AP Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
anabolic
...
amino group
-NH2
hydrophobic
fear water
enzyme concentration
...
alkaline
synonym for basic
Cation
positively charged ion
polar
electrons shared unequally
phosphorylation
any phosphate group transfer
ph of stomach acid
2
ion
atom/compound with a charge
Pyrimidine
2 ringed base of DNA
pyramidine
cytosine, thymine, and uracil; six-membered ring
saturated fat
fat without double bonds
Purines
Double-ring base; Adenine and Guanine
Starch
Polymer of alpha-glucose molecules used for energy storage in plant cells
Glycogen
animal "starch" --stores energy
stored in LIVER
nucleotides
5-carbon sugar, phosphate, nitrogen base
Composition of carbs:
C, H, O
Adhesion
the attraction between different kinds of molecules
fibrous proteins
proteins that exhibit secondary structure; wool, claws, beaks, reptile scales, collagen, and ligaments
phosphate
phosphorous bonded to four oxygens, two have negative charges, one is bonded to the carbon skeleton; phospholipid
isomer
organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structure
Sucrose
Common table sugar; glucose + fructose
Orbital
the three-dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the time
cofactors
inorganic compounds that help enzymes (minerals)
Base
excess OH-
above 7 on pH scale
hydrolysis
a chemical process that splits molecules by the addition of water, functioning in disassembly of polymers to monomers
Electron shells
an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
Ribose
a pentose sugar important as a component of ribonucleic acid
primary structure
linear sequence of amino acids; peptide bonds
monomer
building block for polymers; only made by producers
geometric isomer
isomer differing in the spacial arrangement of double bonds
Disaccharide
Two sugar molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage
Kinetic Energy
the energy associated with the relative motion of objects; moving matter can perform work by imparting motion to other matter
amino acids
make up polymers and thus proteins
dipeptide
a molecule consistign of two amino acids connected by one peptide bond
Dehydration synthesis/condensation
bonding 2 small organic molecules together by removal of water (water is product)
used in:
forming disaccharides
forming triglycerides
forming peptide bonds (2 amino acids)
amino acid
an organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups; serve as the monomers of polypeptides
secondary structure
the localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between constituents of the backbone
Radioactive isotope
isotope in which the nucleus decays (breaks down) over time, giving off radiation in the form of matter and energy
carboxyl
oxygen double bonded to a carbon atom that is bonded to a hydroxyl group
van der Waals interactions
tertiary structure; weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that result from localized charge fluctuations
competitive inhibition
compounds that look like the normal substrate compete for the same active site on the enzyme
Sulfhydryl group
a chemical group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom
allosteric inhibition
a type of enzyme inhibition that involves two active sites, one for a substrate and the other for an inhibitor. the enzyme oscillates between two conformations, one active, one inactive. when the inhibitor binds to the allosteric site, the enzyme undergoes a conformational change, the active site for the substrate is altered, and the enzyme cannot catalyze the reaction.
heme group
the group that is attached to hemoglobin
quaternary structure
refers to proteins that consist of more than one polypeptide chain. ex. hemoglobin
chaperonin
a protein molecule that assists in the proper folding of the other proteins
noncompetitive inhibitor
a substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing the enzyme's shape so that the active site no longer functions effectively
Van Der Waals interaction
weak attractions between molecules or parts of molecules that are brought about by localized charge fluctuations
optical isomers
isomers that are mirror images of each other
Allosteric Activator
Binds to the enzyme to induce the active form
first law of thermodynamics
energy cannot be created or destroyed
Isotope
Atoms of one element that vary only in the number of neutrons in the nucleus
disulfide bridge
a strong covalent bond formed when the sulfur of one cysteine monomer bonds to the sulfur of another cysteine monomer
Cholesterol
a type of fat made by the body from saturated fat; a minor part of fat in foods
law of conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed
Isomers (not sure if really need to know this)
organic compounds that have same molecule formula but different structures
phag-
eat
mela-;melan
black;dark
Cocc-
seed
Macromolecules
Huge molecules
-ion
go; come
MPF
Maturation-promoting factor (M-phase-promoting factor); a protein complex required for a cell to progress from late interphase to mitosis (G2 Phase Checkpoint). The active form consists of cyclin and a protein kinase.
homo- (two words)
same; alike
polyploidy
term for chromosome alteration.
