that has more than two chromosome sets, all derived from a single species
substance that cannot be broken down to other substances by chemical reactions
Quantitative characters
Characters which vary in the population along a continuum
atomic number
number of protons in an atom
trochophore larva
Distinctive larval stage observed in some lophotrochozoan animals, including some annelids and molluscs.
an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of phosphate groups
Character Displacement
This tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of the same two species is called this.
a macromolecule that elicits an immune response by binding B cells or T cells.
evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
A hard material embedded in the cellulose matrix of vascular plant cell walls that functions as an important adaptation for support in terrestrial species.
natural selection
mechanism of evolution (caused by environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce)
part of embryo that becomes the young leaves
Amino Group
functional group that consists of a Nitrogen atom bonded to 2 Hydrogen atom; can act as a base in a solution, accepting a hydrogen ion and acquiring a charge of 1+
lysogenic cycle
cycle in which a viral genome replicates as a provirus without destroying the host cell
monoclonal antibody
Any of a preparation of antibodies that have been produced by a single clone of cultured cells and thus are all specific for the same epitope.
Gram negative
The group of bacteria with a structurally more complex cell wall made of less peptidoglycan.
Sex-linked gene
a single gene on a sex chromosome
Induced-fit Model
Model that describes how enzymes work. As substrate enters the active site, it induces the enzyme to alter its shape slightly so the substrate fits better. (lock and key model)
a solid ball of cells after the cleavage
Cholesterol, testosterone, Estrogen
What are three forms of steroids?
sympatric speciation
the formation of a new species without an environmental barrier
(Initiation) Promoter region
(TATA) RNA Polymerase binds to this box + begins to unzip
menstrual cycle
a type of reproductive cycle in which the nonpregnant endometrium is shed as a bloody discharge through the cervix into the vagina
Axon Hillock
The conical region of a neuron's axon where it joins the cell body; typically the region where nerve impulses are generated.
Ectomycorrhizal Fungi
A type of mycorrhizal fungi that forms sheaths of hyphae over the surface of a root and also grow into the extracellular spaces of the root cortex.
anaphylactic shock
a severe and rapid and sometimes fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance to which the organism has become sensitized by previous exposure
hydrogen ion
A single proton with a charge of +1. The dissociation of a water molecule (H2O) leads to the generation of a hydroxide ion (OH-) and a hydrogen ion (H+).
self incompatibility
the ability of a seed plant to reject its own pollen and sometimes the pollen of closely related individuals.
Cell Respiration takes in....
an organic fuel and uses it for energy. Food and energy is used to make ATP
the cell would be easily infected and lysed by bacteriophages
If you discovered a bacterial cell that contained no restriction enzymes, which of the following would you expect to happen?
geographically overlapping
Make proteins
-ex-Entamoeba histolytica- causes amoebic dysentery
-part of amoebozoans, unikonts
before; ahead of time
signaling molecules broadcast throughout the body
inorganic substance usually containing two or more elements
another group lacking mitochondria, include the protists called trichomonads
-Coat invaders=clumping (hold down invaders for macrophage to phagocytize it)
-Blocks receptor site so invader can't attach to host
-Complements other immune system to lyse invader
specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions
Another name for land plants, recognizing that land plants share the common derived trait of multicellular, dependent embryos
Neritic Zone
Coastal area of aquatic biome
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
A membrane-enclosed sac of hydrolytic enzymes found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
the scientific study of hereditary variation
A normal cellular gene corresponding to an oncogene; a gene with a potential to cause cancer but that requires some alteration to become an oncogene
The distance between crests of waves, such as those of the electromagnetic spectrum.
species selection
a theory maintaining that species living the longest and generating the greatest number of species to determine the direction of major evolutionary trends
Barr body
Compact object formed from the inactive X in each cell of a female
aqueous solution
solution where water is the solvent
electrons from transport + H+ O2 ->
porous holes between the plant cells; lets the cytoplasm become continous between the cells
A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one.
