AP Biology - Ecology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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Life Table
(Pic)
detritus
dead organic matter
dominants species
have highest biomass
r-selected populations
Density independent selection- maximizes growth rate and occurs in environments in which population densities are well below carrying capacity; characterized by opportunistic species (grasses, insects) that quickly invade a habitat, quickly reproduce and then die
Survivorship Curve 2
constant rate
example: hydra
Commensalism
+/0 relationship; Ex barnacles attached to whales
clumped
individuals are separated in patches
Immigration
Movement of individuals into a population
Relative Abundance
The proportional abundance of different species in a community.
Biotic Factors
other living organisms, prey, competitors, predators, parasites, disease
decomposion of nigrogne back to ammonium
ammonification
Phosphorous cycle
biological importance: phosphorous a component of many important macromolecules in organisms. forms available to life: phosphate. reservoirs: sedimentary rocks of marine origin, soils, oceans, organisms. key processes: weathering of rocks, uptake of phosphate, decomposition.
interspecific interactions
relationships between individuals of two or more species in a community
operant conditioning
trial-and-error learning, when an animal learns to associated one of its own behaviors with a reward or punishment and then tends to repeat or avoid that behavior
macroclimate
Large-scale variations in climate; the climate of an entire region.
tropics
latitudes between 23.5 degrees north and south
Emigration
Movement of individuals out of a population
trophic structure
The different feeding relationships in an ecosystem, which determine the route of energy flow and the pattern of chemical cycling
R-Selection
Selection for life history traits that maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments; also called density-independent selection.
Resource Partitioning
Some species coexist by occupying slightly different niches; pursue slightly different resources or secure their resources in slightly different ways; i.e. warblers in spruce trees
Population Size
factors that affect this include, birth rate, death rate, immigration, emigration
Logistic Growth
Pattern of population growth that occurs when limiting factors restrict the size of the population to the carrying capacity of the habitat.(Forms an S-shaped curve [a sigmoid] when graphed.
biological magnficantion
toxins become more coneenctrate din successive trophic levels of a food web
Nitrogen cycle
biological importance: nitrogen is a component of amino acids and nucleic acids and a crucial plant nutrient. forms available to life: ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, organic forms.reservoirs: atmosphere, soil, sediments, dissolved in groundwater, biomass of plants and animals. key processes: nitrogen fixation (conversion of n2 into usable forms by bacteria), ammonification (decomposes organic nitrogen to ammonia), nitrification (ammonia is converted to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria) denitrification (denitrifying bacteria under anaerobic conditions use nitrate instead of o2 in their metabolism, releasing n2)
density
the number of individuals per unit area or volume
coniferous forests
distribution: broad bands across north america and eurasia, largest terrestrial biome, precipitation: 30-70 cm/yr, temp: cold winters, summers around 30 degrees C, plants: coniferous trees like spruce, fir, hemlock, shrub and herb layer. animals: migratory birds, mammals
tertiary consumer
a carnivore that eats other carnivores
Territoriality
The defense of a bounded physical space against encroachment occurs in the absence of strong attractions or repulsions among individuals of a population or where key physical or chemical factors are relatively homogeneous across the study area.
Nitrification
NH4+ to NO2- by various nitrifying bacteria.
age structure
the proportion of individuals in different age groups
Character displacement (niche shift)
Result of resource partitioning, certain characteristics may enable individuals to obtain resources in their partitions more successfully.
interactive hypothesis
ADVOCATED BY F.E. CLEMENTS IN EARLY 1900'S, SAW COMMUNITY AS AN ASSEMBLAGE OF CLOSELY LINKED SPECIES ACTING AS SUPERORGANISM
batesian mimicry
1 harmless species mimics a dangerous species
Carrying Capacity
Maximum number of individuals of a population that a particular habitat can sustain
Population
Group of individuals all of the same SPECIES LIVING in the SAME AREA.
seconadayr succession
existing ocmmunity ahs been cleared by a disturbance that leaves thesoil intact
Primary Succession
Begins on a virtually lifeless area, like a new volcanic island
cognitive maps
internal codes of spatial relations of objects in an organism's environment
life history
the traits that affect an organism's schedule of reproduction and survival
problem solving
the cognitive activity of devising a method to proceed from one state to another in the face of real or apparent obstacles
proximate causation
"how" a behavior occurs or is modified
estuary
The area where a freshwater stream or river merges with the ocean.
search image
the mechanism that enables an animal to find particular foods efficiently
dispersion pattern
the way individuals are spaced within their area
competitive exclusion principle
The concept that when populations of two similar species compete for the same limited resources, one population will use the resources more efficiently and have a reproductive advantage that will eventually lead to the elimination of the other population.
