AP Biology 12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Primary Consumers
with; together
does normal metabolism
solid mass of cells
met, meta
between, along, after
basic unti of life
enzyme that fuses DNA segments
organizing the structures and activities of cells
compounds containing amino functional groups
Organic compound containing hydroxyl groups
First-formed, outer primary tissue layer of animal ambryos; gives rise to nervous tissues and outer layer of the integument.
a polymer of many monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions
class pisces
fish; cold-blooded vertebrates with gills, scales, and a 2-chambered heart
programmed cell death involving a cascade of specific cellular events leading to death and destruction of the cell
nucleic acid
a polymer (polynucleotide) consisting of many nucleotide monomers; serves as a blueprint for proteins, and through the actions of proteins, for all cellular activities; two types are DNA and RNA
A connective tissue consisting of living cells held in a rigid matrix of collagen fibers embedded in calcium salts
Microtubules move the chromosomes to the metaphase plate at the equator of the cell. The microtubule complex is referred to as the spindle. The centriols have migrate to opposite poles in the cell riding along the developed spindle.
light-capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast, consisting of a reaction center surrounded by numerous light-harvesting complexes
circular DNA molecule found in bacteria
RNA molecules that function as enzymes
An external skeleton; a hardened cuticle.
An adhering junction between animal cells.
Nitrogen fixation is
conversion of nitrogen to ammonia
the search for info and explanation, often focused by specific questions
Phylum Nematoda
Ex; hookworms, pinworms. Habitat is marine and freshwater and endoparasites are in their intestines. Means "round bodied worms". Nematods are pseudocoelomate, with some organ systems(no ciculatory. Sexual Rpro is: Seperate boy and girl worms lay eggs.
a biochemical pathway in which one six-carbon molecule of glucose is oxidized to produce two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid; first step in releasing the energy of glucose, in which a molecule of glucose is broken into two molecules of pyruvic acid
what is the charge of a neutron
General body fluid found in open circulatory systems.
In bacteria, a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene and signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule and detach from the DNA.
when one gene has multiple phenotypic effects
Movement toward or away from a stimulus.
Limp. Walled cells are limp in isotonic surroundings, where there is no tendency for water to enter.
Acoelomate Animal
Any invertebrate with no fluid-filled cavity between its guy and body wall. Ex: A flatworm.
short sequence near the promoter that assists in transcription by interacting with transcription factors
the substance in which the solute dissolves
Deductive Reasoning
Making an inference from general premises to specific consequences, which logically follow if the premises are true
Define: Polypeptides
a. polymers of amino acids
b. constructed from the same set of 20 amino acids
c. formed by peptide bonds
d. at one end is a free amino group, and at the other end is a free carboxyl group
An informal term applied to any eukaryote that is not a plant, animal, or fungus. Most protists are unicellular, though some are colonial or multicellular.
Global warming
Long-term increase in temperature of Earth's lower atmosphere.
-cule, -culus
added to nouns to form diminutive
A member of a jawless class of vertebrates represented today by the lampreys and hagfishes.
perfect flowers
flowers have both male and female parts
5' cap
a modified form of guanin nucleotide added onto the nucleotide at the 5' end of the pre-mRNA molecule
Intracellular Receptor
When the signal (usually a hormone) can easily pass through the plasma membrane and bind to receptor protein within the cell
Describe: Nuclear Matrix
a framework of fibers extending throughout the nuclear interior
an enzyme produced in all cells to decompose hydrogen peroxide, a by-product of cell respiration
The ability of one group of embryonic cells to influence the development of another.
somatic cell
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
Batesian mimicry
evolution by one species to resemble the coloration body shape or behavior of another species that is protected from predators by a defensive adaptation
dominance hierarchy
ranking of individuals in a group based on aggressive behavior
One of two compounds that are mirror images of each other.
compared to euk, prok have
smaller and simpler genomes
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
The formation of ATP by directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.
sodium potassium pump
actively maintains the gradient of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells . K+ concentration is low outside animal cell and high inside the cell. Na+ concentration is high outside an animal cell and low inside the cell. the sodium potassium pump maintains these concentration gradients using the energy of one ATP to pump three Na+ out and two K+ in
A gene can have more than one allele. Alleles are found on corresponding loci of homologous chromosomes. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene. One allele can be dominant and the other can be recessive. Two identical alleles are said to be homozygous not heterozygous with respect to a gene.