Chlorophyll
Main pigment in photosynthesis
NADP+/NADPH
Oxidized and reduced forms, respectively, of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that transfers electrons (as hydrogen), particularly in catabolic pathways, including cellular respiration
trisomic
cell has extra chromosome (2n+1)
neurotransmitters
chemical messengers released from vessicles in the synaptic terminals
unicellular
consisting of a single cell
echinoderms
"spiny-skinned"; body covering that has interlocking spines and plates stiffened with calcium carbonate
cleavage
succession of mitotic cell divisions without cell growth between division cycles
mitochandria
sites for cellular respiration which produces energy in the form of ATP. not part of the endomembrane system, membrane proteins made by free ribosomes instead of rough ER. number of mitochandrion depends on aerobic metabolic activity
lysosome
membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that an animal cell uses to digest macromolecules. These enzymes work best in the acidic environment fond in lysosomes. Leakage can cause autodigestion. 3D shape makes it so that the enzymes themselves dont break down.
DNA
Molecule of Heredity. Double stranded helix. Nucleotides are Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, and Guanine. Adenine nucleotides will hydrogen bond to thymine nucleotides, and cytosine to guanine.
achondroplasia
autosomal dominant form of dwarfism seen in 1 out of 10,000 people
Vaccine
immunogen consisting of a suspension of weakened or dead pathogenic cells injected in order to stimulate the production of antibodies
metaphase
microtubules attach to kinetochores or proteins on the chromosomes where the mitotic spindle attaches, chromosomes line up on metaphase plate
territoriality
an intense form of intraspecific competition in which organisms define an area surrounding their home site or nesting site and defend it primarily against other members of their own species
plasma
solvent for proteins, molecules, and ions that transport lips and vitamins; also functions in blood clotting
Root System
Subterranean system of plant body.
Chemical Bond
an attraction between two atoms, resulting from a shaking of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms gain complete outer electron shells
parental care
females fight for males then:
males provide more than just sperm delivery.......help with parenting (i though the textbook was going to say something else)
parental care uses time and energy
-benefit is increased survival of young
-think type I survivor ship
What is made in the smooth ER?
lipids
hydrophilic
Having an affinity for water; readily absorbing or dissolving in water.
Turnover Time
The proportional amount of standing crop biomass to production
exoskeleton
stiff body covery to which muscles attach
movement in arthropods
-muscles contract, pulling leg inward
-no muscle to push it out
-large muscle in thorax contracts and blood rushes into it causing it to extend
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme produced by retroviruses that catalyzes the production of DNA using RNA as a template.
Translation
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.
gene
A basic unit of hereditary material; an ordered sequence of nucleotide bases that encodes a product (this product could be just RNA like rRNA or finally coding for a protein). The gene includes, however, regions preceding and following the coding region (5' UTR and 3' UTR) as well as (in eukaryotes) intervening sequences.
protons
A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy.
collagen
most abundant glycoprotein in the ECM of most animal cells, forms strong fibers outside the cells
Properties of Water
Cohesion: stick to itself
Adhesion: to surfaces
This is dues to the fact that it is polar covalent.
Water has a high specific heat which is important to ocean organisms. It is an excellent solvent and is necessary for metabolic reactions.
basophils
a type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses.
which of the following components of the cell membrane is responsible for active transport?
protein
mitochondria
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serves as the site of cellular respiration.
Nuclease
Enzymes that hydrolyze DNA and RNA into their component nucleotides
epinephrine
A hormone secreted by the adrenal glands in conditions of stress, increasing rates of blood circulation, breathing, and carbohydrate metabolism and preparing muscles for exertion
Centrosome
Material present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells, important during cell division; the microtubule-organizing center.
purine
six membered ring fused to a five membered ring (adenine and guanine)
fusiform initials
The cambium cells within the vascular bundles. The name refers to the tapered ends of these elongated cells.
organismal growth, tissue repair, asexual reproduction
3 functions of mitosis
snRNPs
bind to the introns and catalyze the excision and splicing reactions
Homologous structures
variations on a structural theme that was present in a common ancestor
Reduction
Chemical process in which an atom, ion or molecule gains electrons
Chromatid
either of the two strands of a relicated chromosome joined at the centromere
polypeptide
a group of amino acids joined together in a string
chemotropism
the movement or growth of an organism in response to a chemical stimulus
beta oxidation
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments which enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.
Atoms
What are the smallest component of an element that retains the chemical properties of the element
fluid mosaic model
The arrangement of phospholipids and proteins in biological membranes is described by the
Cardiac cycle
One complete sequence of pumping and filling of the heart.
frameshift mutation
A mutation occurring when the number of nucleotides inserted or deleted is not a multiple of three, resulting in the improper grouping of the following nucleotides into codons.
condensation reaction
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
Esophagus
a muscular tube that leads from the pharynx to the stomach.