A process in which mineral salts accumulate in the soil, killing plants; occurs when soils in dry climates are irrigated profusely
Member of the angiosperm clade most closely related to eudicots. Extant examples are magnolias, laurels, and black pepper plants.
hypersensitive response
plant's localized defense response to a pathogen
DNA-DNA hybridization
method to determine relatedness by allowing single DNA strands from two different species to join (and then observing how well they joined)
palisade mesophyll
tightly packed cells in leaf with choloplasts for photosynth.
Organic Chemistry
the study of carbon compounds (organic compounds)
phospholipid bilayer
a double layer of phospholipids that form the basis of all cellular membranes. the phospholipid heads which are hydroliphic face the water extracellular fluid or the cytoplasm, the tails which are hydrophobic are buried in the middle of the bilayer.
absolute dating
A technique used to determine the actual age of a fossil, radioisotopes and half life
Cambrian explosion
A relatively brief time in geologic history when large, hard-bodied forms of animals withe most of the major body plans known today appeared in the fossil record. this burst of evolutionary change occurred about 535-525 million years ago.
C4 plants
preface the Calvin cycle with an alternate mode of carbon fixation that forms a four-carbon compound as its first product
swim bladder
internal gas-filled organ in many bony fishes that adjusts their buoyancy.
One of a family of closely related plant organelles that includes chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts.
the AV nodes close during the ____ phase
Landscape Ecology
How the array of ecosystems are distributed in an area
skeletal muscle
this muscle is attached to bones and causes movements of the obdy
gram stain
a stain used to distinguish 2 groups of bacteria by virtue of a structural difference in their cell walls
Replication fork
a y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
resting state
the Na/K pump maintains a net negative charge inside the cell and positive outisde the cell by having more Na ions outside than K ions inside
lateral meristem
A meristem in vascular plants, such as the cambium, in which secondary growth occurs.
Glucose, Galactose, Fructose, Ribose
What are four examples of monosaccharides?
Active site
Region of an enzyme which binds to the substrate
the regeneration of ATP
an organism at work uses ATP continuously but ATP is a renewable resource that can be regenerated by the addition of phosphate to ADP; the free energy required to phosphorylate ADP comes from exergonic breakdown reactions (catabolism) in the cell; this shuttling of inorganic phosphate energy is called the ATP cycle and it couples the cell's energy-yeilding (exergonic) processes to the energy consuming (endergonic) ones; THe ATP cycle moves at an astonishing pace; if ATP coudl not be regenerated by the phosphorylation of ADP, humons would use up nearly their body weight in ATP each day; becasue both directions of a reversible process cannot go downhill the regeneration of ATP is necessarily endergonic; because ATP formation is not spontaneous free energy must be spent in order to make it occur; the ATP cycle is a turnstile through which energy passes during its transfer from catabolic to anabolic pathways ; the chemical potential energy temporarily stored in ATP drives most cellular work
the atomic # of sulfur is 16. sulfur combines with hydrogen by covalent bonding to form a compound, hydrogen sulfide. based on the number of valence electrons in a sulfur atom,, predict the molecular formula of the compound
H 2 S
How Does the Electron Flow in Light Reactions Result in the Formation of ATP, NADPH, and O2
how does the electron flow in light reactions result in the formation of atp nadph and o2 (copy later)
noncoding genes
ill; bad
Maximum ATP Generated
cell is very limp
physiological state that conserves energy by slowing down the heart and respiratory systems
human chorionic gonadotropin, A hormone secreted by the chorion that maintains the corpus luteum of the ovary during the first three months of pregnancy.
smooth ER
few ribosomes; lipid production
Vascular plant tissue consisting mainly of tubular dead cells that conduct most of the water and minerals upward from roots to the rest of the plant.
phylogenetic trees
systematists use branching diagrams called ___________ _______ to depict their hypotheses about evolutionary relationships
Disruptive Selection
Occurs when conditions favor individuals at both extremes of a phenotypic range over individuals with intermediate phenotypes
an aberration in chromosome structure due to fusion with a fragment from a homologous chromosome, such that a portion of a chromosome is duplicated
Stabilizing Selection
Natural selection in which intermediate phenotypes survive or reproduce more successfully than do extreme phenotypes.
