AP Bio words Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-flect; -flex
cytokinesis has begun
heterotrophic, uniellular protists that moves by flagella, cillia, or pseudopodia, or is immobile
cell division
reproduction of cells
reciprocal evolutionary adaptations of two interacting species
Second messengers
small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions
vascular cambium
secondary xylem and phloem
associates between roots and fungi that can extract water and minerals from the soil (better than roots that lack a fungus partner)
Endomembrane System
Membranes related through direct continuity or by transfer of vesicles.Regulates protein traffic and does metabolic functions.
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
a polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
 Spermatogonium (2n)  primary spermatocyte (2n) [mitosis]
 primary spermatocyte (2n)  secondary spermocytes (n) [meiosis]
 secondary spermocytes (n) divides into form early spermatids (n)
 spermatids differentiate to form sperm cells
 sperm head contains DNA and acrosome (enzymes of digest egg jelly)
 midpeice of sperm contains numerous mitochondria
Flagellated spore found in chytrid fungi and some protists.
large central cavity of the sponge
Proximate questions
Questions about physical mechanisms and how they work
a way of defining evolutionary change on a small scale. a change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation.
Gene Flow
Movement of fertile individuals or gametes, tends to make populations more similar to each other
the simplest collection of matter that can live
Any foreign molecule that elicits an acquired immune response.
abscisic acid
plant hormone that inhibits cell growth, prevents premature germination, and stimulates closing of the stomata
an organic molecule serving as a cofactor. most vitamins function as coenzymes in metabolic reactions.
rapid mitosis of zygote results in small cells called _____
____________ is a paste-like substance that is not soluble in water and therefore is not ver toxic. It is excreted by insects, birds, and reptiles with a minimum water loss
uric acid
The dormant, inactive state of a hibernating or estivating animal
exerts pressure
when H2O increases, cell wall ________________ because of more water entering the cell
The flattened portion of a typical leaf
research on tumor viruses led to the discovery of cancer-causing genes called ___________ in certain retroviruses
a cell engulfs a particle by wrapping pseudopodia around it and packaging it within a membrane-enclosed sac large enough to be classified as a vacuole
Golgi Apparatus
This receives many of the transport vesicles from the Rought ER. It modifies products of the rough ER and manufactures certain macromolecules.
Cognitive Ethology
The scientific study of cognition; the study of the connection between data processing by nervous systems and animal behavior.
Semiconservative Model
correct model of DNA replication ( unzips ) Messelson & Stahl
geographic variation
differences betweens the gene pools of separate pop or pop subgroups
middle lamella
A thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young plant cells.
Pertaining to a type of gland that releases its secretion through a duct.
ability of cells to draw moisture from surrounding areas into themselves
waxy layer made up of polymers that seal water
species selection
analogous to the production of a trend within a population by natural selection
Cloning Vector
An agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering. Ex. a plasmid that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into a cell
one gene- one polypeptide
theroy that genes code for proteins
Bulbourethal Glands
A pair of small semen secreting glands below the prostate, before ejaculaation it neutralizes any acidic urine remaining in the Urethra, and is also one of the major reasons for the failure of the withdrawal method of birth control.
hydrocarbon chain
any chain of carbon and hydrogen only; nonpolar and insoluble
concentration gradient
an increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area -->substances tend to move form where there are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
facultative anaerobes
use oxygen when it is present but can grow in its absence
sugar source
A plant organ in which sugar is being produced by either photosynthesis or the breakdown of starch. Mature leaves are the primary sugar sources of plants.
What are lipids to water
hydrophobic, H bonds in water exclude fats (insoluble)
In certain motile prokaryotes, dozens of different proteins comprise the motor that powers the prokaryotic flagellum. The motor has a complicated structure, and its various proteins interact to carry out its function. Based on Darwin's explanation for the
e. He would have proposed that less complicated, but still functional, versions (though maybe with a different function) had existed in ancestral prokaryotes.
-gene; gene-
division of cytoplasm
respond to environment
reflexes, instincts
progressive restriction of developmental potential, causing the possible fate of each cell to become more limited as the embryo develops. observable cell differentiation marked by the expression of genes for tissue specific proteins
an ecological relationship between organisms of different species that are in direct contact.
made up of large, thin-walled parenchyma cells
Food Web
Natural communities rarely contain well-defined groups of primary, secondary, and tertiary consumers so it shows many interconnecting food chains
membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that and animal cell uses to digest macromolecules
genomic library
the completeset of plasmid-containing cell clones, each carrying copies of a particular segment from the initial genome.
ability to differentiate into almost any cell type
In certain symbiotic fungi, a specialized hypha that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms.
marine colonial polyp characterized by a calcareous skeleton
sex pili
specialized pili that connect prokaryotes during conjugation
is a localized group of individuals that are capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring
green world hypothesis
the conjecture that terrestrial herbivores consume relatively little plant biomass because they are held in check by a variety of factors, including predators, parasites and disease.
endoplasmic reticulum
a labyrinth of membranes pervading much of the cytoplasm
the upper-most layer in the vertical layering of a terrestrial biome.
tight junction
membrane of neighboring cells are tightly pressed against each other, bound together by specific proteins. Forming continuous seals around the cells, tight junctions prevent leakage of extracellular fluid across a layer of epithelial cells
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways, which manage the material and energy resources of the organism.
first stage of urine formation, from glomerulus into Bowman's capsule, passive no ATP used
Platelets release factors that are involved in the conversion of the major clotting agent ___________ into its active form, ______________.
