Lifespan Flashcards

Terms Definitions
false
Stepfathers:
Syngeneic transplant
From a twin
The XY chromosomes are?
Male
Classifications of Fxs:
Type, communication, non-communication, anatomic location, stable, unstable, open, closed (communication with external environment)
According to Bem, categorizing information by gender is called:
sex-typed.
Boys first ejaculation containing sperm?
Spermarche
Post-op amputation
Phantom limb sensation, prevent flexion contractures, limb care, prosthesis care & adjustements
Leukemia
most common childhood cancermore boys than girlsPeak onset 2-6y/omalignant disease of lymphatic system and bone marrow
A low Hgb.....
anemia (o2 in cells)
Primary immunodeficiency Disorders
Rare diseases, X-linked, hereditary
Cycle of muscle injury
Injury to muscle->inflammation->irritation to nerve endings-> MUSCLE SPASMS->additional pain->repetitive cycle
TERMS FROM VYGOTSKY
~SOCIOCULTURAL THEORY: COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT IS 1ST INTERPERSONAL AND THEN INTRAPERSONAL~ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT (also SCAFFOLDING)
Color blindness is:
more common in men.
accommodation.
_______ are cognitive storehouses of information that people use to categorize incoming information.
According to Abraham Maslow, the ultimate goal of self-development is referred to as:
self-actualization.
76.5 years.
Research suggests that maternal employment represents positive effects on children when:
Self-concept
What describes the beliefs and feelings about oneself and defines who an individual is?
____________ _________will influence a phenotype even when paired w/ a recessive gene.
Dominant genes
Who was call “Father of behaviorism”?
Watson
The ­___________ is the overall society, with its overarching institutions, practices, and patterns of belief. Ex supreme court decisions
macrosystem
What is adolescence characterized by?
growth spurt
One of Marcia’s identity statuses’ which states “confusion and uncertainty”
Diffusion
Which of Sternberg’s part of intelligence pertained to Planning, processing, verbal, logical skills?
Analytic
the emotional response to one's loss
grief
What allows children to gain increasing neurological control over their motor functions and sensory abilities and facilitates their intellectual functioning?
Myelination
Pain management method that uses instruction, breathing exercises, and social support to induce controlled physical responses to uterine contractions, reducing fear and pain
Lamaze
S/S ALL
minor infection that does not completely go away, pale, irritable, febrile, anorexic, weight loss, petechiae, bruising, bone and joint pain.
Active Immunity
Exposure to antigen results in production on antibodies
Cl. Man of fractures in kids
Swelling, disuse,pain
Open Reduction
Correction of bone alignment through surgical incision; uses wires, screws; risk for infection increases, early ROM is indicated
Closed Reduction
nonsurgical manual realignment of bone fragments; performed under local anesthesia
Passive Immunity
Host is given the antibodies----ie. baby given antibodies through breastmilk
S/S liver failure
Jaundiced...gain weight and general weakness
Osteoarthritis
most common form of joint disease, slowly progressive noninflammatory disease
ACCOMADATION
WE LEARN THAT NEW INFORMATION IS DIFFERENT AND IT IS ADDED INTO OUR CURRENT INFO OR KNOWLEDGE AS SOMETHING "NEW"ACCOMADATION
Francis was presented with directions to get to the grocery store. She could remember the first direction, to turn left at the stoplight, but she was unable to remember the rest of the directions. What might Francis be experiencing?
Primacy effect
heart disease.
The average life expectancy, according to the U.S. Bureau of the Census in 2000 is:
4-8 months
Jenny is the 5-year-old adopted daughter of a lesbian couple. Research suggests that in terms of adjustment, she is most likely to demonstrate:
The process of one person learning from the example of another.
Modeling
Which stage of Kubler-Ross' death and dying states "directed toward self or others"?
Anger
What surrounds and protects all vessels of the umbilical cord?
Wharton’s jelly
Which stage of Prenatal Development begins w/ conception?
Germinal Stage
T or F; During middle childhood, children develop metacognition.
TRUE
When does the fetus reach viability?
24 weeks
Which of Freud’s stages states: genitals are the focus of pleasure. Sexual stimulation and satisfaction is sought.
Genital Stage
Exclusion criteria
A person's reasons for omitting certain people from consideration as close friends or romantic partners. Exclusion criteria vary from one individual to another, but they are strong filters.
Treating Anaphylactic Shock
RECOGNIZE IT, maintain airway, prevent spread (have a turnikit), administer drugs (epi), position supine and elevate legs (increases circulatory return)
TX of venous thrombosis-fx
wear compression stockings, use sequential compression devices, move the fingers/toes of affected extremity, perform ROM. Prophylactic anticoagulant drugs may be ordered.
Post-op Hip replacement
Monitor VS, respiratory, I&O, observe bleeding, encourage deep breathing, administer pain meds
Associated problems with CP
Impaired gas x-change, orthopedic complications, visual, hearing loss, constipation, dental problems-caries, malocclusion or gingivitis
TX GOALS for Fxs
realignment of bone fragments, immobilization to retain alignment, restore normal/near normal function of injured part. Nursing goals-healing w/no complications, satisfactory pain relief, max rehab
When a child believe that objects can go through many states without changing its referred to as?A.)ConservationB.)Egocentric Thinkingc.)CentrationD.)Meta-Memory
A.)Conservation
According to Bem, what is a \"cognitive framework that organizes information relevant to gender\" (DeHeer et al., 1992)?
Gender schema
Shawn notices Teresa yawning and he cannot help but yawn also. What phenomenon does this describe?
Emotional contagion
egalitarian.
What might be a cause of sibling rivalry?
Klinefelter syndrome effects primarily:
1 of every 1,000 males.
The world's leading cause of death of children under 5 is:
Malnutrition
Parents can assist their infants in adjusting to strangers and strange situations by monitoring their own emotional reactions. This is referred to as:
social referencing.
Young people tend to focus on themselves to the exclusion of others, believing, for example, that their thoughts, feelings or experiences are unique
Adolescent Egocentrism
T or F; The Wechsler tests have different tests for specific age groups through adulthood.
TRUE
Unable to conceive a child after a year or more of regular intercourse without contraception, age may be a major reason
infertility
Who believes that the feelings that accompany dying are not really stages but instead are a complex clustering of emotional and intellectual states. These states are influenced by personality and by the presence or absence of pain
Edwin Shneidman
Step of the scientific research method that formulate answers that are substantiated by the test data.
draw conclusions
Development of the first bone cells marks what stage of prenatal development?
Fetal stage
Method of learning in Piaget’s Sensorimotor stage?
Trial and error
Ages of Piaget’s Preoperational stage?
2 - 7 yrs
3 types of developmental research designs?
Longitudinal, Cross-sectional, Sequential
Ages of Piaget’s Formal Operational stage?
12 and up
Set point
A particular body weight that an individual's homeostatic processes strive to maintain.
