Life-Span Development Flashcards

Terms Definitions
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation
while Bronfenbrenner's econological systems theory describes cognitive development as involving interactions at four levels: microsystem, ______, exocystem, and macrosystem.
mesosystem
Secondary Sex Characteristics
Nonreproductive sexual characteristics, such as female breasts and hips, male voice quality, and body hair.
Cognition
mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, communicating, and remembering
Research has identified several consistent gender differences in language use: In conversations, males talk for longer periods and are more likely to ______,
interrupt
preschool period
age 3 to 6
Adolescence
the transition period from childhood to adulthood, extending from puberty to independence
egocentrism
in Piaget's theory, the preoperational child's difficulty taking another's point of view
conservation
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Authoritative
parents are both demanding and responsive; exert control with rules, but explain reasons behind them and encourage discussion and allow exceptions.
piaget (underestimated/overestimated)children's ablitiy
underestimated.. yet he overestimated adults abilities to always be able to reason
Periods of DevelopmentDefineInfancy
birth to 18-24 months
Anxiety about death is generally greatest at _____.
middle-age
Malnutrition is associated with a number of abnormalities, with severe ____ deficiency being especially detrimental for the developing brain.
protein
In middle adulthood, cardiovascular health becomes a concern because cardiac output ______________ and _______________ increases.
decreases, cholesterol
gender stereotypes
general beliefs about characteristics that men and women are presumed to have
Fetus
the developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth.
Alzheimer's Disease
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and, finally, physical functioning
schema
a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information
intimacy
in erikson's theory, the ability to form close, loving relationships. it is a primary developmental task in late adolescence and early adulthood
Attachment
An emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation. [Myers Psychology 8e p. 155]
drugs can
morphine, cocaine, and heroin think crack baby
Erik Erikson
has been called "father of psychosocial development" and "the architect of identity. each individual passes through eight developmental stages calls them "psychosocial stages" Each stage is characterized by a different psychological "crisis", which must be resolved by the individual before the individual can move on to the next stage
Life-Span PerspectiveDefine Multidirectional
Some components (bio,cog, socioem) may increase or develop while others stagnate. These will flip-flop
During the fourth stage, the _____ stage, libidinal energy is diffuse but, in the final genital stage, it is again focused in teh genitals.
latency
Finally, the _____ stage is characterized by the ability to think abstractly, relativistically, and hypothetically.
formal operational
metanalysis
combining the results of many studies into one overall conclusion
Infants have a ____________ metabolic rate and a _____________ oxygen-consumption rate than an adult.
higher, higher
identity crisis
a period of intense self-examination and decision making; part of the process of identity formation
Basic Trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
Preconventional Morality
before age 9, most children's morality focuses on self interest--> they obey rules to either avoid punishment or to gain concrete rewards
developmental psycholgy
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span
Integrity vs. Despair
late adulthood; reflecting back on one's life; acceptance of one's lifetime accomplishments and sense of fulfullment; (Did I live my life to the fullest?)
grasp
in response to touch on hand, infant will grasp
Development is Contextual:NON-Normative life events
(Events can be positive or negative.)Unusual occurrences that have a major impact one's life
In humans, the least developed part of the brain at birth is thea. limbic systemb. extrapyramidal motor systemc. medullad. cortex
a. cortex
lifespan development
the field of study that examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan.
The average infant gailns how much weight per day?
30 grams
stepping reflex
the reflex that causes newborn babies to make little stepping motions if they are held upright with their feet just touching a surface
Rooting reflex
A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple.
concrete operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 6 or 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events
limitation of observation?
does not indicate what causes the behavior observed
Periods of DevelopmentDefineMiddle adulthood
35-45 yrs old to 60's;expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility, reaching and maintaining career; assisting next generation
This growth is due less to the addition of new ____ than to an increase in their size and interconnections and the formation of ____ cells.
neurons; glial
An infant needs _______ pressure and a __________ volume of air for ventilation than an adult.
less, lower
growth spurt
a rapid increase in height and weight that occurs during adolescence
Trust vs. Mistrust
Brith- 1 year. infants have to learn to trust and distrust. feeding- infants form good relationship with who takes care of them, and learn to trust/mistrust others (Is my world predictable and supportive?)
A person exhibiting difficulties related to semantics would have trouble:a. pronouncing wordsb. combining words into meaningful sentencesc. taking turns during conversations
b. combining words into meaningful sentences
bioecological approach to development (Urie Bronfenbrenner)
four levels of environment that simultaneously influence individuals
Preoperational Stage
from 2 years to 6 or 7; child learns to use language but doesn't understand mental operations of concrete logic; can't group things into categories; can apply ability to symbolize at 3 or 4; have flaws in centration (the tendency to focus on just 1 feature of a problem)
Periods of DevelopmentDefineEarly Childhood
from 18-24 mos to 5-6 yrs; called "preschool years"1st grade marks end
psychosocial development (Erik Erikson 1902-1994)
changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another as well as in our knowledge and understanding of us as a member of society
Generally speaking, the best conclusion that can be drawn about the effects of daycare is that daycare:a. is associated with deficits in cognitive developmentb. is associated with attachment difficultiesc. is not clearly associated with
c. is not clearly assoc with any negative effects
For Erikson, a two-year old child is facing which psychosocial crisis:a. autonomy vs. shame and doubtb. trust vs. mistrustc. industry vs. interiorityd. initiative vs. guilt
a. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Which of the following statements about adult ADHD is true?
The symptoms of ADHD in adulthood are similar to those in children.
Which of the following statements is most true of a baby's crying?a. A newborn baby's crying represents all major human emotionsb. Soon after birth, it is possible to distinguish between a hunger cry, a pain cry, and an angry cryc. Prio
b. soon after birth, it is poss to distinguish between a hunger cry, a pain cry, and an angry cry
Gender
learned behaviors
Adaptation
1. assimilation2. accommodation
Embryo
Mass of cells
Mental Operations
1. conservation2. irreversibility
Sensorimotor Stage
(1-2)-Overt Actions-Object Permanence
Marcia's Identity Status
identity diffusionidentity foreclosureidentity moratoriumidentity achievement
Prenatal Development
Conception to birth
 
