AP Bio: Nervous Systems "Quiz" Flashcards

sensory info
Terms Definitions
incus
anvil
retina
forms an image
-55 volts
typical threshold potential
sweet
taste sensation, calorie detector
salty
taste sensation, sodium/mineral balance
posterior horns
relay sensory info
cerebrum
brain structures the telencephalon gives rise to
synaptic terminals
Neurons store neurotransmitter molecules in vesicles located within _____.
cones
specialized for bright light; specialized to see color and form a sharp, clear image
choroid
nourishes the retina, absorbs reflected light
cerebellum
coordinates muscular activity and equilibrium
lower
the intracellular concentration of Na+ is __________ than the extracellular concentration of Na+
mesencephalon
what the midbrain gives rise to
glia
supporting cells that help maintain the structure of the nervous system and the normal functioning of neurons; include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells
ventral
underside of a bilaterally symmetrical organism
brain stem
coordinates and regulates visceral activities
cornea
gets oxygen fro matmosphere, not bloodstream; passageway for light
synapse
The locus where one neuron communicates with another neuron in a neural pathway; a narrow gap between a synaptic terminal of an axon and a signal-receiving portion (dendrite or cell body) of another neuron or effector cell. Neurotransmitter molecules released by synaptic terminals diffuse across the synapse, relaying messages to the dendrite or effector.
Schwann cells
part of the myelin sheath; PNS
nerve cords
ropelike structures of neurons found in animals with bilateral symmetry; associated with the simplest nervous systems in flatworms
spatial summation
accumulation of EPSPs and IPSPs occurring simultaneously
medulla oblongata
contains centers that control several visceral functions, such as breathing, heart and blood vessel activity, swallowing, vomiting, and digestion.
axon hillock
where an action potential is initiated
semicircular canals
stimulated by sudden movements for changes in the rate or direction of movement
gray matter
neural cell bodies and unmyelinated dendrites w/in the CNS
glaucoma
increased pressure in the eye caused by an accumulation of aqueous humor
white matter
myelinated axons and/or dendrites w/in the CNS
sensory somatic
the faculty of bodily perception; sensory systems associated with the body; includes skin senses and proprioception and the internal organs
basal nuclei
plan and learn movement; without these people become inactive
enteric division
contains networks of neurons in the digestive tract, pancreas, and gallbladder
emotion, memory
the limbic system is involved in: (2)
interneurons
nerve cells found in the CNS that integrate sensory signals; they link sensory and motor neurons
thalamus
sorts and directs sensory input to the cerebral cortex; involved in memories and arousal
canal of schlemm
drainage pathway for aqueous humor, drains from anterior cavity into bloodstream
limbic system
pain or pleasure region; important in addictive behaviors
neuron
A nerve cell; the fundamental unit of the nervous system, having structure and properties that allow it to conduct signals by taking advantage of the electrical charge across its cell membrane.
action potential
A rapid change in the membrane potential of an excitable cell, caused by stimulus-triggered, selective opening and closing of voltage-sensitive gates in sodium and potassium ion channels.
sensory neuron
A neuron that transmits an impulse to the central nervous system after the neuron is stimulated by the environment is called a(n) _____.
sodium-potassium pump
At rest, what plays a role in establishing the charge differential across a neuron's plasma membrane?
inferior colliculi
part of the midbrain that deals with hearing (receives, integrates sensory info)
temporal lobe
part of the cortex; deals with hearing and smell
superior colliculi
part of the midbrain that deals with sight (receives, integrates sensory info)
indirect synaptic transmission
occurs when an NT attaches to receptors unattached to an ion channel
forebrain
In mammals, the part of the brain that increases in size and complexity most significantly is derived from the embryonic
direct synaptic transmission
occurs with the binding of a neurotransmitter to receptors on a gate
autonomous, somatic nervous system
two divisions of the peripheral nervous system
ciliary muscle
flexes and relaxes the lends for far and near vision
somatic motor neurons
conduct impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles only
autonomic nervous system
A subdivision of the motor nervous system of vertebrates that regulates the internal environment; consists of the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric divisions.
opening of Ca channels
a direct result of depolarizing the presynaptic membrane of an axon terminal
outer layer of neurons covering the cerebral cortex
What is the neocortex?
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