The study of adaptations by which plants function
plant physiology
female gametophyte
at maturity it is called the embryo sac (n) haploid
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
the hereditary blueprint of the cell; contained within the chromosomes; double-stranded; 5-carbon sugar is deoxyribose
Sickle Cell Disease
an inherited blood disorder, caused by the substitution of one amino acid(valine) for the normal one(glutamic acid) at a particular position in the primary structure of hemoglobin, the protein that caries oxygen in red blood cells
cardiac output
The volume of blood pumped per minute by the left ventricle of the heart.
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
RNA interference (RNAi)
A technique to silence the expression of selected genes in nonmammalian organisms. The method uses synthetic double-stranded RNA molecules matching the sequence of a particular gene to trigger the breakdown of the gene's messenger RNA.
Transcription Unit
A region of DNA that is transcribed into an RNA molecule.
gene regulation in
eukaryotes
Altering the rate of transcription of the gene. This is the most important and widely-used strategy and the one we shall examine here.
phospholipids
consist of 2 fatty acid chains and a charged P containing group. they are found in all cell membranes where they form the basis of these membranes
sympatric speciation
two species arrise out of one, but in the same place at the same time; usually due to changes in behavior
G0 phase
a non dividing face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins
ecological species concept
views a species in terms of its ecological niche
Exotic Species

A species that is not native to the area and successfully takes up residence


Also called invasive species


Ex. kudzoo, amurhoneysuckle
Define: Atomic Mass
total mass of an atom (mass number is an approximation of this)
Describe: Glycerol and Fatty Acids
a. gylcerol is an alcohol with three carbons, each with a hydroxyl group
b. a fatty acid has a carbon skeleton with a carboxyl at one end
calor-
heat
dys-
bad;abnormal;difficult
Cuti-
skin
p orbital
6
-flect, -flex
bend
hyper
above, beyond, over
diatoms
(bacillariophytes) belong to stramenopila; are unicellular algae with unique glasslike walls composed of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix; able to withstand immense pressure;
chlorophyll a
responsible for photosynthesis
Pylum Porifera
diploblastic, invertabrate, marine
example: sponge
budding
asexual reproduction-a while new individual grows from body of parent (becomes identical)
Parabronchi
Birds' alternatives to alveoli, non-dead ends through which air flows in one direction
aquaporins
(water channel proteins that facilitate the amount of diffusion)A transport protein in the plasma membrane of a plant or animal cell that specifically facilitates the diffusion of water across the membrane (osmosis).
Tuataras
Reptiles that resemble modern amphibians in their brain and locomotion. They have a third, middle "eye" under the skin, with retina, a rudimentary lens, and links to the brain.
nematoda
roundworms; a parasite plants and animals; has a tough cuticle that coats the body
duplication
aberration in chromosome structure due to fussion w/ a fragment from a homologous chromosome
Contractile Vacuoles
used by freshwater protists
pump excess water out of the cell, thereby maintaining a suitible concentration of ions and molecules inside the cell.
Macromolecule
A large molecule consisting of thousands of covalently connected atoms
RNA processing
Modification of RNA transcripts, including splicing out of introns, joining together of exons, and alteration of the 5' and 3' ends.
Heterotroph
Obtain organic material from other organism. They are the consumers.
autosomes
chromosomes that are not directly involved in determining the sex of an individual
genome
a cell's total genetic make up
buffer
A chemical substance that resists changes in pH by accepting hydrogen ions from or donating hydrogen ions to solutions.
Ecosystem
Array of organisms, together with their environment, interacting by a flow of energy and cycling of materials.In nearly all ecosystems, both types of food webs interconnect (detrital & grazing food webs.)
List the levels of Biological Organization
1.Biosphere
2.Ecosystem
3.Communities
4.Populations
5.Organisms
6.Organs / Organ Systems
7.Tissues
8.Cells
9.Organelles
10.Molecules
Human use of prokaryotic organisms to help detoxify a polluted wetland would be an example of
Bioremediation
profundal zone
bottom of lake
dark
consumers feed on debris that drifts down to them
Define resolution
measure of clarity of the image
endergonic reaction
A non-spontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings.
sodium-potassium pump
exchanges sodium for potassium across the membrane of animal cells.
Ribosomes
-made of RNA and proteins
-made by nucleoli in nucleus
-60S + 40S --> 80 S (eukaryotes)
-50S + 30S --> 70 S (prokaryotes)
Acquired immunity (adaptive immunity)
A vertebrate specific defense:
-Mediated by B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes
-Exhibits specificity, memory, and self-nonself recognition.
ionic bond
electrons are transferred from one atom to another; one atom loses electrons and becomes positively charged, one gains electrons and becomes negatively charged
Mitochondrion
An organelle in eukaryotic cells that serve as the site of cellular respiration.
grana
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
Proton
A subatomic particle with a single positive charge. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determine its element.
substrate
The reactant on which an enzyme works.