Gateways to attraction
The various qualities, such as appearance and proximity, that are prerequisites for the formation of close friendships and intimate relationships.
Cause of Fxs in children
Intentional or accidentalNeed to differentiate which type it is
Preferred mgmt and method for intracapsular fx
Surgery--early mobilization and decreased risk of complications
Compatibility of organs and tissue
based on HLA and ABO
Neurovascular assessment consists of what...?
Color, temperature, cap refill, peripheral pulses and edema
A low platelet count can lead to.....
Bruising Petechiae
GOAL of Amputation
remove all the infected, pathologic or ischemic tissue and keep as much of the limb as possible
Goals of surgery for Scoliosis
corrrect curve, provide solid, painfree fusion and well balanced torso, maximum mobility
Cancer in children-onset
Onset can be acute or incidious/very few symptoms
Tx of DDH (hip dysplasia)
Pavlik Harness3-5 monthsFrog like position of the legs; keeps knees out, shoulder straps and leg braces; wears 24/7, checking straps often, teach parents how to apply-return demonstration, don't apply directly to skin
Treatment of Fx
Immobilize - in position it was found
PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: SUBSTAGE 5
~VARIES ACTION/SEQUENCE TO DISCOVER CONSEQUENCES OF DOING SO.~12 to 18 monthsPIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: SUBSTAGE 5
permissive parenting, and low socioeconomic status.
Antisocial behavior is influenced by:
mild stress.
Individuals who score above 300 on the Holmes Rahe Social Readjustment Rating Scale have:
Binocular vision is typically acquired by infants at _______:
four or five months.
identity process theory
Sarah is 13-years-old and is strongly conservative. When asked why she has her beliefs, she states, \"My parents told me so.\" What category of identity development is Sarah experiencing?
A factor that is manipulated in an experiment, and the effects of the manipulation measured
Independent variable
Ages of Erickson’s Industry vs. Inferiority stage?
7 – 12 yrs
Age group of Freud’s Oral stage?
birth – 18 mo
Awareness that the size and shape of an object remain the same despite changes in the object’s appearance due to changes in its location
perceptual constancy
T or F; All newborns follow the same pattern of speech development?
TRUE
At what age do humans experience their first two-word sentence?
21 mo.
Disorders due to abnormal chromosomes?
Down syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Turner syndrome
What is the embryo called in the fetal stage?
Fetus
A way for preschoolers to grasp the essential meaning of new words by quickly connecting them to words and categories that are already understood.
fast mapping
Cohabitation
An arrangement in which a man and a woman live together in a committed sexual relationship but are not formally married.
Nursing Mgmt of DMD
Encourage exercise to prolong use of the wheelchair
Osteomyelitis-what is it and cause
Infection of the boneMost commonly caused from Staph infection
Types of stem cell transplants
marrow, peripheral blood stem cells and cord blood stem cells
PIAGET'S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
P-H-A~PREMORAL STAGE: NO CONCERN FOR RULES~HETERONOMOUS MORALITY STAGE: RULES AND CONSEQUENCES OF RULES ARE IMPORTANT~AUTONOMOUS MORALITY STAGE: RULES ARE ARBITRARY AND ALTERABLE, right vs. wrong
most severe to least severe
Overall, the number of psychological disorders that are diagnosed in adolescence are:
have more egalitarian gender-role concepts.
In terms of maternal employment, research has found that:
What determines the sex of a person?
23rd pair of chromosomes
What is Alzheimer’s characterized by?
The gradual deterioration of memory and personality with marked plaques and tangles in the brain
What is the cause of multi-infarct dementia?
repeated infarcts, preventing sufficient blood flow to the brain. Each infarct destroys some brain tissue
Patient matched to donor based on.....
ABO blood and leukocyte antigen, medical urgeny, time on the waiting list, geographic location
What are the risks for infection
cast care, pin care, wound care
Wilms Tumor Nephroblastoma-Tumor on the kidney
malignant neoplasm of the kidneygenetic, peaks around age 3 1/2,
PARENTAL EMPLOYMENT DURING A CHILD 1ST THREE YEARS OF LIFE RESULTS IN
SMALL NEGATIVE IMPACT ON COGNITIVE FUNCTIONINGNO IMPACT ON BEHAVIORAL OR EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENTEFFECTS OF PARENTAL EMPLOYMENT DURING THE 1ST 3 YEARS OF LIFE
Klinefelter syndrome is caused by:
the presence of an extra X chromosome.
Gottman and Levenson (2000) found that __________ were significant predictors of divorce.
contempt, criticism, stonewalling, and defensiveness
When infants are __________ they gain the ability to see a wide spectrum of colors and an increased ability to differentiate between colors.
three to four months old
What hurts when you Fx a bone?
Periosteum-Has more nerves than the bone itself
What are the EFFECTS OF COCAINE EXPOSURE DURING IN UTERO?
INSENSITIVITY TO TACTILE, VISUAL, AND AUDITORY STIMULATIONEFFECTS OF COCAINE EXPOSURE DURING IN UTERO
Most adolescents are not emotionally disturbed.
Object permanence is used to explain the development of:
What are associated with the long-term effects of diabetes:
vision loss, kidney damage, and cardiovascular problems
Kohlberg’s 6 stages of moral development
¹Might makes right - Obedience to authority avoids punishment; ²Look out for number one; ³Good girl and Nice boy; 4Law and order; 5Social contract; 6Universal ethical principles
What are the first signs of aging for a man in early adulthood?
Graying or thinning hair
What type of nutrition for a child who has a fracture?
Protein---foods good for bone healing
tend to be able to discriminate between their own infants’ cries better than those of other infants.
In the past two decades, __________ adolescent delinquency has __________.
an 80 percent chance of experiencing illness or accident within two years.
Are these stressors placed in order from A)most severe to least severe or B) lease severe to most severe: death of a spouse, divorce, foreclosure on a home.
The Montessori teaching method encourages children:
not to excel, but perform at their own potential.
Nutrition/bed riden w/body jacket or hip cast patient instruction
eating 6 small meals - do not overeat to avoid abdominal pressure or cramping
A child has been diagnosed with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. What is most accurate regarding the child’s physical features?
Thin upper lip, wide-set eyes, and flat nose
The availability of cues to remind the child of the event
With regards to memory in children, it was once assumed that:
BRONFENBRENNER'S MODEL
MMEM~(M)ICRO~(M)ESO~(E)XO~(M)ACRO
According to Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological model of development, the __________ is comprised of the child’s immediate social environment, including parents and teachers.
microsystem
Relatively consistent inherent dispositions that underlie and reflect a person’s responses to people and things
Temperament
Allogeneic
Receiving from a 3rd party--relative
Authoritarian parents:
tend to be inflexible.
Biggest influence on middle childhood's self esteem?
Peers
The brain’s organization and interpretation of sensations into meaningful patterns.
Perception
What is characteristic of preschooler’s thinking?
Irreversibility
S/S Allergic Reaction
Redness, swelling, itching, hives,scratching, coughing, tongue feeling big