in the human female reproductive system, a canal that leads from the uterus to the outside of the body
striated muscle
Skeletal, voluntary, and cardiac muscle, distinguished from smooth muscle by transverse striations of the fibers
lytic cycle
phage enters host cell, replicates itself, and causes the cell to lyse, releasing a new generation of phages, which infect new cells
Area covered by water that supports vegetation
postzygotic barrier
barrier that prevents hybrids zygotes from developing into fertile adults
Carbon Fixation
The initial incorporation of carbon into organic compounds that occurs in the beginning of the Calvin cycle.
Abiotic Components
The nonliving influences in ecological study
A DNA sequence that recognizes certain transcription factors that can stimulate transcription of nearby genes.
Glycolysis is the one step that doesn't require.....
immature capsule that has a potective cap of gametophyte tissue
7 properties of life
heredity, (cellular) organization, responsiveness, homeostasis, metabolism, growth, reproduction
Bagworm moth caterpillars feed on evergreens and carry a silken case or bag around with them in which they eventually pupate. Adult female bagworm moths are larval in appearance; they lack the wings and other structures of the adult male and instead retai
b. paedomorphosis.
reciprocal altruism
increase others fitness so they increase yours.
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitoses
light-harvesting complex
A complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules that captures light energy and transfers it to reaction-center pgiments in a photosystem.
the global ecosystem, or the sum of all the planet's ecosystems and landscapes.
primary consumer
An herbivore; an organism that eats plants or other autotrophs.
circadian rhythms
A physiological cycle of about 24 hours that is present in all eukaryotic organisms and that persists even in the absence of external cues.
S phase
the part of interphase during which DNA is replicated
competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
Population Ecology
The study of populations in relation to their environment, including environmental influences on population density and distribution, age structure, and variations in population size.
a polymer that is made up of amino acids and that is needed to build and repair body structures and to regulate processes in the body.
hydroxide ion
the water molecule that lost a proton is a, charge of -1
Proton Motive Force
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
electron microscope (EM)
A microscope that focuses an electron beam through a specimen, resulting in resolving power a thousandfold greater than that of a light microscope. A transmission electron microscope (TEM) is used to study the internal structure of thin sections of cells. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to study the fine details of cell surfaces.
They get shorter
What happens to telomeres in cells that have undergone cell division
double fertilization
the union of two sperm cells forming both zygote and endosperm is unique to angiosperms
contains one less oxygen atom
The difference between the sugars in DNA and RNA is that the sugar in DNA
stabilize proteins
outside; without
Single celled fungi.
extraembryonic membrane functioning for respiratory exchange in birds and reptiles; contributes to placenta formation in mammals
spermatogonium; MII-4 haploid sperm; grow flagella
reverse of a dehydration reaction
The geographic distribution of species
Chromosomes arranged by pairs according to their size, shape, and general appearance in mitotic metaphase.
macromolecule made mainly from carbon and hydrogen atoms; has little or no affinity for water
influences uterine contraction & milk injection(P.P)
Numerical representation of an atom's bonding capacity.
the contribution of an individual makes makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative of the contributions of other individuals
phloem sap
The sugar-rich solution carried through sieve tubes.
Flucose, Galactose, and Fructose are all ------- of one another.