CD8
A cell-surface glycoprotein on some T cells that recognize antigens presented by MHC class I molecules. CD8 binds to MHC class I molecules on the antigen-presenting cell and acts as a co-receptor to augment the T-cell's response to antigen.
at which level of protein structure are interactions between the side chains (R groups) most important?
tertiary
element
any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance
polycythemias
too many red blood cells which elevates blood pressure
estuary
The area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean.
fibrous root systems
Root systems common to monocots consisting of a mat of thin roots that spread out below the soil surface.
cerebrum
area of the brain responsible for all voluntary activities of the body
protein domains
what exons code for; proposed by Walter Gilbert in the 1980s; regions of protein tertiary structure that may have specific functions
Describe: Biochemistry
the study of the molecules and chemical processes (metabolism) of cells
Coevolution
evolution that is cause by two species that interact and influence each other. all predator-prey relationships are examples.
surface tension
hard to break through due to cohesiveness of molecules, as in water
collecting duct
long straight portion after the distal tubule that is the open end of the nephron. It extends from the cortex down through the medulla.
reducing agent
The electron donor in a redox reaction.
Glycogen and chitin
Name 2 common polysaccharides of animals
transport proteins
span the membrane 1. channel proteins which have a hydrophilic channel that certain molecules or ions can use as a tunnel through the membrane (aquaporins facilitate the passage of water through the membrane) 2. carrier proteins bind to molecules and change shape to shuttle them across the membrane
Peripheral resistance
Mechanism by which arteries do not lose much pressure because the heart contracts before enough blood can leave to the arterioles to relieve pressure in arteries.
cyclic photophosphorylation
The generation of ATP by cyclic electron flow.
template strand
The DNA strand that provides the template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcript.
Biomass
Combined weight of all organisms at a given trophic level in an ecosystem
Localized swelling on a root of certain legumes an
root nodule
atrial naturetic peptide
A peptide hormone that opposes the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS).
primary cell wall
A relatively thin and flexable cell wall furthest outside that is first secreted by a plant cell
excited state
when an atom absorbs energy, its moves to a higher energy level
ligand
an atom or molecule or radical or ion that forms a complex around a central atom
missense mutations
The most common type of mutation, a base-pair substitution in which the new codon makes sense in that it still codes for an amino acid.
restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)
Differences in DNA sequence on homologous chromosomes that can result in different patterns of restriction fragment lengths (DNA segments resulting from treatment with restriction enzymes); useful as genetic markers for making linkage maps.
gene expression
the process by which DNA directs the synthesis of proteins
incomplete dominance
occurs when the F1 hybrids have an appearance somewhere in between the phenotypes of the two parental varieties
what type of reaction occurs when fats are digested in the duedunum
decomposition reactions
chemical message, second messenger
what does the attachment of first messengers to receptors on target cell produce?
ultra centrifuges
A machine that spins test tubes at the fastest speeds to separate liquids and particles of different densities.
genomic library
all of the DNA of an organism, stored as individual DNA fragments on a collection of hundreds or thousands of plasmids or other cloning vectors
Dominance Hierarchies
A social group in which some of the individuals have adopted subordinate status to others
List: Most Important Elements in Living Matter
a. carbon (C)
b. oxygen (O)
c. hydrogen (H)
d. nitrogen (N)
nervous system in a human
The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. In most animals the nervous system consists of two parts, central and peripheral. The central nervous system of vertebrates (such as humans) contains the brain, spinal cord, and retina. The peripheral nervous system consists of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons called ganglia, and nerves connecting them to each other and to the central nervous system. These regions are all interconnected by means of complex neural pathways.
antero-
front
coll-
glue
-node
knot
anion
- ion
mono-
one; single
Exocytosis
takes food out
-phyll
pigment in plant cells
ionic
The transferring of electrons.
phagocytosis
taking molecules into cell
Chromosomes first become visible during _____ of mitosis.
prophase
Choanoflagellates
Single-celled eukaryote having a microvilli collar around a single flagellum at their anterior end. A sister taxon of animals and fungi
cephalopoda
squids & octopusses; head surrounded by grasping tentacles (usually with suckers); use a siphon made from foot
phenotype
the physical and physiological traits of an organism, which are determined by its genetic makeup
glycoproteins
proteins that have carbohydrates that are convalently bonded to them.
most secretory proteins
Denaturation
if the pH, salt concentration, temperature, or other aspects of its environment are altered, the protein may unravel and lose its native shape
Plasma membrane
Outer envelope of the cell
Photosystem
Consist of Reaction Center Complex surrounded by light harvesting complexes.
cephalization
An evolutionary trend toward the concentration of sensory equipment at the anterior end of the body.