Definition of Arthroplasty
reconstruction/replacement of a joint
HLA
Human Leukocyte Antigen System; major method of determining compatibility of tissue/organs. Matches of 5 or 6 have better outomes than 4 or less
Fractures-Defiition of...
Break in structure of bone
PIAGET'S SENSORIMOTOR (SOS) 0-2
~(S)ENSORY OBSERVATION~(O)BJECT PERMANENCE~(S)YMBOLIC REPRESENTATIONSENSORIMOTOR STAGE
John Bowlby is associated with:
attachment theory.
According to the DSM-IV-TR, symptoms of ADHD are often present prior to the age of:
7
Alcohol
Approximately ____ percent of college students had at least one drink of alcohol in the previous 30 days.
Systematic statement that explains behavior and development over the life span?
Developmental Theory
Whose social cognitive theory views developmental change as a process resulting from the observational learning and interactions between the child and the physical and social environment. (social learning)
Bandura
An attention deficit without the hyperactivity
ADD
Educational strategy that bases academic grades on individual test performance, with students competing against each other
Ego-involvement learning
In relation to concrete Operational Thought what is this an example of: Pouring water from a tall container to a wide container does not change the amount of water only the configuration.
Identity
Pain management method where breathing, ambulation and use of a focal point to disassociate the pain of labor and birth?
Bradley Method
Cancer drugs
Different drugs for different stages of cell reproduction/growth
Scoliosis-Pre op
Teaching is CRITICAL!!!How to manae his/her own PCA, logroll, use and functions of other equipment used, bring favorite toy, laptop, cd player and meeting with a child who has gone through similar procedure
Why do we treat Scoliosis?
Preserve pulmonary function
Hip Arthroplasty
provides relief of pain, improves function to ptnts with RA & OA
Liver rejection
Jaundice, change in LOC, petechaie, bruising, fatigue, ascites, chandge in LFT
When preschoolers focus on only one aspect of a stimulus?A.)Egocentric ThinkingB.)CentrationC.)ConservationD.)Handedness
B.)Centration
According to the DSM-IV-TR, the signs of autism need to be shown before the age of ____ for a diagnosis to be met.
three
When working with an alcoholic family, one way for a therapist to disrupt the sequence of patterns that maintain the __________ is to position himself in the system is such a way that the cycle cannot repeat itself.
homeostasis
Authoritative parents:
are flexible and encourage their children to make their own decisions.
Operant conditioning is based on the simple concept of __________.
Reinforcement
Development of cognitive competencies as a result of interaction btw/ novices and more skilled members of society.
VYGOTSKY’s Social-cultural Perspective
The idea that an individual’s internal characteristics, environment, and behavior are mutually interactive in determining the person’s specific behaviors.
Reciprocal determinism
What is the most effective parenting style during childhood?
Authoritative
The ability to evaluate a cognitive task to determine how best to accomplish it and how to monitor one’s performance?
Metacognition
What is considered low birth weight?
5.5 lbs
An approach to educating children w/ special needs by putting them in the same “stream” the general education classroom, as all the other children
Mainstreaming
This perspective emphasizes the role of the unconscious mind, early childhood experiences, and interpersonal relationships to explain human behavior.
Psychodynamic Perspective
Domain that includes all the mental processes through which the individual thinks, learns, and communicates. (perception, memory and imagination)
Cognitive
Antithesis
A proposition or statement of belief that opposes the thesis; the second stage of the process of dialectical thinking.
Definition of Rheumatic disease
Involves bones, joints, and muscles
Confirm fx by using what...?
x-ray, CT scan, MRI
Type III Hypersensativity: AutoimmuityResponse against itself; can not differentiate itself
SLE (Lupus), RA, and Glomerulonephritis
SE of Cancer Tx
Infection, hemorrhage, anemia, n/v, nutrition, ucosal ulcers, neurological problems, hair loss (alopecia), pain
Autologous transplant
Bone marrow harvested and frozen (from oneself)
Indications for Kidney transplant-Most successful
HTN, kidney failure, diabetes
Fx, surgery, pre-op mgmt
Activity limitations post surgery, assurance of pain meds, skin prep by the nurse
Later signs of DMD
abnormal gain on level surface
AUTHORITATIVE PARENTING
MODIFIED BY ETHNICITY OR CULTURE. + for HISPANIC AND WHITE FAMILIES, THIS PARENTING STYLE IS GOOD FOR EDUCATIONAL SUCESS- for ASIAN AND AFRICAN-AMERICAN FAMILIESAUTHORITATIVE PARENTING
In which stage of the prenatal period does the major organs and body systems grow?A.)GerminalB.)EmbryonicC.)Fetal
B.)Embryonic
low-achieving students.
________ students tend to benefit more than ________ students do from computer-assisted instruction.
What cognitive skills tend to show little or no decline in older adults and may even improve?
Verbal ability
Two years.
An infant born before __________ is considered premature.
Children who are liked by some of their peers and disliked by others fall into the category of:
controversial.
Effects of aging such as disease, disuse, and neglect of the body are referred to as what?
Secondary aging
Which chromosome is linked with Down Syndrome?
The 21st
Elisabeth Kubler-Ross’s stages of processing death are:
denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance.
What is the the most significant influence on a child’s early psychosocial growth?
parenting style
Last 2 stages of sensorimotor intelligence involve what?
Action and Ideas
The study of how genotype and environmental experience jointly influence phenotype.
Behavior genetics
3 major functions of the placenta?
Transport, Endocrine, Metabolic
When are the fetus’ organs functional?
After 7th month
Limitations of longitudinal research design?
very time-consuming and expensive
Ages of Piaget’s Concrete Operational stage?
7 - 11 yrs
A perspective on development that takes into account the various physical and social settings in which development occurs.
BRONFENBRENNER Ecological Perspective
What is the least developed sense at birth?
Vision
Piaget claimed that when an infant gains the understanding that people and objects continue to exist even when they are not immediately visible to her, she has achieved ________ ___________.
Object Permanence
Senescence
The process of aging, whereby the body becomes less strong and efficient.
Pin Cleaning Protocol
Many Drs. have their own; standard=1/2 strength normal peroxide with NS
POST OP mgmt of fx
assess for pain, neurovascular, limitations of movement, positioning and affected extremity, dressing/cast assessment, drainage (significant increase needs to be reported), drainage system patent
Examples of cell mediated immunity
TB, fungal infections, contact dermatitis, graft rejection, destruction of cancer cells, rejection of transplant
What is Apheresis
A procedure used to seperate out components of bloodPlatelets, Leukocyts (WBC), plasma
Other CL Man of DMD
pelvic weakness, occassional mental deficiency, increased respiratory distress (affecting the diaphram and respiratory muscles) stands up by kneeling, walking hands up by the legs (gowers sign)
PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: SUBSTAGE 3 & 4