Kingdom Fungi
kingdom, has hyphae, either parasites or saprobes, mostly haploid
hydrostatic skeleton
-fluid under pressure in closed compartment
-flatworms, cnidarians, annelids
A vascular plant that bears naked seeds--seeds not enclosed in specialized chambers
G protein
A GTP-binding protein that relays signals from a plasma membrane signal receptor, known as a ______-linked receptor, to other signal transduction proteins inside the cell. When such a receptor is activated, it in turn activates the ______, causing it to bind a molecule of GTP in place of GDP. Hydrolysis of the bound GTP to GDP inactivates the ______.
stores sugar + lots of intracellular space
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be monosomic for that chromosome.
consists of all the organisms living in a community as well as all the abiotic factors with which they interact, can be big or small
a deficiency in a chromosome resulting from the loss of a fragment through breakage; a mutational loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a gene
followed only a single character, such as flower color
A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.
adding amino acids based on codon sequence
continental drift
The slow movement of the continental plates across the Earth's surface.
totally amount of KE due to molecular motion
double helix
shape that the two polynucleotides of DNA circle around each other
condensation reaction
a reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other though the loss of a small molecule, usually water, in which case it is also called a dehydration reaction
non-living objects we use _____ to decay it
potassium 40
neutral variation
genetic variation that does not appear to provide a selective advantage or disadvantage
distinct age in the history of Earth and its life
Class Crustaceae
2 pairs of antennas, Cephalothorax, 1 pair of legs per body segment
Any of the muscular elastic tubes that form a branching system and that carry blood away from the heart to the cells, tissues, and organs of the body
coupled reaction
a pair of reactions, one exergonic and one endergonic, that are linked together such that the energy produced by the exergonic reaction provides the neergy needed to drive the endergonic reaction
atomic weight
The total atomic mass, which is the mass in grams of one mole of the atom.
Transport Vesicles
a tiny membranous sac in a cell's cytoplasm carrying molecules produced by the cell.
Lagging strand
goes away from replication fork 3-> 5 diretion.
cell junctions
What serves to anchor cells to one another or to provide a passageway for cellular exchange?
Allometric Growth
The variation in the relative rates of growth of various parts of the body, which helps shape the organism
Van der Waals Interactions
The accumulation of electrons in one part of a molecule, resulting in "hot spots" of positive and negative charge that enable atoms to stick to one another. These interactions are very weak and only occur when atoms and molecules are very close together.
polygenic inheritance
An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.
How is the operon shut down?
when the activated repressor protein binds to the operator site
ball; round
: Glucose polymer.
Pancreatic Juices
---------------------------------- contain water, sodium bicarbonate, Enzymes, Trypsin (protein), Pancreatic Lipase (fats), and Pancreatic Amylase (starch)
eukaryotic cells, photosynthesize foods, multicellular w/ b usually specialized tissue ex. Conifers, algae, mosses
olfactory receptors
detect smell in categores
Protein containing a chromophere responsible for a plants response to the photoperiod
Needed for aerobic cellular respiration. Critical for organic molecules.
estimating density
"sampling techniques": test small areas and find averages, mark/recapture (tagging) method
Composed of a reaction center surrounded by a number of light harvesting complexes. Converts light energy to chemical energy to be used for the synthesis of sugar. Found in the thylakoid membrane.
nuclear envelope develops around each pole
Plant steroid: induce cell elongation and division, delay leaf abscission, promote xylem differentiation.
Single-celled, no nucleus, Live in harsh condisions, oldest organisms on earth
the schwann cells of the CNS
labia minora
inner, smaller, fleshy, protective "lips" of the female's external urogenital openings
Metaphase I
homologous pairs line up, genetic diversity!
endocrine system
the internal system of chemical communication involving hormones
sister chromatids
Replicated forms of a chromosome joined together by the centromere and eventually separated during mitosis or meiosis II
sugars serve as what
fuel and carbon sources
An organism or virus that causes disease.
a single ATP powered pump that transports one solute can indirectly drive the active transport of several other solutes in this mechanism as the solute that has been actively transported diffuses back passively through a transport protein its movement can be coupled with the active transport of another substance against its concentration gradient
The time of natural cessation of menstruation; also refers to the biological changes a woman experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
One of the five supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes; a morphologically diverse protist clade tat is defined by DNA similarities.
the holding of two different materials together
reductional division
mieosis is known as redicutional division because it halves the number of chromosome sets per cell
In response to a water concentration gradient, the
where coastal areas in which fresh and saltwater mix
a plant cell, like an animal cell, will lose water to its surroundings and shrink if placed in a hypertonic environment, as the plant cell shrivels its plasma membrane pulls away from the wall, this phenomenon called plasmolysis causes the plant to wilt and can be lethal,
nuclear envelope
The double membrane in a eukaryotic cell that encloses the nucleus, separating it from the cytoplasm.