Heritable feature of body form, functioning, or be
reproductive isolating mechanism
the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey
Enzyme Substrate Complex
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecules
molarity (M)
the numbe of moles of a solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
cell cycle control system
a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
complete dominance
A type of inheritance in which the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable.
Chaperone molecules
What are the molecules called that aid the protein to fold properly
adaptive radiation
process by which a single species or small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways; rapid growth in the diversity of a group of organisms
aqueous solution
A solution in which water is the solvent.
The 1st stage of mitosis, in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form, but the nucleolus and nucleus are still intact
A point along the stem of a plant at which leaves are attached.
Rough Endoplasmic recticulum
Portion of ER whose outer surface has attached ribosomes
475 million years
How long ago was dry land life found?
survival needs
normal body temperature
effects the rate of normal chemical reactions
What does ADH stimulate?
Kidneys to retain more water in the blood (less urine)
components of nucleotide monomers
(of DNA) have a 5 carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four kinds of nitrogen-containing bases, (A,T,G, or C)
maintains homeostasis
true tissues
Folds in Mitochondrion
study of plants
amino group: compound name
Hydrophobic, large biological molecules that do not include true polymers, consist mostly of hydrocarbon regions
rosette cellulose
synthesizing complex-Rose-shaped array of proteins that synthesize the cellulose microfibrils of the cell walls of charophyceans and land plants.
secondary structure
foiling/coiling polypeptide, with alpha helix & beta pleated sheet
Circardian rhyhm
time or the day
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
Domains (new system)
Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya.
maturation and successful entry of young into an adult breeding population
A long, tapered water-conducting cell that is dead at maturity and is found in the xylem of all vascular plants.
Cell-free fluid extracted from the body fluid by the excretory system.
An instrument that measures the proportions of light of different wavelengths absorbed and transmitted by a pigment solution.
when an extra gene is added
an organism's appearance or other detectable characteristic that results from the organism's genotype and the environment
directional selection
Natural selection that favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
when two alleles are expressed equally
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
a deciduous gymnosperm; it's ancestors were diverse in dinosaur times.
An actively cooperating group of individuals belonging to the same species and often closely related.
continental drift
slow movement of Earth's continents over time; helps explain phenomenons such as convergent evolution
water is hydrogen bonded to the neighbor; as one molecule is lost, the rest of chain is pulled up
small core protein with many carbon chains
in bacteria, the region of bacterial DNA that regulates gene expression; consists of structural genes, a regulatory gene, a promoter gene, and an operator
Cell Wall
extracellular structure of plant cells that protects the cell, maintains its shape, and prevents excess uptake of water
amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
The first organisms that did not require water for reproduction were the:
a. ferns
b. lycophytes
d.a living fossil
e. all of these
The two-part latinized name of a species, consisting of genus and specific epithet.
Mitotic Spindle
The Apparatus of microtubules that control the chromosomes movement during mitosis. Includes the Centrosomes, the fibers, and the asters.
breaks down large food molecules to small ones, digests old cell parts
Adipose tissue
-Stores fat in adipose cells distributed throughout the matrix
-Pads body, stores fuel
-Each cell contains a fat droplet which shrinks or grows as the body stores/uses fuel
-A type of loose connective tissue
Potential Energy
The energy of state or position.
chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction
How do pathogens produce symptoms?
exotoxins and endotoxins
an alcohol with three carbons, each with hydroxyl group (component of fat)
Vestigal Structures
remnants of features that served important functions in the organism's ancestors
vitreous body
Clear, gel-like substance that fills the inner cavity of the eye and sustains its shape
Another major group of amniotes that includes all reptiles and birds.
part of green algae; live in fresh water but many are marine inhabitants; some live in damp soil, other on glaciers and snowfields; some live symbiotically with fungi to form lichens
the F1 generation (first one after the original pair)
citric acid
the 6-carbon molecule that is the result of the combination of acetyl coenzyme A and oxaloacetate
determinate cleavage
A type of embryonic development in protostomes that rigidly casts the developmental fate of each embryonic cell very early.
copying genetic code from DNA and end up with mRNA
Name for an element with a different number of neutrons and atomic mass
one joule equals 0.239 cal: a calorie equals 4.184 J.
histone acetylation
The attachment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins.
a single celled organism that lacks a nucleus and other internal compartments
What is homeostasis?