SUBSTAGE 3: SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONSSUBSTAGE 4: COORDINATED SECONDARY CIRCULAR REACTIONS~REPRODUCE PLEASURE EVENTS INVOLVING PEOPLE/OBJECTS~COMBINE W/ SUBSTAGE 3 W/ NEW, COMPLEX ACTION SEQUENCES~OBJECT PERMANENCE (8MONTHS)~UNDERSTAND CAUSALITY (10MONTHS)PIAGET, SENSORIMOTOR STAGE: SUBSTAGE 3 &4
An authoritative parenting style provides the child with:
high demands and high warmth.
According to research, younger infants looked at their mother longer when:
she expressed positive emotions.
no
Prior to 2 years of age, most infants are able to:
surgery for limb lengthening.
Turner X Syndrome occurs in about:
Younger, older
Turner X Syndrome is also referred to as:
children leave home.
In the United States, infant mortality rates are associated with
Identity assimilation, identity accommodation, and identity balance
With the __________ process, an individual has little internal consistency and changes schemas whenever new information is presented to him or her.
A research method that focuses on the life history, attitudes, behavior and emotions of a single individual
Case Study
Ages of Erickson’s Initiative vs. Guilt stage?
3 - 6 yrs
Stage 3 & 4 of sensorimotor intelligence involve what?
Objects and People
The average life expectancy for men is __ and for women is __.
72; 79
What was Piaget’s 3rd period or theory of cognitive development?
Concrete Operational Thought
The generation in between, having both grown children and elderly parents. Feeling pressured by the needs and demands of their adult children and their elderly (ailing or widowed) parents
Remote; Involved; Companionate
What is preceded by a long sequence of negative events among adolescents?
Suicide
T or F; Before 3 y.o. children think that boys and girls can change gender as they get older.
TRUE
Organ Reserve
The capacity of organs to allow the body to cope with stress, via extra, unused functioning ability.
Nursing Care for the Immobolized Child
neuro check (6ps), color-pink, temp-warm, sensation-no n/t, motion, pain-use appropriate pain scale, pulse-strong or weak, cap refill
Liver transplant..indications for
birth defect of liver or bile duct, chronic liver infections-HEP, damage from alcohol or drugs, clots in liver.
NORMAL AGE RELATED COGNITIVE DECLINE
VERBAL ABILITY IS RELATIVELY IMMUNE TO THE EFFECTS OF NORMAL AGING AND DON’T REALLY DECLINE UNTIL THE LATE 70s OR EARLY 80S.NORMAL AGE RELATED COGNITIVE DECLINE
tend to gain body fat.
The process of changing one’s perspective or schema when new information is encountered is referred to as:
Lee is 5 years old, and is playing with her tea set. She tells her mother that her toy teapot can sing. Lee is exhibiting what type of play:
make believe.
What are the variables of a controlled experiment?
Independent and Dependant
What is the most important factor in a child’s coping ability?
Social support
Goals in the Management of Fracutures
Regain alignment and length, restore function, prevent further injury
How to promote "normal" elimination
high fiber foods, increase fluids, use stool softners, privacy during use of bedpan
PURPOSE of Traction (a pulling force)
reduce muscle spasm, immobilize joint or body part, reduce fracture or dislocation, treat joint condition, provide immobilization to prevent soft tissue damage, expand joint space.
What is the MULLERIAN SYNDROME?
-CONGENTIAL DISORDER-DUE TO A LACK OF ANTI-MULLERIAN HORMONE or RECEPTORS for this hormone.MULLERIAN SYNDROME
Gilligan emphasizes all the following in her theory of moral development EXCEPT: A) a critical stage for adolescent female’s moral development.B) rltsps and emotional bonds.C) conflict btwn individual characteristics and stereotypic role demands.D)
social contract or utility and individual rights.
The most common reason for lack of sexual activity in older women is:
lack of a partner.
Which stage of labor is called the placental stage?
3rd stage of labor
Factors that contribute to healing fx
Age, site, blood supply to area, immobilization, infection, hormones
Kochanska’s (1997) RESEARCH ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF CONSCIOUS:
DEPENDS ON THE CHILD'S LEVEL OF FEARFULNESS. EG. FEARFUL TODDLERS = DEVELOP CONSCIENCE WHEN MOTHER USES “GENTLE DISCIPLINE.” FEARLESS TODDLERS = DEVELOPMENT CONSCIENCE CONTINGENT ON MOTHER-CHILD ATTACHMENT AND MATERNAL RESPONSIVENESS.KOCHANSKA'S RESEARCH ON THE DEV OF CONSCIOUS
What has been suggested as an alternative theory to terminal drop?
Symptoms of depression may mimic terminal drop.
Some evidence suggests that fetuses display handedness in thumb-sucking behavior.
Throughout the world, ___ percent of people are right-handed.
How does children in Piaget’s Preoperational stage understand the world?
Through the use of symbolic thinking from their own perspective.
Who claimed that he could take any 12 healthy infants and, by applying behavioral techniques, create whatever kind of person he desired
WATSON’s Learning Perspective through Classical Conditioning.
Early Childhood (Preschool); BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
¹5 y.o.; ²brain weighs 90% of adult weight; ³corpus callosum expands and child begins forming links btw/ spoken & written language.; 4Corpus collosum grows in number of nerve fibers that connects the right and left sides of brain which improves coordination function of brain and body. 5Overall brain growth is not linear but occurs in spurts and plateaus. 62 y.o. – brain weighs 75% of adult weight
Jerome Kagan has related the basic temperament quality of inhibition (degree of approach or withdrawal in new situations) to:
-CNS reactivity -Infants with a high degree of BEHAVIORAL INHIBITION also exhibit high CNS activity (especially in the amygdala and hypothalamus) in new situations-Kagan argues that temperament is heavily influenced by genetics, especially the aspect of temperament referred to as "reactivity."JEROME KAGAN AND BASIC TEMPERAMENT
Max is 54 and an alcoholic. According to the concept of homeostasis, what can be expected of his famil
They will contribute to maintaining the status quo, even through negative, enabling behaviors, in order to avoid change.
Low uric acid in leukemia is ....
cell break down. normal uric acid = 2.5-5.5
Client arrived early for 1st appt w/psychoanalyst. Sits on stoop in front of office puffing nervously on cigarette. Dr says nothing when sees him but writes \"smokes\" in notebook for future consideration. Why might dr see this as imp for therapy?
He thinks that the patient may have pertinent problems related to an oral fixation brought on by difficulties in his early childhood.
Jackson is 5 years old and his grandfather has died. What should Jackson's parents say to their son about his grandpa's death?
Honestly explain to their son that his grandpa has died and is not able to return.
Types of rejection
Hyper-acuteAcuteChronic
The XX chromosomes are?
Female
An individual’s observable characteristics that result from the interaction of the genes w/ each other and the environment.
Phenotype
FX classification according to communication with external environment
Open/closed
Critics of Kubler-Ross’s stages of processing death suggest that her theory ought to include __________.
hope
Three forms of grandparenthood?
Sandwich generation
Factors affecting hearing loss
Sex, Genes,Age
Treatment of FES
Prevention 1st-by immobilization, administration of O2, hydration, coughing/deep breathing, reposition as little as possible
S/S Osteoarthritis
pain-worse when barometric pressure drops-gets cold, joint stiffness after rest, worse in morning; resolves after 30 minutes
