AP Bio Vocab: Plants Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Mesophyll
Cortex
rhizoid
fake root
meristems
perpetually embryonic tissues
unspecialized, divide to generate new cells near the growing part
tonoplast
the vacuole's membrane
inflorescense
composed of many flowers
shoot system
stems and leaves
tissue types
dermal, vascular, ground
internodes
the stem segments between nodes
gametophyte
haploid, produces gametes by mitosis
stamen
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.
phytochrome
protein modified with a light-absorbing chromophore involved in circadian rhythm
parallel
pattern of veins in monocots
primary endosperm
double cell in middle
mycorrhizae
Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi
stamens
The pollen-producing male reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and filament.
Photorespiration
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
Rhizome
Horizontal stems (e.g. ferns) that grow in soil; increase SURFACE AREA
cortex
between stele and epidermis, mostly parenchyma, contains endodermis
internode
part of stem between two nodes
leaf abscission
aging and dropping of leaves
Bryophyte
nonvascular plant; examples are mosses and their relatives
spongy mesophyll
parenchyma cells loosely arranged below the pallisade mesophyll
Went
'infused' agar blocks with hormones from coleoptile tips; found that plants with offset blocks grew sideways
Monocots
One cotyledon, Parallel leaf veins, flower parts in 3's, vascular bundles are scattered
Vascular plants
Plants with a vascular system.
primary wall
made up of cellulose and polysaccharides
palisade parenchyma
mesophyll region #1
-upper half od leaf, cells are column-shaped
Vascular Cambium
Tissue that produces new vascular cells; between the xylem and phloem in dicot stems.
polar nuclei
2 in female gametophyte share cytoplasm in middle
antheridium/antheridia
In plants, the male gametangium, a moist chamber in which gametes develop.
phototoperiodism
response of plants to changes in relative length of daylight and night
woody plant
tissues' origin is from secondary growth
Endodermal Cell
tightly-packed cells that regulate the selective passage of water and minerals into the vascular tissue
gibberellins
work with auxins to promote cell growth
turgid
when guard cells are ____________ the stomata is open
A flowering plant that completes its entire life cycle in a single year or growing season; wheat, rice, wildflowers
annual
tracheids
xylem of most vascular plants, dead and empty at maturity
embryo sac
The female gametophyte of angiosperms, formed from the growth and division of the megaspore into a multicellular structure with eight haploid nuclei.
Heartwood
Located in the center portion of a tree trunk, it consists of older layers of secondary xylem
Pith
Plant tissue at center of stem for nutrient storage
cork cambium
-makes a tough thick covering which replaces the epidermis
-cylinder of meristematic tissue that first forms in outer cortex
-cork produced to exterior
tap root
primary large root (ex. oak tree, dicot)
anther
The terminal pollen sac of a stamen, inside which pollen grains with male gametes form in the flower of an angiosperm.
thigmostropism
when plants come in contact with an object, they wrap around it
Collenchyma Cells
Grouped in cylinders and help support growing parts of the plant
aggregate fruit
a fruit that contains many carpels, clustered as one fruit
The tissues produced by apical meristems, which lengthen stems and roots.
primary plant body
Epiphytes
Plants that grow on other things (ex. club mosses)
tube cell
the largest cell in the pollen grain, responsible for growth of pollen tube
zone of cell division
-near tip of root
-includes apical meristem and quiescent center
plant hormones
chemical released by one part of an organism that has an effect on a different part of the organism
Petioles
The stalk of a leaf, which joins the leaf to a node of the stem.
growing buds, fruits, roots, stems
examples of sugar sinks (4)
guard cells
the two cells that clank the stomatal spore and regulate the opening and closing of the pore
Function of Leaves
1) Spines are for protection 2) Water storage 3) Trapping prey such as venus flytrap (tiny hairs for trapping) and pitcher plant (slippery slope enzymes)
Root Tip
a region of the growing root which is the site of ongoing primary growth
sugar source
a plant organ in which sugar is being produced by either photosynthesis or the breakdown of starch. mature leaves are the primary sugar sources of plants.
The gametophyte stage of bryophytes is...
...larger and longer-lasting than the sporophyte stage.
How does a Plant keep track of time?
By converting Pr --> Pfr during light exposure and reverting Pfr --> Pr during the night
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