AP Bio: Plants 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
apomixis
asexual reproduction
netlike veins
eudicot
secondary xylem
it's wood
pholoem
carry away photosynthetic
Bryophtes
Lack vascular tissue, mosses/liverwarts
Perennial
living year after year
adventitious
branching roots in monocots
carpal
organ that houses the ovule
Sapwood
Younger secondary xylem; still transports sap (water and minerals)
collenchyma
-unevenly thickened primary cell wall
-give support to a growing plant
-ex. strings in celery
loading
Actively transporting solute molecules into sieve-tube elements
Rhizome
Rootlike structure of a fern
Boysen-Jensen
separated plants from their coleoptiles with gelatin and mica; found that the signal was chemical (passed through gelatin, not mica)
vessel elements
joined end to end
Angiosperms
Seed vascular plant: flower plants.
stele
includes xylem phloem and pericycle tissue
vascular cambium
produces secondary xylem and phloem
brassinosteroids
STOPS root growth; retard leaf abscission, promote xylem differentiation
sporophyte
diploid, produces spores by meiosis which grow into...
septa/septum
Cross-walls that divide fungal hyphae into cells. generally have pores large enough to allow ribosomes, mitochondria, and even nuclei to flow from cell to cell; singular septum.
archegonium
female reproductive structure in some plants, including mosses and liverworts
bryophytes
a division of nonflowering plants characterized by rhizoids rather than true roots and having little or no organized vascular tissue and showing alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms and spore-bearing forms; comprises true mosses (Bryopsida) and liverworts (Hepaticopsida) and hornworts (Anthoceropsida)
Anther
the structure that produces pollen grains
eudicots
stems of these plants contain parenchyma cells in a pith region
lower epidermis
most stomata with gaurd cells
pistil
is the femal reproductive structure and consists of three parts; an egg-bearing ovary, a style, and a stigma
Bundle-sheath Cells
A tightly packed photosynthetic cell located around the veins of a leaf
Aplical dominance
the terminal bud inhibits development of axillary buds
Phototropism
How plants respond to light: always towards it b/c unequal distribution of auxin
bean germination
hypocotyl breaks through as hook protecting shoot (dicot)
bark
includes all tissues external to the vascular cambium
microspores
A spore from a heterosporous plant that develops into a male gametophyte with antheridia.
nutrient
a substance in food that provides energy or helps form body tissues and that is necessary for life and growth.
pores
end walls of sieve-tube members that form sieve plates
Symplast
plasmodesmota in the root which allow water and minerals to enter into the root
terminal cell
formed from the original zygote; becomes the embryo
heartwood
old layers of secondary xylem; close to the center of a root or stem
The development of body shape and organization.
morphogenesis
annual
complete lifecyle in a year or less
photoperiodism
controlled by the amount of day or night
cork cambium
produces a though, thick covering for roots and stems that replace the epidermis
oxygen deprivation
over watering reduces air spaces in soil, some plants form air tubes (cortex cells that age and die)
cortex
ground tissue that is external to the vascular tissue
sieve plates
areas where cytoplasm of one cell makes contact with that of the next cell
Day-Neutral Plants
plants which don't flower in response to daylight changes at all
Apical meristem
growth from tip, only monocots have, called primary growth and primary tissue
fruit
A mature ovary of a flower that protects dormant seeds and aids in their dispersal.
Photosystem II
One of two light-capturing units in a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
Guard Cell
One of the two epidermal cells that surround the stoma of the leaf and regulate gas exchange by opening and closing the stoma (due to Changes in Potassium K+ level)
leaf system
leaf - primary site of PSN; attached to stem by petiole
simple fruit
Fruits that develop from a flower with a single carpel and ovary
endosperm
serves as a food for the plant embryo (3n)
cycle of conifers
spring 1 - poll
spring 2 - fert
short day plant
when the day is shorter then the critical maximum
companion cell
A type of plant cell that is connected to a sieve-tube member by many plasmodesmata and whose nucleus and ribosomes may serve one or more adjacent sieve-tube members
megasporganium, meiosis, megaspore, 3 mitosis, embryo sac
chronology of the female gametophyte development
Sclerenchyma Cells
Exist in parts of the cell that are no longer growing.
root cap
a cone of cells at the tip of a plant root that protects the apical meristem
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