Definition of Osteoporosis
AKA-fragile bone diseaseBone resorption exceeds bone deposition
Two types of donors
Direct and Non-direct
PIAGET'S FORMAL OPERATIONAL (AM) 11+
~(A)BSTRACT THOUGHT~(M)ETACOGNITION~EGOCENTRISM (eg 'Personal Fable' & 'Imaginary Audience')~RELATIVISM~HYPOTHETICALthe construction of unit concepts and the ability to "reason about reasoning"PIAGET'S FORMAL OPERATIONAL STAGE
achievement.
Recent research suggests that the earliest time children are able to retain information in memory is in their ____ year of life.
Which theorist believed that attachment was not based on oral gratification but rather physical comfort?
Harry Harlow
When interpreting social cues, aggressive children are most impacted by the:
recency effect.
Chromosomal disorder characterized by an extra 21st chromosome and moderate-to-severe mental retardation.
Down Syndrome
Interpretation of results of research: statistical term that indicates a corresponding relation btw/ two variables.
Correlation
___________ consists of situations in which the individual experiences face-to-face contact with important individuals.
Microsystem
A period of early adolescence; characterized by rapid physical growth and the sexual changes that make reproduction possible
Puberty
Principle that growth proceeds from head to toe
Cephalocaudal
A person’s unique and relatively consistent pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
Personality
Homogamy
Marriage between individuals who tend to be similar with respect to such variables as attitudes, interests, goals, socioeconomic status, religion, ethnic background, and local origin.
DONT'S OF Compartment Syndrome
Elevate or apply ice
RAType III: Hypersensativity-Autoimmune
Inflammation of connective tissue, external manifestations are lumps and bumps, occurs more in smokers, has exacerbations and remissions
Hyper-Acute rejection**MASSIVE** sudden rejection
Antibody mediated rejection w/i minutes of transplant, rare, no tx; remove organ.
What are the LEVELS OF PROCESSING MODEL?
-PHONETIC-ACOUSTIC-SEMANTIC-SELF-REFERENCING
Which is not a fine motor skill?A.)Typing B.)WritingC.)BikingD.)Fastening buttons
C.)Biking
What percentage of adolescents suffer from moderate to severe depression?
8 percent.
18 months
Up until about __________, infants will not look for a toy if it is covered with a cloth screen.
Bilingual speakers:
tend to have greater metalinguistic awareness than monolingual speakers.
Who pioneered the notion of operant conditioning?
Skinner
Name the learning perspectives?
Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, Social learning
When existing knowledge is modified so that new information fits.
accommodation
What takes a holistic approach to death by attending to the physical, emotional, spiritual, and aesthetic needs of patients and their families, predominantly in their own homes.
Hospice
___________ is the process by which the child interprets experiences on the basis of concepts he or she already knows.
Assimilation
Which of Piaget’s stages states, “use of their senses and motor skills to understand their world. Object is “known” in terms of what an infant can do to it.”
Sensorimotor stage
The inability to recognize the same conditions that existed before the transformation.
Irreversibility
T or F; “talking down” is unnecessary for preschoolers.
TRUE
A federally funded U.S. preschool educational program designed primarily to give economically disadvantaged children advance preparation for the intellectual and social challenges of elementary school.
HEAD START
What type of parenting style where children of are most likely to lack self-control?
Permissive
What type of parenting style where discipline is lax?
Democratic-indulgent
Hypothetical, logical, and abstract thought characterized which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development?
Formal Operational Thought
Which of Erickson’s psychosexual stages states: Major task: commitment to person, cause or creative effort. Important event: love relationships
Intimacy vs. Isolation
What is the most common reading disability?
Dyslexia
A research method in which scientists watch and record the behavior of people in their environment.
observation
Who was famous for their Ethological Attachment Theory (Ethological perspective)?
Bowlby
Thesis
A proposition of statement or belief; the first stage of the process of dialectical thinking.
CL Man hip fracture
External rotation, muscle spasms, shorting of the affected limb, severe pain/tenderness...could have avascular necrosis
CL Man of CP
Spasticity or uncontrolled movements, poor muscle tone, delayed developmental issues, gait disturbance, abnormal posturing, flat bones on the side of the head
High Risk Allergens
PCN, Sulfa, iodine, latex, peanuts, eggs
Pre-op amputation
teaching re: prosthesis, mobility, & U arm strength
Therapeutic mgmt of ALL
chemotherapeutic agents in four stagesInduction-a complete remission or clinical disapearance of leukemic cells2. intensification or consolidation therapy-further decreases the total number of tumor burden3. CNS prophylactic therapy-prevents leukemic cells from invading CNS4.Maintainance of remission phase
Stable Fracture
piece of periosteum is intact across fx; Transverse, spiral or greenstick
Peripheral assessment is what....?
sensation, motor function, and pain
KOHLBERG'S THEORY OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
P-C-P~PRECONVENTINAL MORALITY: AVOID PUNISHMENT ("INSTRUMENTAL HEDONISM")~CONVENTIONAL MORALITY: GOOD BOY/GOOD GIRL, LAW AND ORDER~POST-CONVENTIONLA MORALITY: LAWS, ADULTHOOD
Stages in the prenatal period?In order are??A.)Embryonic,Germinal,and FetalB.)Germinal,Embryonic,and FetalC.)Fetal,Germinal,and Embryonic
B.)Germinal,Embryonic,and Fetal
Identity foreclosure
Manuel is 15-years-old and has been dressing in black clothes and listening to heavy metal music. Six months ago, Manuel was on the football team, wore reds and blues, and listened to popular music. What category of identity development is Manuel experiencing?
According to Costa and McCrae, at what age do the big five personality traits stabilize in an individual?
30
Poor attentiveness
In the recent past __________ have been most likely among their peers to attempt suicide.
low birth weight.
According to Sapir-Whorf, speakers of different languages actually:
One theory that may explain stranger anxiety is:
discrepancy theory.
What is most closely associated with the ability to think abstractly?
Fluid intelligence
According to Erikson's psychosocial stages of development, at the end of life, the conflict which begs resolution is termed:
Ego integrity versus despair
T or F; Siblings often provide better instruction than adults because they are likely to guide, challenge and encourage a child’s social interactions more frequently and intimately.
TRUE
A form of dementia characterized by sporadic, and progressive, loss of intellectual functioning
Multi-infarct dementia
Disease of the eye involving deterioration of the retina
Senile macular degeneration
What type of parenting style where the parents are warm and responsive make few demands?
Democratic-indulgent
Measures what has already been learned in a specific subject area.
Achievement Tests
Reflex that ensures an adequate supply of O2 and the discharge of CO2 by causing the individual to inhale and exhale
breathing reflexes
Which of Freud’s stages states: anus is the focus of pleasurable sensations?
Anal Stage
Whose styles of adult coping are based on longitudinal research where development is a lifelong process influenced by relationships w/ others and coping styles?