Survivorship Curve 1
high death rate in past reproductive years.
example: humans
Biomass
The total mass of organic matter of a group of organisms in a particular habitat
lake turnover
seasonal, the movement of the top well oxygenated water to the bottom of the lake and the nutrient rich water to the top of the lake
fixed action pattern
sequence of unlearned acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, usually carried to completion
pelagic zone
The area of the ocean past the continental shelf, with areas of open water often reaching to very great depths.
stability
the tendency to remain in a more or less constant balance due largely to interactions among organisms
Zero Population Growth (ZPG)
Death rate and birth rate are equal
greenhouse effect
The warming of planet Earth due to the atmospheric accumulation of carbon dioxide, which absorbs reflected infrared radiation and re-reflects some of it back toward Earth.
ecological niche
the sum total of a species' use of the biotic and abiotic resources in its environment
Hydrologic Cycle (water cycle): Assimilation
Of the Hydrologic Cycle, Plants absorb water from the soil, animals drink water or eat other organisms (which are mostly water
Factors that may affect biotic potential
Age to reproduce, Clutch size (# of offspring produced at reproduction), Frequency of reproduction, Reproductive lifetime, and Survivorship of offspring long enough to reproduce.
Interspecific Competition
___
predator
consumer in predation
Exponential, Logistic Population Growth & Carrying Capacity (K)
(Pic)
semelparity
Single reproductive opportunity to reproduce a large number of offspring (big bang reproduction)
iteroparous
organisms that produce offspring repeatedly
conservation biology
integrates ecology. physiology, molecular biology, genetics, and evolutionary biology to conserve biological diversity at all levels.
cognitive ethology
study of animal cognition
Secondary Consumers
Carnivores that eat the herbivores
Dispersion
Describes how individuals in a population are distributed. (IE clumped [people in cities], uniform [trees in orchards], or random [trees in forest])
Predation
+/- interaction between species in which one kills and eats the other
taxis
an automatic, oriented movement toward or away from a stimulus.
symbiosis
a relationship type in which individuals of two or more species live in direct and intimate contact with one another
dispersal
The distribution of individuals within geographic population boundaries.
food web
network of interconnecting food chains
limiting factors
Anything that limits (restricts) the size of a population
Microclimate
Very fine scale patterns of climate, such as the specific climate conditions underneath a log.
Habitat
Type of place where an organism usually lives
type II
describes organisms in which the length of living is random
habituation
loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convery littele or no information. simple form of learning
Coral Reef
Formed largely from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals
ecological succession
(ecology) the gradual and orderly process of change in an ecosystem brought about by the progressive replacement of one community by another until a stable climax is established
signal
behavior that triggers a change in other animal's behavior.
foraging
mechanisms that an animal uses to recognize, search for, and capture food.
agnostic behavior
an often ritualized contest that determines which competitor gains access to a resource
Turnover
This brings oxygenates water from a lake's surface to the bottom and nutrient-rich water from the bottom to the surface in both spring and autumn.
precautionary principle
A guiding principle in making decisions about the environment, cautioning to consider carefully the potential consequences of actions.
Learning
a change in behavior resulting from experience
disturbance
a force that alters a biological community and usually removes organisms from it
Fertility Rate
Number of offspring produced by a female during her reproductive years
density-dependent factor
a limiting factor that depends on population size
agnositic response
a response of aggression or submission between two organisms
Temperate Deciduous Forest
warm summer, cold winter, moderate precipitation, trees that shed leaves
Pyramid of biomass
biomass pyramids correspond to the amount of biomass present at each trophic level. the amount decreases as the trophic levels progress, with the producers having the highest biomass and the tertiary consumers have the least
Niko Tinbergen
found that digger wasps use spatial learning, and found their nest entrances by using landmarks, or location indicators in the environment.
population ecology
the study of populations in relation to their environment, including environmental influences on population density and distribution, age structure, and variations in population size
biosphere
the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems and landscapes
canopy
The uppermost layer of vegetation in a terrestrial biome.
opportunistic life history
population tends to grow exponentially when conditions are favorable
tertiary consumers
snakes that eat mice is an example
net primary productivity (npp)
equal to gross productivity minus energy used by primary producers for respiration
Type I Survivorship Curve
Curve that describes species where most individuals survive to middle age. After that, mortality is high. (humans)
Realized Niche
When predators are present both by be able to survive by occupying their realized niche that part of their existence where niche overlap is absent
global climate change
gradual warming of earth's climate due to excess greenhouse gasses in the environment
Hamilton's rule
(rB > C) the principle that for natural selection to favor an altruistic act, the benefit to the recipient, devalued by the coefficient of relatedness, must exceed the cost to the altruist
Population Dynamics
The study that focuses on the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors that cause variation in the size of populations.
aphotic zone
 
The part of the ocean beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur.
photic zone
The narrow top layer of an ocean or lake, where light penetrates sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur.