Embryo develops into a fetus
 
Placenta- an organ that takes nourishment ot the fetus and wastes away from the fetus
 
Terratogens- toxic things a mom eats or drinks that effect development
 
Critical period- time period where substance effect the baby the most (3 months)
Genes
Unites of hereditary information composed of short segments of DNA. Genes instruct cells to reproduce and to assemble proteins.
formal operational stage
in Piaget's theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning about age 12) during which people begin to think logically about abstract concepts
Sensorimotor
1. innate reflexive and motoric responses2. object permanence
Postconventional
broad principle that our deeper values
centration
focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others
fetal period
final stage of prenatal development(8th week to birth), which is characterized by rapid weight gain in the fetus and the fine detailing of bodily organs and systems
C-section
Cesarian section; cutting of the uterine wall
Plasticity
ability of differentiated cells to undergo transdifferentiation; describes the degree to which an organism's phenotype is determined by its genotype (phenotypic plasticity)
Ethnicity
A characteristic based on cultural heritage, nationality, race, religion, and language.
Embryonic Period
-Development 2-8 weeks post conception-Begins when blastocyst attaches to uterus
myelination
- increase speed of transmission- connectivity btwn neurons increase (new dendrites grow, connections btwn dendrites increase, synaptic connections increase)
Prenatal Development:
Heavy alcohol consumption by a pregnant woman can cause fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in her child. ►delays in physical development; heart, eye, and other organ defects; facial and body malformations; and central nervous system dysfunction. At birth, babies with FAS have brain wave abnormalities and sleep disturbances; later, they have attention problems, motor impairments, mental retardation, and learning disabilities, and they tend to be excessively irritable and hyperactive. Although some problems decline with increasing age, most symptoms of FAS - including retardation, learning disabilities, and hyperactivity - persist into adulthood.
Symbolic Function
foundation of language, create a mental image
Gender Differences
boys are more aggressive/women have better verbal skills while men do better with visual, spatial skills
interactionist perspective
in between extreme naturist and extreme nuturist
Dizygotic Twins
Fraternal twins; develop from separate eggs and sperm. making them genetically no more similar than ordinary siblings.
Independent Variable
the manipulated variable ex. the amount of alcohol consumed
Biological Processes
Changes in an individual's physical nature.
Ethological Theory
-Behavior is strongly influenced by biology and evolution-Konrad Lorenz (imprinting in geese)-Bowlby stressed the importance of human attachment during the first year of life.
Nicotine & Pregnancy
-Can negatively influence prenatal development, birth, and postnatal development.-Preterm birth and low birth weight-Fetal and neonatal death, respiratory problems, SIDS, ADHD.
Post Partum Period
Involution, fatigue, hormone changes, return of menstruation, weight loss
Sex is determined by...
23rd chromosome.-Male: XY-Female: XX
Phallic Stage
(3 to 6 years)-Child's pleasure focuses on the genitals
Social Policy
The laws, regulations, and government programs designed to promote the welfare of its citizens.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's heavy drinking. Severe cases include noticeable facial misproportions. 
Retrieval Cue
 Some Special Ed kids have fetal alcohol syndrome.
critical period
an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
Retrieval cue
critical period=when the child is born and exposed to the environment that produces proper development
Perspective Taking
realize how others can see things differently
development of empathy
requires the ability to discern another's inner psychological state, or "perspective taking"learning how to identify a wide range of emotional states in others and to anticipate what kinds of action will improve another person's emotional state
Teratogen
Any agent that can potentially cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes
Cross sequential
(Also know as Cohort or sequential) used to compare how a cohort/group differs from one age to another; how they changed over time; it can also be used to compare one cohort to other cohorts
naturalistic observation
method of observing subjects in their natural habitat
Klinefelter Syndrome
-Males born with XXY instead of XY-Usually small testicles an reduced fertility
Initiative vs. Guilt
#3 (Early childhood, preschool 3-5 years)-Acquire responsible behavior.-Feelings of guilt may arise if child is irresponsible or feels to anxious.
Cesarian Delivery
-Baby is removed from the mother's uterus through an incision made at the abdomen-Higher infection rate, longer recovery time.
Apgar Scale
-Assessed 1 and 5 minutes after birth-Evaluates heart rate, body color, muscle tone, respiratory effort, reflex irritability.-(7-10): good, 5 and below: may have development delays.
Erikson's Psychosocial Theory
Eight stages of development unfold as we go through life. Occurs throughout the lifespan and reflects a desire to affiliate with others
Gender-Role Identity
 