The process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment.
Define: Structural Formula
notation that represents both atoms and bonding (for example: H-H)
An atom that has gained electrons and has a negative charge now.
sodium-potassium pump
an example of active transport that ushers out sodium ions and brings in potassium ions using ATP
ester linkage
three fatty acids are joined to glycerol by a
when a protein unravels and looses its shape, thereby becoming biologically inactive
lytic pathway
A rapid viral replication pathway that ends with lysis of a host cell.
Quaternary protein structure
Results from the polypeptide chains (subunits). Collagen has 3 pp. chains in a triple helix.
in vitro mutagenesis
A technique to discover the function of a gene by introducing specific changes into the sequence of a cloned gene, reinserting the mutated gene into a cell, and studying the phenotype of the mutant.
Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR)
A defensive response in infected plants that helps protect healthy tissue from pathogenic invasion.
Diffusion of temperature
when two objects are different they will become similar by diffusing KE
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
Produced and secreted by the anterior pituitary
Stimulates production/secretion of steroid hormones by adrenal cortex
chemical reaction
a process that changes one set of chemicals into another set of chemicals
sex chromosomes
X and Y chromosomes that determine the gender of an individual
feedback inhibition
a method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pahtway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within that pathway
dominant allele
In a heterozygote, the allele that is fully expressed in the phenotype.
DNA proofreading mechanisms
fix most errors in replication and most of the strand breaks, and can reverse catalytic additions by one base and correct a mismatch.
A large molecule made up of similar or identical subunits called monomers.
The four main biological molecules are
carbohydrates, lipids, proein, nucleic acids
What are the results of mitosis?
2 diploid generic-twin daughter cells.
An atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons, thus acquiring a charge.
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
Has one or more double bonds formed by the removal of hydrogen. Has a kink in the hydrocarbon chain
All of the following are adaptations of terrestrial plants that distinguish them from the green algae from which they evolved EXCEPT
the existence of chloroplasts, which are organelles that absorb sunlight for use in photosynthesis
It decides what comes in and out.
What is the function of a plasma membrane of a cell?
apart; out
supporting cells
-COOH, carboxylic acid
middle; half; intermediate
Sign Stimulus
what triggers FAP
an organism's genetic makeup
exotic species
resident of established community
disperses from home range and established elsewhere
species doesn't have competitors, predators, parasites, or diseases that otherwise constrain its population
-out compete similar species
stable sections of a protein
The X-shaped, microscopically visible where the homologous nonsister chromatids have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis, the two homologs remaining associated due to sister chromatid cohesision
jawned fish, went extinct 350 mya
the joining of homologous chromosomes along their length. Perfect alignment is necessary for the crossing over
chemical substances that often (but not exclusively) relate to reproductive behavior; used by animals that communicate through odors; detectable from very far away
Define: Inquiry
search for information and explanation
loss of water vapor from stomates
Double helix
Structure of DNA; sugar-phosphate backbone with base pairing in middle bonded by hydrogen bonds.
green algae
has chlorophyll a and b
Compartments provide...
different local environemts that facilitate specific metabolic functions allowing several incompatible processes to go on simultaneously in a cell.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Secretes bile (for emulsifying fat); roles in carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism.
Type of protistan biochemically, evolutionarily, a
Green alga
encloses the central vacuole; part of the endomembrane system
Stem cells with the potential to differentiate into most any type of cell
the water cycle
Biological importance: Water is essential to all organisms and its availability influences rates of ecosystem processes, particularly primary production and decompostion in terrestrial ecosystems.
Forms available to life: Liquid water is the primary physical phase in which water is used, though some organisms can harvest water vapor. Freezing of soil water can limit water availability to terrestrial plants.