Nucleus
bounded by the nuclear envelope. contains DNA, hereditary info of the cell.
extracellular matrix
made of glycoproteins and/or proteoglycans, aids in communication of cells and cell to cell adherence
dynein
An ATPase that cross-links adjacent microtubules and that by controllingtheir relative sliding motion regulates the movement of cellular organelles and structures (as the beating of cilia and flagella and the movement of chromosomes to the poles of the spindle)
Classification
Organisms in an ecosystem are classified by trophic levels. Those at the same level are the same number of steps away from the energy input into the ecosystem.
Genus
A group of related, similar species.
the plant hormone involved in aging and ripening of fruit is
ethylene
What is the biggest out of microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate fillaments?
microtubules
hexose
a six-carbon sugar. a common example is glucose, fructose is a common isomer of glucose
Define: Deductive Reasoning
involved in hypothesis-based science; from general premises, we extrapolate to the specific results we should expect if the premises are true (general to specific)
aneuploidy
aberrant gamete unites with normal at fertilization the offspring will have abnormal number of chromosomes
Initiation
Begins when RNA polymerase attaches to a promoter region on the DNA and begins to "unzip" the DNA into two strands. A promoter region for the mRNA often contains the sequence T-A-T-A (called the Tata Box)
nucleic acids
organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorous
Vacuole
A membrane-bound cavity within a cell, often containing a watery liquid or secretion.
hydrocarbons
An organic molecule consisting only of carbon and hydrogen.
Electron
One of the three most important fundamental particles of matter, with mass approximately 0.00055 amu and charge —1.
Pleiotropy
one gene has many effects; affects numerous phenotypes
t-lymphocyte
A type of lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity that differentiates under the influence of the thymus.
P700
Chlorophyll a molecules that serve as the reaction center of Photosystem I, transferring photoexcited electrons to a primary acceptor; named by their absorption peak at 700 nm.
functional groups
A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
DNA Polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication fork by the addition of nucleotides to the existing chain
renal vein
carries processed blood away from kidneys
Atom
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
littoral zone
The shallow, well-lit waters of alake close to shore.
monoecious
Referring to a plant species that has both staminate and carpellate flowers on the same individual.
dendrites
short fibers that branch out from the cell body and pick up incoming messages
Density-dependent inhibition
Many cells stop dividing when their density reaches a certain maximum
polymer
a long molecule made or similar or identical building blocks called monomers, linked by covalent bonds
Define: Food Vacuoles
formed by phagocytosis; a lysosome attaches itself to the food vacuole and its enzymes digest
binomial nomenclature
a scientific naming system where every organism has a unique name consisting of two parts: a genus name and a species name
photosystem I
a type of reaction center; best absorbs light at a wavelength of 700 nanometers; P700
food web
a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
loams
The most fertile of all soils, loams are made up of roughly equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay.
Chemical mediators
What are chemicals called that permit animal cells to communicate with each other or to regulate their own activities
sex chromosomes
One of the pair of chromosomes responsible for determining the sex of an individual
White blood cells
Blood cells which function in defense
reaction center
The chlorophyll a molecule and the primary electron acceptor in a photosystem; they trigger the light reactions of photosynthesis. The chlorophyll donates an electron, excited by light energy, to the primary electron acceptor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
trace elements
an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minimum amounts
3 Zones of a Lake
1.  Littoral
2.  Limnetic
3.  Profundal
All the different molecular forms of a gene that a
Alleles
gene cloning
producing many copies of a gene for basic research or large-scale production of a gene product such as insulin
Steroids
Made up of Four rings that are fused together.
alternative RNA splicing
A type of regulation at the RNA-processing level in which different mRNA molecules are produced from the same primary transcript depending on which RNA segments are treated as exons and which as introns.
replication fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
RNA polymerase
enzyme that pries the two strands of DNA apart and joins the RNA nucleotides as they base-pair along the DNA template (only in the 5' to 3' direction) / does not require a primer
predation
the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey
C4 plants
A plant that prefaces the Calvin cycle for the inital stesp that incorporate [email protected] into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
lymphatic system
picks up loss fluid and drains it back into the circulatory system
transmission electron microscope (TEM)
A microscope that passes an electron beam through very thin sections; primarily used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells.
atomic number
– equal to the number of protons in its nucleus
Define: Heat of Vaporization
the quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 g to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
What does the water current do?
Constantly replace the old water with water that has oxygen in it
vas-
vessel
pom
fruit
Cucmul-
heaped
Facultative Anaerobes
...