The most influential are psychodynamic theory, social learning theory, cognitive development theory, and gender schema theory
Social Learning Theory: predicts that children first acquire gender-typed behaviors through rewards and punishments (Mischel, 1966) and modeling and imitation (Bandura, 1969). Eventually, they develop a gender-role identity.
Cognitive Development/Piagetian Theory
published first article on mollusks at 15, interested in epistemology & philosophy, PhD in philosophy at 21, developed an intelligence test > there were the same WRONG answers in children1. qualitative differences2. invariant functions3. stages of cognition development
characteristics of masculine, feminine, and androgynous roles
androgynous people are more flexible, competent, and mentally healthydesirability depends on context
zone of proximal development
vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with the assistance of adults or more skilled children.
proximodistal
near to far - head and upper body developing before the lower body
Toxemia
is a generic term for thee presence of toxins in the blood. Symptoms include swelling of the feet and protein in the urine.
Alleles
one member of a pair or series of different forms of gens; an individual's genotype for that gene is the set of alleles it happens to possess
Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development
Preconventional level- seeing right and wrong
 
Conventional level- interpreting behavior in the form of social and societal approval
 
Postconventional level- considering justice, liberty and equality
Nature
We are a product of our genes and evolution. (Biology)
Cephalocaudal
- Growth from the top down- Applies to motor developmentEx: can control eyes before arms
Chromosomal Disorders 
 
Disorders related to the chromosomes are the result of the inheritance of a single dominant gene or two recessive genes or a chromosomal abnormality.
All human cells (except the sperm and ovum) contain 46 chromosomes that are arranged in 23 pairs.
22 pairs of chromosomes ►autosomes,
The 23rd pair contains the sex chromosomes.
In females→"XX";
In males→"XY."
Disorder in autosome→"autosomal disorder";
Disorder in a sex chromosome→"sex-linked."
effects of being popular, neglecte, and rejected
popular children: give out reinforcements, listen carefully, are happy, control their negative emotions, act like themselves, show enthusiasm and concern for others, and are self confident without being conceitedneglected children: engage in low rates of peer interaction and are often described as shyrejected children: often have more serious social adjustment problems than neglected children and often find that rejection increases agressive behavior over time- more impulsive, more emotionally reactive, and fewer social skills
nature vs. nurturecontinuity vs. stagesstability vs. change
3 most important debates in development psychology
Causes for Low Birth Weight
Poor health & nutrition, smoking, adolescent births, drugs.
1. Disorders Due to Dominant or Recessive Genes:
Dominant gene disorders►due to inheritance of a single dominant gene from one parent.
Huntington’s Disease►autosomal dominant gene disorder(psychiatric, cognitive, and motor symptoms). Recessive gene disorders►due to the inheritance of a pair of recessive genes (one from each parent) ►cystic fibrosis, sickle cell disease, Tay-Sachs disease, and phenylketonuria (PKU). 
PKU►lack an enzyme needed to metabolize phenylalanine, an amino acid found in milk, eggs, bread, and other foods.
Diet►low in phenylalanine after birth prevents the severe mental retardation that can accompany this disorder.
Concrete Operational
(7-11 yr) = Kids are now able to do conservation tasks because 1. reversibility, decantation, perspective taking2. deduction3. moral judgement-intentionality, degree of wrongness
factors associated with poor nutrition in early childhood
iron-deficiency anemia is common (low ses)wic helps to address this problem
Incompatible Blood Type (Rh factor)
Can cause mother's blood to create antibodies to attack the fetus.
Thomas & chess' 9 aspects and 3 styles
-activity level; regularity; readiness for newness; adaptability to change; sensitivity; mood; intensity; distractibility; persistence
theory of the mind and autism
autism leads to large deficits in theory of mindespecially difficult to understand others' beliefs and emotionsindividual variation in autistic childrendeficits may be due to other aspects of cognition
Family Factors:
 
Children of gay and lesbian parents are similar to children of heterosexual parents in terms of social relations, psychological adjustment, gender identity development, and sexual orientation
Other factors - such as social support and childrearing skills - seem to be more important for children's adjustment than a parent's sexual preference.
differences in feeling about body image
girls are less happy with their bodies and become more dissatisfied over timeboys typically become more satisfied as they move through puberty
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