Reservoirs: The oceans contain 97% of the water in the biosphere. Approximately 2% is bound in glaciers and polar ice caps, and the remaining 1% in lakes, rivers, and groundwater, with a negligible amount in the atmosphere.
Key processes: The main processes driving the water cycle are evaporation of liquid water by solar energy, condensation of water vapor into clouds, and precipitation. Transpiration by terrestrial plants also moves significant volumes of water. Surface and groundwater flow can return water to the oceans, completing the water cycle.
peptidyl transferase
peptide bond formation requires this enzyme
What is a catabolic reaction?
A decomposition reaction
amino groups
R-NH2, amines can act as bases
N- containing base found in nucleic acide DNA (not RNA)
the readily stainable substance of a cell nucleus consisting of DNA and RNA and various proteins
The carbohydrate used by arthropods to build exoskeletons
morphological convergence
evolution of similar body parts
have analogous structure
nitrogen fixation
The conversion of atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to ammonia (NH3). Biological nitrogen fixation is carried out by certain prokaryotes, some of which have mutualistic relationships with plants.
a molecule branching off in four directions; carbon is an example of this, a quality allowing it to be extremely versatile
the type of protein that selectively accelerates chemical reactions; example: digestive enzymes release polymers in food
catalysts that speed up a reaction without being consumed or produced by the reaction, most end in -ase; lowers activation energy; made of proteins
chemical bonds
an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms gain compounds outer electron shells
fragment attaches to chromatid but in the opposite orientation
A cross that might reveal the (unknown) genotype of an individual showing dominance for a trait; the individual is crossed with a known homozygous recessive individual.
Only invertebrate with a mantle draped over a soft, fleshy visceral mass; most have an external or internal shell
Interspecific interaction
relationships between the species of a community
The following are all true about the life cycle of mosses except
A) external water is required for fertilization.
B) flagellated sperm are produced.
C) antheridia and archegonia are produced by gametophytes.
D) the gametophyte generation is dominant.
E) t
a group of individuals of the same age, from birth until all are dead.
modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA
isomers that are mirror images of each other; like lef handed and right handed versions of a molecule
hydrolysis reaction
Reaction in which a covalent bond between two subunits is broken through the addition of the equivalent of a water molecule; a hydrogen atom is added to one subunit and a hydroxyl group to the other.
Stabilizing Selection
Favors the middle phenotypic range on an extreme level. Steep curve. Extremes are culled.
Golgi Apparatus
a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells (especially in those cells that produce secretions)
Structural Isomers
Compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms
ATP synthase
A cluster of several membrane proteins found in the mitochondrial crista (and bacterial plasma membrane) that function in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chains, using the energy of a hydrogen ion concentration gradient to make ATP. Provide a port through which hydrogen ions diffuse into the matrix of a mitrochondrion.
found only in plants and algae, the sites of photosynthesis
conversion of nitrates in the soil by bacteria into nitrogen gas
Organic Chemistry
The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
A process that is the reverse of dehydration, disassembles polymers into monomers
What is sexual reproduction?
Hereditary information from two individuals is combined in their reproduction.
A drug or medicine given to reduce pain
Part of mollusk life cycle in which it's a ciliated larva
multiple alleles
more than two alleles (ex ABO blood type)
carbon skeleton
The chain of carbon atoms in an organic molecule.
Organ Systems
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions
Scientists involved in the discovery of the structure of DNA and its replication
in order: Griffith, Avery+McCarty+Macleod, Chargaff, Hershey+Chase, Pauling, Franklin+Wilkins, Watson+Crick, Meselson+Stahl
Dynamic Stability Hypothesis
A theory suggesting that food chain length is limited because longer food chains are less stable and higher level consumers would be at a higher risk of extinction
..., Small raised areas in the bark of stems and roots that enable gas exchange between living cells and the outside air.
passive transport
the diffusion of a substance across a biological membrane because it require no energy from the cell to make it happen - the concentration gradient represents potential energy and drives fusion
spinal nerves
is formed from the dorsal and ventral roots that come out of the spinal cord; emerges at two points from the spinal cord, the ventral and dorsal roots
Species diversity of a community
has two components, species richness, and relative abundance
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
A nucleic acid found in all living cells which carry the organisms hereditary information; consists of nucleotides called A adenine T thymine G guanine C cystosine
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid
What four different organs satify the requirements for a respiratory surface?
gills, lungs, trachae, skin
P S Ca K
remaining 4% of living matter is made up of...?
