AP Bio: Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
tetr-
four
calor-
heat
andro
masculine; man
alimentary canal
anus
Carnivores
eat other heterotrophs
A site
carries amino acids
glycogen
an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal quivalent of starch
alcohols
organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups, specific names usually end in -ol
Stroma
semifluid inside of a chloroplast
Liver
The --------------- extracts sugar from the blood (insulin released by the pancreas is involved)
cation
ionic species with a positive charge
Lipids and proteins
Staple ingredients of membranes.
ferns
Any of numerous flowerless, seedless vascular plants having roots, stems, and fronds and reproducing by spores.
chromosomes
a major difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells is the location of _____.
Hydrophobic
Substance which seems to repel water
penetrance
sometimes a mutation that should produce a mutatn phenotype does not, 100% penetrance means mutation always causes mutant phenotype
sessile
Tending to stay in one place
Catalyst
a substance that accelerates a chemical reaction without itself being chemically changed
crossing over
The reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis.
less
When cholesterol is at a high temperature, it is ____ fluid to counter the high temperature.
periderm
6 The protective coat that replaces the epidermis in woody plants during secondary growth, formed of the cork and cork cambium.
nephrons
The functioning unit of the kidneys are the __________
monosaccharides
The simplest carbohydrates are the __, or single sugars, also known as simple sugars.
Homozygous
possessing two identical alleles for a particular trait.
Axon
Extension on a nerve cell that transmits stimuli.
Molecule
smallest unit of a compound that retains the properties of that compound
nuclease
usually, a segment of the strand containing the damage is cut out by a DNA-cutting enzyme (a ________) and the resulting gap is filled with nucleotides properly paired with the nucleotides in the undamaged strand
deuterostome
Group of coelomate animals in which the second embryonic opening is associated with the mouth; the first embryonic opening, the blastopore, is associated with the anus
selective mating
In domesticated animals, the process of a breeder developing a cultivated breed over time & selecting qualities within individuals of the breed that will be best to pass on to the next generation. Synonymous with "artificial selection".
radiometric dating
a method for determining the absolute ages of rocks and fossils, based on the half-life of radioactive isotopes.
phosphate group
a functional gourp where a phosphorus atom is bonded to 4 O atoms; 1 O is bonded to the carbon skeleton; 2 O carry negative charges
properties: energy transfer, makes molecule negative
inositol triphosphate
A second messenger that functions as an intermediate between certain nonsteroid hormones and a third messenger, a rise in cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration.
growth factor
protein secreted by body cells that stimulates other cells to divide
neuron
7 a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
DNA Polymerase I
Removes the primers (RNA nucleotides) and fills in the missing DNA nucleotides
receptor-mediated endocytosis
allows the cell to acquire bulk quantities of specific substrates by receptors to which substrates attach which are then engulfed by the cell
plasma membrane
all cells are surrounded by a _____.
Polar molecule
Opposite ends of the molecule have opposite charges
hydroxyl group
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
Mycelium
In a fungi, the mass that surrounds the food and offers increased surface volume.
stable
an atom whose highest energy level has eight electrons, are very -----------------
Potential energy
the energy stored by matter as a result of its location or spatial arrangement
punctuated equilibria
In the fossil record, long periods of apparent stasis, in which a species undergoes little or no morphological change, interrupted by relatively brief periods of sudden change.
energy
the major function of fats is to store __.
primary succession
begins in an area eventually barren of life due to lack of formed soil or on rubble
Vasodialation
a widening in the diameter of a blood vessel
Oxidative Phosphorylation
A mode of ATP synthesis powered by the redox reactions of the ETC, an inorganic phosphate is added to ADP.
signal transduction pathway
7 A series of steps linking a mechanical or chemical stimulus to a specific cellular response.
Biological Species Concept
Defines a species as a population or group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring with members of other populations
Mendels quantitative analysis of f2 plants
reveaveled the principles of heredity: law of segregation and law of independent assortment
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