The substance that is dissolved in a solution.
cyclic photophosphorylation
The generation of ATP by cyclic electron flow.
The synthesis of RNA using a DNA template.
PEP carboxylase
enzyme that adds CO2 to phospheonol pyruvate (PEP) to convert to oxaloacetate in the mesophyll cell during the C4 pathway
5 Pre zygotic barriers
Habitat isolation, Temporal isolation, behavioral isolation, mechanical isolation, and gametic isolation
Associative Learning
The acquired ability to associate one stimulus with another; also called classical conditioning.
adrenal medulla
part of the adrenal gland that is directly controlled by the sympathetic nervous system neurons. The cells respond to the stimulation by releasing epinephrine (80%) and norepinephrine (20%)
What is plastids
where plants store starch as granules within cell
hydrophobic interaction
a type of weak chemical bond formed when molecules that do not mix with water coalesce to exclude water
Immunodeficiency diseases
A disease that weakens or inhibits the immune system.
using one or more somatic sells from a multicellular organism to make another genetically identical individual
survivorship curve
a plot of the proportion or number in a cohort still alive at each age, classified into Type I (high mortality rate at older age, ex: humans), II (same mortality rate throughout life, ex: squirrels), and III (high mortality rate at birth and when young, ex: clams)
bunde branches and purkinje fibers
special muscle fibers conduct sicgnals to apex of heart
Big- Bang Reproduction
A life history in which adults have but a single reproductive opportunity to produce large numbers of offspring, such as the life history of the Pacific salmon; also known as semelparity.
why are DDT and Para-thion have an effect on the human nervous system?
they have permantly bonded inhibitors
one; single
neur-; nerv-
nerve; tendon
mere = ___
Cell division of nucleus
Guard hair
Hair for protection
Metabolic process what simple substances are synthesized into complex materials
(G) large or great;macromolecules: molecules that are very large
Keyword in metabolism, meaning balance
Target cell detects signaling molecule from outside cell, molecule binds to receptor protein
A single membrane bound metabolic compartment. They have enzymes which transfer a H from a substrate to oxygen. This produces hydrogen peroxide. Some break down fatty acids for transport to the mitochondria. In the liver they detoxify alcohol. While the hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 is itself toxic, the organelle can convert it into water. They do not bud from the endomembrane system but grow due to proteins made in the cytosol, lipids made in the ER and in the peroxisome itself.
(G) middle;mesoderm: the middle layer of the 3 germ layers
small nuclear RNAs.  Involved in processing eukaryotic pre-mRNA (splicing)
_____ directly generates ATP using substrate level phosphorylation.
forms at the end of glycolysis
Shape of a complex aggregated protein defined by the characteristic three demensional arrangements of its constituent subunits, each a polypeptide
the scientific extension of this human tendency to feel connected to and curious about all forms of life
ubstances that minimize changes in the concentration of H+ and OH- in a solution. Ex: Buffers act to keep human blood at about pH 7.4
A tentative answer to a well-framed question.
Inductive reasoning
The reasoning that uses specific examples to draw a general conclusion or discover a general principle
Roots extending from stems and leaves above ground
-COR or -COH ketones, and aldehydes such as sugars
(G) cell;cytology: the study of the cell
start codon
AUG.  AUG also encodes for methionine
1. Macromolecules (chemical uniqueness)2. Development3. Growth4. Adaptation5. Irritability6. Genetic program7. Elimination of wastes8. Obtain food9. Biological reproduction10. Evolution11. Metabolism
Characteristics of Living Systems
Agonistic Behavior
In animals, an often ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource, such as food or mates.