Homo-
smae; alike
Disaccharides
double sugar Sucrose
glucagon
increases blood glucose levels
Style
Stalk of the carpel.
met-, meta-
between; along; after
homologous chromosomes
Chromosomes with matching information
solute
the substance that is dissolved
Filament
stalk that supports the anther
Arthropoda
Protostome 3 crustaceans insects spiders
A defining characteristic of allopatric speciation is
geographic isolation
nucleolus
The organelle where ribosomes are made, synthesized and partially assembled, located in the nucleus
steroid
lipid with carbon skeleton consisting of four rings
Flower
The sexual reproductive structure of an angiosperm
Parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives in or on another organism (the host) and consequently harms it
fibrin
The activated form of the blood-clotting protein fibrinogen. It aggregates into threads that form the fabric of the clot.
Motor Neurons
transmit signals to muscle cells
Global Warming
Many researchers suspect greenhouse gases may be contributing to long-term higher temperatures at the Earth's surface
neur-; nerv- (2 defs)
nerve; tendon (2 terms)
Golgi complex
primary lysosomes are formed by budding from the
vacuoles
used to store food, starch, pigment, toxic substances, water, etc.
fermentation
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or latic acid.
adenosine triphosphate
a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue; the major source of energy for cellular reactions
CD4
Surface protein that binds class II MHC molecules to most helper T cells.
absorption
The movement of water and dissolved substances into a cell, tissue, or organism.
Checkpoint
a control point where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cell cycle (signals are transmitted withing the the cell by the signal transduction pathways)
xylem
Xylem in plants is the water conducting tissue in vascular plants.
monohybrids
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. A monohybrid results from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles. For example, parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid genotype of Aa.
Allopatric Speciation
Speciation model. A physical barrier arises and separates populations or subpopulations of a species, ends gene flow, and so favor divergences that result in new species.
Phosphate Group
(-OPO3H2) makes a molecule negatively charged, anion
eosinophils
white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates
Active Site
Restricted region of an enzyme molecule which binds to the substrate
Founder Effect
small group of individuals establishes a population in a new location
Photoautotrophic Prokaryotes
Species that are self-feeders that make their own food by photosynthesis.
a plasmid of a tumor-introducing bacterium that integrates a segment of its DNA into the host chromosome of a plant
Ti plasmid
22
number of pairs of autosomes in a human cell
distal tubule
In the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a nephron that helps refine filtrate and empties it into a collecting duct.
Unsaturated
type of fat that has double carbon bond; the "kinks" in these molecules space them apart to avoid clogging; considered healther fat
free energy
energy that is available to do work
afferent arteriole
In the kidney, the blood vessel supplying a nephron.
Frog heart experiment
evidence signals are chemical
2 frog hearts in saline chamber
nerve that adjusts heart rate still attached
nerve was stimulated and caused both hearts to beat
chemical signals diffused to the other heart
Semiconservative Replication
The double stranded molecules of DNA consists of one old strand and one new strand, it is called "this".
Prophase I
The same as regular prophase but allows for the chance of crossing over during synapsis
proton pump
An active transport mechanism in cell membranes that consumes ATP to force hydrogen ions out of a cell and, in the process, generates a membrane potential
lophotrochozoan
Member of a group of animal phyla identified as a clade by molecular evidence. It includes organisms that have lophophores or trochophore larvae.
Anemia
Lower than normal RBC; may be caused by iron deficiency.
inner ear
the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs
facilitated diffusion
the passive movement of molecules down their concentration gradient via transport proteins
chloroplasts
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
organic molecules
 
functional groups
 
§amine   - NH2 
§phosphate   - PO4 
§carboxylic acid       - COOH  
§alcohol   - OH 
§methyl  - CH3 
Cofacters are _______.
nonprotein enzyme helpers (zinc, iron, etc.)
deductive reasoning
a type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premise
guard cells
epidermal cells on either side of a stomate; open and close the stomate
proteins, RNA
most enzymes are types of _____ but some are _____.
Integral Protein
A protein imbedded in the bilayer of the cell membrane
tubular secretion
The process in which ions and other waste products are transported into the distal tubules of the nephron.
phylogenetic species concept
defines a species as the smallest group of individuals that share a common ancestor
gene-for-gene recognition
resistance to a disease depends on a precise match up between an allele in a plany and an allele in the pathogen
Cell Plate
wall of vesicles that form between two newly created plant cells
you are what you eat
carbs, nucleic acids, amino acids, and protein
cerebral spinal fluid
the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord
Activation energy
The amount of energy needed to start a reaction
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally
Hypertonic solution
of two fluids, the one with the higher solute concentration
Single-stranded binding proteins
hold the two DNA strands apart so they can "resist their attraction" to one another
the balanced chemical equation for the degradation of glucose
C6H12O6 + 6O2 --> 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (ATP + heat)
-spire
breathe
phyll
leaf
Baro-
weight
Holo-
entire; whole
enhancers
distant control elements
Ethane Gas
an alkane hydrocarbon
Endosperm
Food for the seed.