Vaillant
Motor skills that involve small muscles and small body movements such as using the hands and fingers.
Fine motor skills
Postformal thought
A proposed adult stage of cognitive development, following Piaget's four stages, that goes beyond adolescent thinking by being more practical, more flexible, and more dialectical.
S/S Wilms tumor
swelling or mass on the abdomen-firm, non-tender, confined on one side, anemia, HTN (because of the release of renin from kidney), metastisize to lungs---SOB, cough, pain in chest
Fx and Cardiopulmonary system-Prolonged bed rest
can cause orthostatic HTN, decreased lung expansion.Allow ptnt to dangle legs over bed, perform transfers
Most common classification of CP
Spastic-may be bilateral or unilateral, poor control of posture, balance and coordination, not ongoing. Lots of times just muscular motor skills affected-no cognitive delay. Some can have both motor and cognitive delay
AINSWORTH'S "STRANGE SITUATION": "AVOIDANT PATTERN"
~VERY LITTLE DISTRESS WHEN MOTHER LEAVES~AVOIDS OR IGNORES HER WHEN SHE RETURNSAINSWORTH AVOIDANT PATTERN
When do boys reach puberty?A.)13 or 14B.)11 or 12C.)10
A.)13 or 14
At what stage in life is malnutrition most detrimental?
In utero.
Vygotsky believes that children learn mostly from their:
experiences with the world.
female adolescent delinquency; increased
Adolescent delinquency has been linked to:
Previous attempts
Females are more likely than males to complete suicide. true or false?
Birth order
Siblings under age six tend to have relationships best characterized as:
Schemas
When a child creates a new schema for planes, __________ is occurring.
The fear of being left by the caregiver
Separation anxiety
Ages of Erickson’s Generativity vs. Stagnation stage?
30 – 65 yrs
Age group of Freud’s phallic stage?
4 – 6 yrs
T or F; A child’s coping w/ one serious ongoing stress such as poverty are more likely to develop a serious psychiatric problem than other children.
FALSE
Children under the age of __ are the best learners of the spoken form of a foreign language
10
A reflex which backward step onto a firm surface when one foot is already resting there.
placing reflex
Which of Erickson’s stages is Late Adulthood?
Ego vs. Despair
Stages of Fx healing: Consolidation
Callus continues to develop, distance b/t bone fragments diminishes and eventually closes.
CL Man of Osteomyelitis
Fever, lack of use, heat, swelling over area of infection, tenderness of affected area, decreased ROM to joints of affected area
Possible signs of CP
Poor head control after 3m, stiff arms/legs, pushing away-arching back, clenched hands after 3m, seizures, sensory impairment, uses only one side of body
Options for Mgmt. of Muscle Spasms
PT, heat/ice, exercise, massage, hydrotherapy, ultrasound, manipulation, bracing
Tissue donation
can be stored in tissue banks to be used at a later time...corneas, middle ear, skin, heart valves, bone, veins, cartilage, tendons & ligaments
Organs of the Immune System
bone marrow, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus glands
Fractures and Drug therapy
Pain meds r/t muscle spasms, edema, nerve injury following muscle injury can cause spasm, Muscle relaxants prescribed
PRENATAL DEVELOPMENT (GEF)
1. GERMINAL STAGE: 1ST 2 WEEKS, THE FERTILIZED OVUM IS CALLED A ZYGOTE2. EMBRYONIC STAGE: 3RD WEEK THROUGH 8TH WEEK3. FETAL STAGE: 9TH WEEK TO BIRTH
separation anxiety and stranger anxiety.
According to Piaget, by about __________, when switching a toy's location from an original hiding spot to a new hiding spot the infant is capable of mentally representing these invisible moves and is able to find the object in its final location.
A form of learning in which a formerly neutral stimulus is repeatedly presented with a stimulus that evokes a specific reflexive response. After repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus elicits a response similar to the reflexive response
classical conditioning
What is the psychosocial crisis of adolescence?
Identity versus role confusion
Drug Abuse
The ingestion of a drug to the extent that it impairs the user's biological of psychological well-being.
Positioning of residual limb
Lie flat, no pillows, avoid sitting in chair for more than 1 hour, lie on stomach for 30 min 3-4x/day, position hip in extension
Nursing care of transplant patients
infection, monitor VS & report FEVER, give prophylacic antifungals & antivarals as ordered, instruct patient on infection prevention, avoid crowds, don't immunize w/live vaccines, take temp at same time everyday
Overall goal for ptnts with amputation
adequate relief from underlying health problem, satisfactory pain control, maximum rehab potential, cope with body image changes, satisfying lifestyle adjustments
The effects of malnutrition in children:
may be reversible if addressed early.
a combination of above-average IQ and creativity.
Joint attention describes an infant's:
Self-actualization is the ultimate goal in self-development. Once an individual reaches this level of development, they may begin to recognize other needs such as what?
Need to know truth and aesthetic needs
According the Vygotsky’s theory, private speech is:
a method young children use to regulate their behavior.
What is the major motor skill of a 6 mo. old infant?
Rolling over
What are the limitations of Naturalistic observation and field experiments?
Can’t generalize to other people, Can’t predict casual relationship
HIP FX (occur within hip joint capsule---called intracapsular fx)
Associated with Osteoporosis and minor traumaCL
they are not using referencing for emotional cues about how to respond, but rather making sure their mother was still there when they faced new situations.
With regards to family transitions, wives tend to be:
At what age do humans have a fivefold increase in the density of dendrites in the cortex/
Birth to 2 yrs.
Time frame of the Fetal stage of Prenatal Development?
Week 9 to full term
At what age do we typically dx scoliosis
Around age 10---usually not evident before
What is the GOODNESS OF FIT MODEL?
Refers to the ADJUSTMENT IN CHILDREN and how it is related to the DEGREE OF CONGRUENCE bet. a child's BASIC TEMPERMENT and his/her PARENT'S CAREGIVINGWhat is the Goodness of Fit Model?
Sally's fetus was exposed to teratogens during the eighth month of pregnancy. Luckily, the infant demonstrated no visible effects from the exposure. Why might this be?
By the eighth month of pregnancy, many of the infant’s critical periods had already passed.
ability to have shared perceptual experiences when they look at the same thing at the same time as a companion.
Has an infant developed of an implicit sense of self in the first six months of life? (recognize self in picture)
the children who were expected to have substantial intellectual gains throughout the year actually did.
Studies suggests that in addition to above-average IQ, children identified as gifted often:
What is true concerning the effects of early maturation?
Boys who mature early tend to have better scholastic performance.
Kagan's Behavioral Inhibition
?
Phenotype
behavioral and physical characteristics that are product of the genesphysical characteristics resulting from one's genotype
conflict resolution styles
accommodationavoidancedomination compromise***integration***
Lamaze method
natural childbirth w/o anesthetic
relativistic thinking
absolutist "only one truth"
SIDS
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
 
