Linguistics - Final Exam Flashcards

Linguistics
Terms Definitions
nov
new
æ
bat
macro-
long, large
in-/en-
in, into
 
 
Anatomy of physiology
ɳ
voiced retroflex nasal
word
no good definition
Morphemes
Minimal units with meaning
MODALITY
OR
MOOD
CONDITIONALITY,NECESSITY, POSSIBILITY, ETC. THAT QUALIFY A VERB, EXPRESSED BY VARIOUS MEANS, WHETHER IN A VERB, A MODAL AUXILIARY, CERTAIN CONJUNCTIONS, SENTENCE STRUCTURE, OR IN A COMBINATION OF THESE
adjective
words that describe a noun
Universal Grammar
Common property or blueprint
Critical Period
birth to mid childhood
Determiner
-Morphemes that indicate something about the nouns they appear with, i.e. quantity, posession
synomyny
words have the same meaning
symbolic sign
meaning by virtue of convention
Voiced
The vocal cords/folds are vibrating, causing the individual sound of ones voice.
extension
widening or extending the appropriate usage of a wordex. from the color to the overall representation of communism or socialismex. silverware- from cutlery actually made of silver to ... cutlery
Allomorph
alternatnt realization of a morpheme in a particular linguistic environment ex.plural morpheme s, z, ɘz
Synonymy
two words with the same meaning
Agglutinating
-A synthetic language in which relationships between words are indicated primarily by bound morphemes.
verner's law
voiceless fricative resulting from grimm's law underwent voicing if the original PIE accent did not immediately precede it
aspirated
Describes a voiceless stop produced with a puff of air that results when the vocal cords remain open for a brief period after the release of the stop, e.g., the [p^h] in pit. See unaspirated.
subjective
relating to properties or specific conditions of the mind as distinguished from general or universal experience.
hedge
tentative phrase "kind of, sort of"
Stable bilingualism
knowing and speaking two different languages.
 
 
Free Morpheme
Free morphemes may occur unattached to other morphemes, and they can stand alone as independent words (grace, shock, act, etc.
reg/rig
rule, straight (king, or one who rules)
borrowing
when you take a word [loanword] directly from another language and nativize it- usually a sign that a word is borrowed is when the stress patterns changeex. bagel, genre, tortilla, tobacco, buckaroo, etc.
deixis
words used to determine time, person or spacial meaning.
lexicon
Greek for dictionary. ex your mental lexicon
mystification
evidence of the speaker holding back information (back)
SYNTAX
SYSTEMATIC WAYS IN WHICH WORDS COMBINE TO CREATE WELL-FORMED PHRASES, CLAUSES, AND SENTENCES
Stem
-The base on which a morphological process acts, always contains a root and possibly one or more affixes
DIACRITICS
phonetic marks that indicate a value not expressed in the accompanying phonetic symbol or letter.
corpus callosum
allows the two hemispheres to communicate with one another
lexical semantics
sub-field of semantics that is concerned with the meanings of morphemes and words
3 types of context
Linguistic context, situational context, social context
archaism
something archaic, as a word or expression.
language death
the complete displacement of one language by another in a population of speakers
morpheme
any of the minimal grammatical units of a language, each constituting a word or meaningful part of a word, that cannot be divided into smaller independent grammatical parts, as the, write, or the -ed of waited.
bound morphemes
must be attact to another morpheme
productivity
you can put things together in a completely new way that has never been done before and still be understood
Onomatopoeic
Sounds of the word imitate sounds of nature
etymology
the origin, or the study of the origin, of words
elision
dropping sounds in a word. i.e. saying six when meaning sixths. dropping ths
state explicitly the rules of the language, list the words and pronunciations and aid in learning a new language or dialect
teaching grammar
DENOTATIVE MEANING
Lexical meaning that depends on the relationship of a word to nonlinguistic things, rather than on linguistic and cognitive associations on the parts of the speakers and hearers. Also called denotation.
Conjunction
A function word that joins words and phrases of the same category. (and, or, but)
NASAL
stop produced when air flows from the lungs through the nose, such as [m], [n], the final sounds in sum, sin, and sting.
Grimm's law
the consonant shifts that took place between proto-indo-european and proto-germanic
cooperative principle
A broad principle within whose scope fall the various maxims of conversation. It states that in order to communicate effectively, speakers should agree to be informative and relevant.
metonymy
a figure of speech that consists of the use of the name of one object or concept for that of another to which it is related, or of which it is a part, as "scepter" for "sovereignty," or "the bottle" for "strong drink," or "count heads (or noses)" for "cou
transformational grammar
a system of grammatical analysis, esp. a form of generative grammar, that posits the existence of deep structure and surface structure, using a set of transformational rules to derive surface structure forms from deep structure; a grammar that uses transf
adjacency pairs
exchanges in dialogue "how are you?" "fine"
Language Isolates
in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or "genetic") relationship with other language
Equipotentiality
As a child you have the capacity to acquire any language
Field dependence
A learning style in which the learner operates holistically, perceiving the "field" as a whole rather than in terms of its component parts.
ɯ / u
close back unrounded / rounded

[u] - "who'd", "who", "hoot"
Family Tree Theory
theory in which languages are assumed to have common ancestors - most similarities are found in familial terms, numbers, and body parts

ex) Greek, Sanskrit, Latin
Movement Test
-Test for constituent where you move a part to another area.
-Ex: She loves to eat rice.
She loves rice to eat.
grammaticalization
the change of a lexical form into a grammatical form
Writing Allophonic Variation
- What changes → what it becomes / preceding context ___ following context
simile
a figure of speech in which two unlike things are explicitly compared, as in "she is like a rose."
selection errors
cases in which a speaker has picked out the wrong item to put in a sentence
Language Endangerment, Death, and Revitalization
Language Endangerment- a language that has very few speakers left
Death- complete demise of a language, no longer has any speakers (Latin)
Revitalization - a preservation of languages that are endangered
minimal pair
pair of words that differ only by one phone
What is Phonics Debate
Debate on the effectiveness of two different teaching methods for reading.
metaphor
a figure of speech in which a term or phrase is applied to something to which it is not literally applicable in order to suggest a resemblance, as in "A mighty fortress is our God."
Conventional but arbitrary meanings
The answer to #3 can be strung together to produce higher order units endowed with ______
What is a Creole
When a pidgin becomes a mother tongue it is referred to as a creole.

Example: Tok Pisin Papua New Guinea developed from a pidgin to a creole.

Linked Terms: Pidgin, Lingua Franca
Principle of Maximal Onset
If there is more than one way to syllabify segments across a syllable boundary, go for the one that maximizes in the onset without violating any of the language-specific phonotactics (in_struct)
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