-ine
of or pertaining to
Ovary
Structure where egg are developed
sexual selection
competition to attract mates
(plant cell) structure: chloroplast
function: photosynthesis
dwarf misteltoes are flowering plants that grow on certain forest trees. they obtain nutrients and water from the vascular tissues of the trees. the trees derive in known benefits from the dwarf misteltoes. which of the following best describes the intera
parasitisim
carbonyl
functional group >CO; forms ketones (if in the middle of carbon skeleton) and aldehydes (if at the end); these two groups form sugars (aldoses and ketoses); hydrophilic
fat
organic molecule that contains fatty acids and glycerol; found in adipose tissue of vertebrates which protects body organs, insulates body, and stores energy in the body
Conjugation
bacteria share genetic material to improve chances of survival
Enzymes
Most important type of protein, regulate metabolism
Fruit
seed bearing structure in an angiosperm, used for dispersal of seeds
RFLP or riflips
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Can be used to sequence DNA, using a nylon membrane
platelet
A pinched-off cytoplasmic fragment of a specialized bone marrow cell. They circulate in the blood and are important in blood clotting.
Catabolic Pathways
breakdown pathways, ex. cellular respiration
Trophic Levels

The different feeding relationships in an ecosystem


Only 10% of the energy taken in by an organism is stored


Energy is passed through no more than 4-5 levels
opt-; -opsy (2 defs)
eye; vision (2 terms)
granum
a sack of thylakoids within a chloroplast
prokaryotes
lack many organelles; consist of only a plasma membrane, DNA molecule, ribosomes, cytoplasm, and cell wall; do not have a nucleus
coenzyme
an organic molecule that helps an enzyme catalyze a reaction, An organic molecule serving as a cofactor; most vitamins function as this for important metabolic reactions
Interferon
Provide innate defense against viri by being secreted by virus-infected body cells and causing neighboring uninfected cells to produce other substances that inhibnit viral reproduction.
arbitrary
based on or subject to individual discretion or preference or sometimes impulse or caprice
Metaphase Plate
the imaginary plane where the chromosomes line up
cristae
(plural, cristae) An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
Amniote
Type of tetrapod that produces amniote eggs. Major groups are synapsids (mammals and early mammal-like reptiles) and sauropsids (reptiles and birds).
polar molecule
molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
Phagocytes
allow lysosomes to fuse with the vesicles that contain the ingested bacteria and viruses
Chemical Equilibrium
Equilibrium established when the rate of forward reaction equals the rate of reverse reaction
Catastrophism
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time.
three-domain system
A system of taxonomic classification based on three basic groups: Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Chemoautotrophic Prokaryotes
Species that are self-feeders by obtaining carbon from CO2 and by obtaining energy by oxidizing organic or inorganic compounds.
-meter, -metry
way of measuring, instrument for measuring
tetraploid cell
4n, when a pair of homologous chromosomes (4 sister chromatids) join together
Hydrogen
a type of bond between molecules not atoms; water is classic example
electron transport system
a series of electron carrier molecules, found in thylakoid membranes of chlorplasts and the inner membrane of mitochondria, that extract energy from electrons and generate ATP or other energetic molecules.
osmoconformer
An animal that is isoosmotic with its environment.
fish heart
blood flows in 1 circuit
2 chamber drives it into gills
then blood flows to rest of body
if someone can explain to me why this is so inefficient that would be great
RNA Primers
A short strand of RNA nucleotides. Catalyzed by RNA Primase.
Haploid Cell
have only one set of chromosomes, labeled n
pollen tube
The pollen tube ultimately enters an ovule through the micropyle and penetrates one of the sterile cells on either side of the egg
body cavity
A fluid- or air-filled space between the digestive tract and the body wall
Codominance
When both alleles are expressed in a heterozygous organism.
Multiple Fruit
A fruit derived from an inflorescence, a group of flowers tightly clustered together.
synapse
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
colloids (emulsions)
made of larger particles that dont settle out
 
may scatter light
Equilibrium is in a state of _____ stability.
maximum
tissue
an integrated goup of cells w a common function, structure or both
zone of elongation
location in plant where cells get longer
allosteric site
A specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site.