A situation in which a seemingly healthy infant, at least 2 months old, suddenly stops breathing and dies unexpectedly while asleep. 
 
The cause is unknown, but it is correlated with sleeping on the stomach and having parents who smoke.
Self-conscious emotions
Emotions that require self-awareness; they include empathy, jealousy, embarassment, pride, shame and guilt, most of which appear at some point in the second half of the first year thru the second year
case study
studied individuals and longitudinal approaches, naturalistic observations, asked questions
Feurstein's L-PAD
learning potential assessment device assesses ability to learn new things, also for training
cumulative-deficit hypothesis
poor environment that doesn't encourage mental growth - reoccurring cycle
Michael Tomasello
interaction view- children learn language in specific contexts of joint attention.
Bereavement
experience of losing a loved one
 
avoidance, confrontation restoration 
Psychosocial Development
Includes development of emotions, temperament, and social skills. Family, friends, the community, the culture, and the larger society are particularly central to the psychosocial domain. 
Hypothalamus
part of nervous system not endocrine system
self esteem
peoples overall evaluation of their worth based on an assessment of the qualities that make up self concept
self concept
peoples perception of their unique attributes or traits
germinal stage
lasts 2 weeks, fertilization, implant in the uterus
imaginary audience
believing one's thoughts = other's thoughts
crossing over
lots of variation when cells split
Skinner view
language represents nothing more than chains of responses acquired through reinforcement. Language is a complex learned skill. (not considered a viable explanations of how children acquire language)
illness in middle adulthood
Cardiovascular = most common
cancer
osteoarthritis 
Smallpox
The most lethal disease for children in the past, was eradicated worldwide as of 1971.
 