The formation of ice during colder weather helps moderate the seasonal transition to winter. This is because
the formation of hydrogen bonds releases heat
5 G3P are rearranged back into 3 RuBP during ___
phase 3 of the calvin cycle
Flower ovary
rib, lung
break, frag
spongy mesophyll
gas circulation
lacking affinity for water
plasm-; -plast
form; formed into
female gamete, large, nonmotile
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
stalk between stigma and ovary
(XXY) chromosomal alteration disorder in 1/2000 and is a male with small testes and sterile but has a normal intelligence
what does mechanical isolation prevent?
A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes.
esophageal sphincter
valvelike trapdoor between the esophagus and the stomach
substances that minimize change in pH
A group of light-trapping green pigments found in most photosynthetic organisms.
DNA and associated proteins condensed for cell division
Characteristic # per species
Contain hundreds/thousands of genes
which plants are flowering and vascular?
regulates milk to release during nursing
The cell takes in biological molecules and particulate matter by forming new vesicles from the plasma membrane.
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
a mass of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue, caused by the uncontrolled growth of a transformed cell
weather conditions that favor
hot, dry, windy weather
A subatomic particle with a single positive charge. The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom determine its element.
the clinging of one substance to another
Chlorophyll a
principle pigment; it absorbs purple and red light.
The aspect of metabolism in which complex substances are broken down to form simpler substances; catabolic reactions are particularly important in releasing chemical energy stored by the cell.
Prezygotic Barriers
A reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization of ova if interspecific mating is attempted.
genus name for the bacterium that produces botulism, a very serious form of food poisoning
The more open, unraveled form of eukaryotic chromatin that is available for transcription.
tiny bits of protoplasm found in vertebrate blood, a cell fragment that plays an important part in forming blood clots
The time periods of pregnancy (in humans each is about 3 months)
radioactive isotopes
atoms that are unstable, meaning they decay, or break down, to form stable atoms of a different element; emits a significant amount of energy
The process of generating ATP from ADP and phosphate by means of a proton-motive force generated by the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis.
krebs Cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
all of the individuals of a community and the environment in which it exists
pulmonary artery
only artery with low oxygen blood, going to lungs to get oxygen
3D space or volume within which an electron is most likely to be found.
peptide bond
bonds which link amino acids, formed by dehydration synthesis
Rubisco will add ____ to RuBP, which then splits into 3 carbon and two carbon molecule.
The removal of an amino group (-NH2) from an amino acid or other organic compound.
biotic potential
maximum rate at which a population could increase under ideal conditions
Satellite DNA
regions of highly repetitive DNA from a eukaryotic chromosome, identifiable by its unusual nucleotide composition.
a sheet or band of tough fibrous tissue connecting bones or cartilages or supporting muscles or organs
F plasmid
The plasmid form of an F factor.
electrochemical gradient
drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane 1. chemical force based on an ions concentration gradient. 2. the other is an electrical force based on the effect of the membrane potential on the ion's movement ion diffuses down its electrochemical gradient
what are effectors
cell capable of carrying out some action in response to a command from the nervous system
a solution with an excess of H+ ions and a pH below 7.0
cyclic electron transport
In photosynthesis, the cyclic flow of electrons through Photosystem I; ATP is formed by chemiosmosis, but no photolysis of water occurs, and O2 and NADPH are not produced.
Haploid cell
cell with only one set of chromosomes, Sperm or ovum in animals.
what do postzygotic barriers stop?
production of viable, fertile offspring
reverse transcriptase
An enzyme encoded by some RNA viruses that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis.
plants grow toward light through
hormones, cell elongation on shadow side (auxins)
genetic drift
Changes in the gene pool of a small population due to chance.
gametic isolation
the gametes (sperm and egg) may not be compatible
Adaptation of an Animal
A trait that is developed over time by an animal that contributes to its survival
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