Vascular Cambium
Lateral meristem in plants, it is the source of both the phloem and xylem.
day-neutral plants
A plant in which flowering can occur irrespective of the day length
Energy Coupling
the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one
organ system level
consist of different organs that work closely together
refractory period
Na+ pumped out of cell and K+ pumped into cell
Allosteric sites
A region of the enzyme other then the active site to which a substrate can bind
Hypotonic solution
of two liquids, the one with the lower solute concentration
maternal effect genes
A gene from the mother, in which its phenotype in the zygote is influenced from the mother's genotype, not from the zygote's.
a proton-motive force is ___
the H+ gradient force that drives H+ through the channels provided by ATP synthase
mycet-
fungus
human
primate
-pod
foot
dors-
back
hema
blood
guinea worm
nematoda
external fertilization
...
orth-
straight; correct; right
male
xy, testes, sperm
location where digestion begins
mouth
Heterochromatin
Nontranscribed eukaryotic chromatin that is so highly compacted that it is visible with a light microscope during interphase.
Modified Root of a Plant
ethology
the study of animal behavior
Order
In classification, the taxonomic category above family
lagging strand
A discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates in a direction away from the replication fork.
cellulose
A structural polysaccharide of cell walls, consisting of glucose monomers joined by b-1, 4-glycosidic linkages.
where we call urine urine
collecting ducts
deoxyribonucleic acid
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
inversion
reverses a segment of a chromosome
Alcohol fermentation
Fermentation in which enzymes decarboxylate pyruvate to form a two-carbon compound called acetaldehyde. NADH produced during glycolysis transfers hydrogen atoms to the acetaldehyde, reducing it to ethyl alcohol.
autotrophs
organisms that synthesize their own nutrients
sources of variations
mutations and sexual recombination
repressor
A protein that suppresses the transcription of a gene.
Pollen
the fine spores that contain male gametes and that are borne by an anther in a flowering plant
visible light
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.
kinetochore
a specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
mutagens
A chemical or physical agent that interacts with DNA and causes a mutation.
one reason deciduous plants lose leaves in the winter
water conservation
carbonyl group
a functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bounded to an oxygen atom.
Primary producers
Trophic level that ultimately supports all others; consists of autotrophs
Artificial Selection
The selective breeding of domesticated plants and animals to encourage the occurrence of desirable traits.
nucleoside triphosphate
Molecule consisting of a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar, and three phosphate groups.
Exaptations
A structure that evolves and functions in one environmental context but that can perform additional functions when placed in some new environment.
Variation
The variety of different types of genes in a species or population.
gram-positive
bacteria that has simpler cell walls and large amounts of peptidoglycans
Reticular Fiber
A fine, branching collagen fiber coated with glycoprotein, found in the stroma of lymphatic organs and some other tissues and organs
fragile X syndrome
A hereditary mental disorder, partially explained by genomic imprinting and the addition of nucleotides to a triplet repeat near the end of an X chromosome.
Asexual Reproduction
reproduction that does not involve the union of gametes and in which a single parent produces offspring that are genetically identical to the parent
Oxidative Phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
transcription
The synthesis of RNA on a DNA template.
Calorie
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius (1°C) from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. Calorie spelled with a capital C refers to the kilocalorie (1 kcal = 1,000 cal).
Gross primary production
Total primary production on an ecosystem
Descent with Modification
Darwin's initial phrase for the general process of evolution.
Life cycle
the course of developmental changes in an organism from fertilized zygote to maturity when another zygote can be produced
hybrid zones
an ancestral species hits a barrier (allopatric, sympatric, etc.) and creates a new species but the 2 species still share genetic information (gene flow) between the two
pheromones
chemical signals that may be used to attact mates
Receptor-mediated Endocytosis
Take in cholesterol for use in the synthesis of membranes and other steroids.
passive transport
The diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane
Molecule
A particle made up of two or more atoms joined by covalent bonds or ionic attractions.
Genomic imprinting
gene on 1 chromosome is silenced while its allele on the homologous chromosome is left free to be expressed
gene pool
The total aggregate of genes in a population at any one time.
yeast artificial chromosome
Extremely large segments of DNA from another species spliced into DNA of yeast. YACs are used to clone up to one million bases of foreign DNA into a host cell, where the DNA is propagated along with the yeast cell's other chromosomes.
polygenic traits
traits that are affected by more than one gene-ex: eye color (affected by tone, amount, position)
induced fit
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
How can you protect yourself from malaria?
mosquito nets, protective clothing
analogous structures
structures, such as a bat's wing and a fly's wing, that have the same function, but the similarity is superficial and reflects an adaptation to similar environments, not a common ancestry
mechanism that open/close stomatal pore
K+ = sunlight, hyper guard cells, open, H20 flows in
K- = nightime, hypo guard cells, closed, H20 flows out
Auxin Producing area of a plant
Auxins are plant hormones. It is made in the shoot apical meristem and travels downward in the phloem.
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