Vaccination is no longer needed.
 
Emergency worked are immunized as a precaution against bioterrorism, not a normal outbreak.
embryonic
3-8 weeks, it is an embryo, amnion chorion placenta umbilical cord develop, most structures and organs are present
holophrase
a single word utterance used by an infant that represents an entire sentence's worth of meaning
permissive parenting styles
few demands, little control over behavior
class inclusion
knows subclass is part of a whole
cohort
group of ppl all born at same time
Equilibration
Shifting from one stage of thought to another
Biosocial development
Includes all the growth and change that occur in a person's body and the genetic, nutritional, and health factors that affect growth and change.  Motor skills-everything from grasping a rattle to driving a car-are also part of the biosocial domain.
Reflexes to manage feeding

Sucking reflex-causes newborns to suck anything that touches their lips

Rooting reflex-causes babies to turn their mouths towards anything that brushes their cheek (reflexive search for a nipple).

Swallowing- aids feeding

Crying-when the stomach is empty

Spitting up-when too much has been swallowed so quickly.
easy child
A temperament style in which the child is generally in a positive mood, quickly in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines, and adapts easily to new experiences
incomplete dominance
red blood cells are the dominant and sickle cells are the recessive
formal operational thinking
They are able to deal with propositions that explain concrete facts. They have the ability to use planning to think ahead.Increase their ability to think abstractly. They can solve complex and hypothetical problems involving abstract operations.Formal operational thinkers can recognize and identify a problem. They can state several alternative hypotheses, execute procedures to collect information about the problems to be studied, and test the hypotheses.
"goodness of fit"
the extent to which the child's temperament and the demands of the child's social environment are compatible or mesh
deferred imitation
the ability to imitate a novel act after a delay
Cognition in Middle Adulthood
 
Fluid Intelligence - thinking quickly & analyze quickly begins to decrease
 
Crystallized - slow build up of knowledge, remember more historical facts and knowledge of how to do things -- increases 
Living Will
specify treatment they do or do not what incase of a terminal illness, coma or near death situation 
Code of ethics
 moral principles that members of a profession or group must follow to protect its integrity.
BIOSOCIAL Domain;Includes physical growth and development including the family
community and cultural factors that affect growth and development. (physical
euthanasia (passive & active)
active - mercy killing passive - talking someone off respirator who would die anyway
2 parts of Multicultural
Culture (deciding what to do each moment)- any group may have its own culture

Ethnicity, Race, and Income-ethnic group refers to appearance.  Study of all different races in America said that half of those overlaped with SES.
Reflexive smile
1 of 2 types of smiles: A smile that does not occur in response to external stimuli. It happens during the month after birth, usually during sleep
sex linked inheritance of traits
situation when we have a recessive gene on the X chromosome. X chromosome is much bigger
Middle Adulthood
Mid life crisis
Men in early 40s, women in late 40s
 
Life regrets
 
Not very common
Brain development: weight of newborn and two-year-old compared to adults
at birth=25% of its adult weight
age 2=75% of its adult weight
/ 408
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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