fibrinogen, fibrin
nonshivering thermogenesis
The hormonal triggering of heat productiont hroughout the body by increasing metabolism
membranous tubules and sacs of the ER
sieve-tube members
these phloem cells transport sucrose and other minerals
cells in the xylem that contain a lignified cell wall. Responsible for transport and support
receptor-mediated endocytosis
embedded in the membrane are proteins with specific receptor sites exposed to the extracellular fluid
alpha helix
type of secondary structure, coil held together by hydrogen bonding between every fourth amino acid
A type of relationship in which mating occurs with no strong pair-bonds or lasting relationships.
lysogenic cycle
a viral reproductive cycle in which the viral DNA is added to the host cell's DNA and is copied along with the host cell's DNA
firm cell because of a high water pressure of a plant cell - homeostasis
A sac made of membrane inside of cells.
PEP carboxylase
An enzyme that adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form oxaloacetate in C4 plants. It acts prior to photosynthesis.
adenylyl cylase
enzyme embedded in the plasma membrane that converts ATP to cAMP in response to an extracellular signal.
which a prokaryote takes up genes from environment
produced in the Krebs cycle, it is a reduced form of FAD, it is an electron carrier capable of creating 2 ATP from releasing its electrons to the electron transport chain
Recombinant DNA
DNA made in vitro with segments from different sources
the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA
Internal Fertilization
The process by which the male places the sperm inside the females's body, where the eggs are fertilized
unsaturated fatty acid
a fatty acid which contains fewer hydrogens because of the presence of C=C bonds in the chain
photosystem I
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P700 reaction-center chlorophyll.
G0 phase
a resting phase in the cell cycle that can occur near the end of G1 phase
What are the three parts of nucleotide
nitrogeneous base, pentode, phosphate group
If organisms A, B, and C belong to the same class but to different orders and if organisms D, E, and F belong to the same order but to different families, which of the following pairs of organisms would be expected to show the greatest degree of structura
e. D and F
under; below
aster-; astr-
lacking essential nutrients
pasm-; -plast
form; formed into
6 the pollen-producing reproductive organ of a flower, consisting of an anther and a filament.
A reduction in membrane potential.
An angiosperm structure for reproduction.
the attraction between different kinds of molecules
the most common type of lipid
resistant cell created to withstand severe environments
is the measure of solute concentration, expressed as molarity (milliosmoles per liter)(mosm/L)
realized niche
resources a population actually uses
the shortest distance between two objects that allows them to be seen as two separate objects
Phylum Porifera
belongs to Subkingdom Parazoa, sponges, live in freshwater/ocean, no symmetry, diplobastic, suspension feeders, sessile, no nerve or muscle cells
partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
6CO2 + 6H20 → C6H12O6 + 6O2
pituitary gland
7 the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, it regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands
A moss, liverwort, or hornwort; a nonvascular plant that inhabits the land but lacks many of the terrestrial adaptations of vascular plants.
DNA ligase
linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 3' end of one DNA fragment to the 5' end of another DNA fragment
What orannele and organisms are responsible for photosynthesis?
Chloroplasts, plants
Smallest unit of matter which retains the properties of an element
selective channels
Selective passageways across a cell membrane formed by specialized membrane transport proteins.
suspension feeders
animals whose flagella create a current and then suck water in, collar cells filter through the water and absorb nutrients by phagocytosis
most of the electron carriers between ubiquinone and O.
Protein molecules that lower the level of activation and allow reactions to occur at cellular temperatures
gap junction
A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that allows the passage of material or current between cells
transport proteins
types of proteins embedded in the membrane that allow charged molecules to enter the cell
6 Referring to a plant species that has both staminate and carpellate flowers on the same individual.
_________ muscle is found in just one place in the body
fatty acid
long carbon skeleton that has a carboxyl group at one end
Gene locus
specific location of a particular gene on homologous chromosomes
an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite
Cell wall
maintains shape of cytoplasm; plants = cellulose, bacteria = peptidoglycand
In the fractionation of homogenized cells using centrifugation, the primary factor that determines wheter a specific cellular component ends in the supernatant or the pellet is
Size and weight
binary fission
The type of cell division by which prokaryotes reproduce. Each dividing daughter cell receives a copy of the single parental chromosome.
reaction of animal cell in a isotonic solution
no change
cardiac conduction system
7 A system of specialized muscle tissues which conduct electrical impulses that stimulate the heart to beat.
the _____ is spun in a centrifuge to separate heavier pieces into the pellet while lighter particles remain in the supernatant.
yolk sac
One of the set of extra embryonic membranes, growing out from the gut over the yolk surface, in birds formed from the splanchnopleure, an outer layer of splanchnic mesoderm and an inner layer of endoderm.
Hardy-Weinberg equation
q^2 + 2pq +p^2 , p=dominant trait, q=recessive trait
6 response of a plant to the force of gravity
How did mendel achieve cross-pollination
removed immature stamens before they produced pollen and then dusted pollen from another plant onto the altered flowers.
sieve tube members
6 Cells in the phloem tissue that lack a nucleus, but are long and cylindrical for conducting sugar water.
Studying a brick does not predict the design of a skyscraper. Intense examination of muscle tissues does not allow you to predict the design of a kangaroo or clam. The structure of chlorophyll does not dictate the unique structure of a tree. These cases d
Emergent properties that cannot be predicted by examining their parts.
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