Competitive Exclusion Principle (Gause's)
No two species can sustain coexistence if they occupy the same niche; when two species compete for the same resource only one will be successful
density independent
a birth rate or death rate that does not change with population density
Equation for the growth of a population
r=(births - deaths)/N where r=reproductive/growth rate and N=initial population size
In an ecosystem, what are the producers?
in an ecosystem the producers are the photosynthetic autotrophic organisms
Herbivore
Animal that eats plants.
Tundra
distribution: artic, precipitation: 20-60 cm/yr, can exceed 100 in apline tundra, temp: winters -30 degrees C, summers are short and cool, 10 degrees C, plants: herbacious, lichens, mosses, grasses, forbs, dwarf shrubs, permanent frozen soil layer called permafrost, animals: musk ox, caribou,reindeer, bears, wolves, foxes, birds
detrivore
decomposer, consumes nonliving organic material
other nutrient cycles
ammonium, h20, phosphorus
food webs
the interconnected feeding relationships in an ecosystem
animal behavior
externally observable muscular activity triggered by some stimulus
agnostic behaviors
ritualized contests that determine which competitor gains access to a resources such as food or mates
permafrost
a permanently frozen layer of soil
desertification
conversion of other biomes (especially savannas) to deserts
climate
the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
ecosystem
all the living and nonliving things that interact in an area
K-Selection
Selection for life history traits that are sensitive to population density; also called density-dependent selection.
seconday compounds
toxic chemicals produced in plants that discourage would-be herbivores
Ecological Efficiency
Describes the proportion of energy represented at one trophic level that is transferred to the next level. [how much energy moves from one organism to another]
Biological Magnification
Toxin accumulation in tissues; toxins become more concentrated in successive levels of a food web: 100-80%, 10-80%, 1-80%.
reproductive table
age specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population constructed by measuring the reproductive outputs of cohorts from birth until death
imprinting
a type of behavior that includes learning and innate components and is generally irreversible. has a sensitive period, which is a limited phase in an animal's behavior that is the only time that the behaviors can be learned.
benthos
the communities of organisms living in the benthic zone of an aquatic biome
ecology
The study of how organisms interact with their environment.
Omnivore
Organism that feeds on both plant and animal life
littoral zone
In a lake, the shallow, well-lit waters close to shore.
Type I Survivorship
Most individuals survive to middle age; mortality is high after that age; i.e. humans
Primary Productivity
The amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs in a given time period
evapotranspiration
The total evaporation of water from an ecosystem, including evaporation from soil and the outside of plants, as well as the transpiration of water from within plants through stomata.
tropical rain forests
very humid equatorial areas, rainfall is abundant (>250 cm/year) + season of reduced rainfall for a few months
Realized/Fundamental niche
Niche that an organism occupies in the absence of competing species.
competitive exclusion
2 similar species compete for the same resources, one population uses resources more efficiently will eliminate the other species
Aposematic coloration (warning coloration)
Conspicuous pattern or coloration of animals that warns predators that they sting, bite, taste bad, or are otherwise to be avoided.
Ecological (trophic) Efficiency
Energy transfer - 100%, 10%, 1%, 0.1%
net primary production
(NPP) , the gross primary production of an ecosystem minus the energy used by the producers for respiration.
density dependent factors
factors whose effects depend on the opulation size (limited food supply and the buildup of poisonous wastes)
survivorship II
the entire age range has an equal risk of death (eagles)
Nichole Korpi and Brian Wisenden
studied the role that associative learning might play in helping prey avoid predators using zebra fish and alarm substances
effective population size
An estimate of the size of a population based on the numbers of females and males that successfully breed; generally smaller than the total population.
In an ecosystem, what are the secondary consumers?
The secondary consumers are carnivorous animals that eat herbivorous animals.
what factors determine a particular biome?
the biome's varying biotic and abiotic factors
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