This organelle contains packaging of secretory proteins
endoplasmic reticulum
a substance or preparation capable of inducing mutation.
sexual reproduction
Reproduction involving the union of gametes.
Unity and Diversity
grouped into 3 domains: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Use unity as inversal genetic code. The more closely related two species are, the more characteristics they share.
Surface Tension
Related to cohesion, measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid. Water has a higher tension than most liquids
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate GTP
The three carbon sugar generated by the Clavin cycle. To create this it takes three cycles of the Calvin Cycle fixing 3 CO2's. It takes 9 ATP and 6 NADPH to create it.
Nuclear Lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments which lines the interior side of the nuclear envelope fo structural support
Alpha Helix
A spiral shape reconstituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure
Golgi bodies
Golgi bodies modify, process and sort proteins.
What is Hypertonic
A comparable term meaning that solution A is of greater concentration than solution B
overview of translation
- takes place on the ribosome.
-Initiation: initiation complex is formed and initiator tRNA bound to methionine.
-Elongation: polypeptide grows as tRNA intermediaries bring amino acids to the ribosome complex.  tRNA molecule carrying an amino acid = charged tRNA.  Ribosome moves along mRNA strand and bind to charged tRNAs so their anticodon can hydrogen bond to codons in mRNA.  The enzyme peptidyl transferase catalyzes formation of peptide bond between each new amino acid and the growing chain.
-Termination: stop codon is encountered, release factors recognize this and cause dissociation of the peptide chain, releasing the last tRNA from the ribosome complex.
Have a true nucleus, with a nuclear membrane surrounding all nuclear material
Active Transport
The movement of molecules across a cell membrane with the use of ATP
Humans use about____ of their daily calories for involuntary life sustaining activities such as digestion, circulation, breathing.
D) 75%
the process by which a messenger RNA molecule specifies the linear sequence of amino acids on a ribosome for protein synthesis.
Has 3 parts: A nitrogenous base, a pentose (5 Carbon sugar) and a phosphate group. Pyrimadine or purine.
Endoplasmic Reticulumtypes
rough ER has ribosomes attached to its surgace and produce membranes and secretory proteinsalso rough ER tranport vesiclesSmooth ER lacks ribosomesmakes lipids and hormonesbreaks down toxinssynthesizes carbohydrates.
mass number
number of protons and neutrons in an element
Activation energy
the amount of energy needed to push the reactants over an energy barrier, or hill, so that the "downhill" part of the reaction can begin
First law of thermodynamics
Energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can be transformed
Class Bivalvia (Phylum Molluska)
clams, mussels, oysters; two shells that enclose body
There are ___ haploid cells that contain both ____ and ___ chromosomes
4... autosomal... sex
pH of a substance
The negative Logarithm (base 10) of the H+ concentration
3 Phases of Interphase
G1 - Cellular GrowthS - Replication (Synthesis) of DNAG2 - Prep for Mitosis
John Hunter mastered which four medical subjects
1. Blood Coagulation2. Lymphatic System3. Chick Embryogy4. Venereal Disease
Clusters of light-gathering antenna pigments in a photosystem ____
pass energy to the reaction center
Hydrogen Bonding to Properties of Water
Hydrogen Bonding to Properties of Water (change definition later)
New alleles that appear by mutation
a. Are inherently disadvantageous to their bearesb. Are seldom advantageous or disadvantageous in themselvesc. Either have or lack survival value only in the context of their environment**d. Are seldom advantageous or disadvantageous in themselves and either have or lack survival value only in the context of their environmente. Are inherently disadvantageous to their bearers and are seldom advantageous or disadvantageous in themselves
Energy can be released from a pigment with an excited electron
All choices are correct
Animalia - Eumetazoa - bilaterally symmetrical - pseudocoelomates
TWO: Rotifera (marine animals that are semi-complex) and Nematoda (roundworms)
What are the 5 types of pollution
Water, Air, Biochemical/Filth in Food, Noise & Light
A radical mastectomy involves the removal of
a. Any breast tumorb. A benign tumorc. A malignant breast tumor**d. A breast, all lymph nodes under the arm, and skeletal muscles in the chest wall under the breaste. Both breasts
Bad, because the nucleus is the information center.
Is a permable nucleus good or bad?
Some friends are trying to make wine in their basement. They've added yeast to a sweet grape juice mixture and have allowed the yeast to grow. After several days they findthat sugar levels in the grape juice have dropped, but there is no alcohol mixture.
the mixture needs less oxygen. Yeast only produce alcohol in the absence of oxygen
having fins
nucleic acid
Liquid to Gas
A cell's genetic information
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism.
most prevalent disaccharide, table sugar, two monomers are glucose and fructose
rapidly growing, asexually reproducing fungi
The element "H" stands for......
infolding of inner membrane of mitochondrion that houses electron transport chain and enzyme catalyzing synthesis of ATP
6 diploid, or spore-producing, phase of an organism
nitrogen fixation
The assimilation of atmospheric nitrogen by certain prokaryotes into nitrogenous compounds that can be directly used by plants.
diffuse mass
stained chromatin appears through light microscopes and electron microscopes as a _____.
-COOH (carboxylic, or organic, acids), has acidic properties
phenotpye is influenced by chromatin structure in addition to DNA sequence; condensed chromatin= (DNA and histone) no expression of a gene in that region
Member of the phylum Platyhelminthes (e.g., tapeworms, planarians).
pressure receptors in aorta and carotidarteries
a group of experimental subjects that is not exposed of a chemical or treatment being investigated so that it can be compared with experimental groups that are exposed to the chemical or treatment
density-dependent inhibition
The phenomenon observed in normal animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another.
move small and nonpolar molecules from high to low concentration.
The myeline sheath that surronds a single long axon leaves many gaps, called _______, where the axon membrane is exposed
__ are double sugars, consisting of two monosccharides joined by condensation.
the result of the interaction of several genes
Biogenic amines
Types of neurotransmitters that affect sleep, mood, attention, and learning (ex. norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin).
composed of a phosphate group, a glycerol, and two fatty acid tails
leading strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
ribbon worm
Marine invertebrate of the phylum Nemertea having a distinctive proboscis apparatus
punctuated equilibrium
in evolutionary theory, long periods of apparent stasis, (no change) interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change
atoms of an element that possess different numbers of neutrons
endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
an extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions
transport protein
A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
integumentary exchange
7 Gas exchange across thin, moistened skin or some other external body surface
Chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell. Spindle fibers are on opposite ends. Nuclear envelope is gone.
facilitated diffusion
molecules and ions impeded by lipid bilayer of the membrane diffuse passively with the help of transport proteins that span the membrane
cytology biochemistry
_____ and _____ complement each other in correlating cellular structure and function.
Transport proteins
A transmembrane protein that helps a certain substance or class of closely related substances to cross the membrane.
An organic compound with one or more amino groups.
Alternation of generation
In plants, the alternation between haploid and diploid forms.
The rhythmic motion of the stomach and intestines to help move food through the digestive tract
potential energy
the energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement
phylogenetic species concept
A definition of species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor, forming one branch on the tree of life.
__ occurs as a result of the two electronegative oxygen atoms of the carboxyl group pulling shared electrons away from hydrogen
Resting potential
A membrane potential when there is no transmittal of signals.
Systolic Pressure
the blood pressure (as measured by a sphygmomanometer) during the contraction of the left ventricle of the heart
target cell
7 cell that has a receptor for a particular hormone
Ecological Species Concept
Views a species in terms of its ecological niche, the sum of how members of the species interact with the living and nonliving parts of their environment; can accomodate both asexual and sexual species; emphasizes the role of disruptive natural selection as organisms adapt to different environmental conditions
Purple and White plant flowers
F1 was all purple
When f1 self pollinated or cross pollinated and their seeds were planted there were 3 purple for 1 white
How the atom will combine with other atoms
What do the number of electrons in the outer most energy level of an atom determine?
/ 383

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})


{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online