AP Biology 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
scale of ovulate (ovule-bearing) pinecone
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte
Given the differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms in the development of the integument(s), which
of these statements is the most logical consequence?
A) The seed coats of angiosperms should be relatively thicker than those of gymnosperms.
B) It sh
Which feature of cycads distinguishes them from most other gymnosperms?
1. They have exposed ovules.
2. They have flagellated sperm.
3. They are pollinated by animals.
A) 1 only
B) 2 only
C) 3 only
D) 2 and 3
E) 1, 2, and 3
Which structure(s) must pass through the micropyle for successful fertilization to occur in angiosperms?
A) one sperm nucleus
B) two sperm nuclei
C) the pollen tube
D) A and C
E) B and C
A plant whose reproductive parts produce nectar is also most likely to
A) have brightly colored reproductive parts.
B) produce sweet-tasting fruit.
C) rely on wind pollination.
D) have no parts that can perform photosynthesis.
E) suffer significant seed l
microspores of pollen cones
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte
megasporangium of pine ovules
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte
The internal fertilization that occurs prior to shell deposition
A) endosperm
B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei
C) carpels
D) fruit
E) integuments
integument of pine seed
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte
Generally, wind pollination is most likely to be found in seed plants that grow
A) close to the ground.
B) in dense, single-species stands.
C) in relative isolation from other members of the same species.
D) along coastlines where prevailing winds blow fr
In angiosperms, which number most nearly represents the event that initiates the formation of endosperm?
A) 4
B) 6
C) 8
D) 10
E) 12
Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except
A) seeds.
B) pollen.
C) vascular tissue.
D) ovaries.
E) ovules.
Which number represents the mature gametophyte?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 5
D) 7
E) 11
The generative cell of male angiosperm gametophytes is haploid. This cell divides to produce two haploid
sperm cells. What type of cell division does the generative cell undergo to produce these sperm cells?
A) binary fission
B) mitosis
C) meiosis
D) mito
How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?
A) by nourishing the plants that make them
B) by facilitating dispersal of seeds
C) by attracting insects to the pollen inside
D) by producing sperm and eggs inside a protective coat
E) by produci
The shell of an animal egg
A) endosperm
B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei
C) carpels
D) fruit
E) integuments
Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like
poison oak (Rhus). These secondary compounds are primarily adaptations that
A) prevent desiccation.
B) favor pollination.
C) foster seed dispersal.
D) de
Among plants known as legumes (beans, peas, alfalfa, clover, etc.) the seeds are contained in a fruit that is itself
called a legume, better known as a pod. Upon opening such pods, it is commonly observed that some ovules
have become mature seeds, whereas
A botanist was visiting a tropical region for the purpose of discovering plants with medicinal properties. All of
the following might be ways of identifying potentially useful plants except
A) observing which plants sick animals seek out.
B) observing whi
Which of the following is true concerning flowering plants?
A) The flower includes sporoophyte tissue.
B) The gametophyte generation is dominant.
C) The gametophyte generation is what we see when looking at a large plant.
D) The sporophyte generation is n
What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels, and pinecone scales?
A) They are female reproductive parts.
B) None are capable of photosynthesis.
C) They are modified leaves.
D) They are found on flowers.
E) They are found on angiosperms.
Which structure is common to both gymnosperms and angiosperms?
A) stigma
B) carpel
C) ovule
D) ovary
E) anthers
The result of heterospory is
A) the existence of male and female sporophytes.
B) the existence of male and female gametophytes.
C) the absence of sexuality from both plant generations.
D) both (A) and (B) above.
Meiosis is most likely to be represented by which number(s)?
A) 2
B) 4
C) 2 and 8
D) 4 and 8
E) 10 and 12
Which of the following is a characteristic of all angiosperms?
A) complete reliance on wind as the pollinating agent
B) double internal fertilization
C) free-living gametophytes
D) carpels that contain microsporangia
E) ovules that are not contained withi
The embryo sac of an angiosperm flower is best represented by which number?
A) 1
B) 3
C) 7
D) 9
E) 11
What is the greatest threat to plant diversity?
A) insects
B) grazing and browsing by animals
C) pathogenic fungi
D) competition with other plants
E) human population growth
Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?
A) in the style of a flower
B) inside the tip of a pollen tube
C) enclosed in the stigma of a flower
D) within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower
E) packed into pollen sacs within the ant
Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure
to UV radiation. Rank the cells below, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this
1. cells of sporangium
Native peoples of Guam, such as the Chamorro people, are familiar with the toxicity of cycad tissues, and
avoid eating them. They do, however, feast on flying foxes. The Chamorros suffer relatively high incidences of
a neurodegenerative disease similar to
A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and cell
walls made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, which of the following, if present, would be least
A) endosperm
B) seeds
C) s
Which of these statements is true of monocots?
A) They are currently thought to be polyphyletic.
B) The veins of their leaves form a netlike pattern.
C) They, along with the eudicots, magnoliids, and basal angiosperms, are currently placed in the phylum
How many chromosomes should be in a tube cell nucleus?
A) 4
B) 8
C) 16
D) 24
E) 32
How many chromosomes should be in an endosperm nucleus?
A) 4
B) 8
C) 16
D) 24
E) 32
The yolk and/or albumen of an animal egg
A) endosperm
B) pollen tube and sperm nuclei
C) carpels
D) fruit
E) integuments
egg cell in the embryo sac
A) male gametophyte
B) female gametophyte
C) male sporophyte
D) female sporophyte
In seed plants, which part of a pollen grain has a function most like that of the seed coat?
A) sporophyll
B) male gametophyte
C) sporopollenin
D) stigma
E) sporangium
being twofold
hidden; covered
mouth of windpipe
Thyroid gland
Successful metabolism-burns calories-produces juices (can change personality or appearance)=amount of heat released when 1 gram of water cools 1 degree.
plasm, plast
form, formed into
Sexual spore of zygomycetes
electron carrier that provides high-energy electrons for photosynthesis
lumen of the intestine
inside earthworm's
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
The scientific study of life
A muscular tube. Invertebrate chordates use theirs in filter-feeding and respiration. In land vertebrates, it is the entrance to the esophagus and trachea
process that is esseentially the reverse of the dehydration reaction; meaning to break water
golden algae; most are unicellular, some are multicellular; have photosynthetic pigments and their cells are covered by tiny scales of silica or calcium carbonate
any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen; atoms of hydrogen are attached to the carbon skeleton wherever electrons are available; not present in living organisms, but cells' organic molecules have regions that contain these
Molecules that are partially positive and partially negatively charged
Non-Competitive Inhibitors
Causes enzymes to change shape
A free-living flatworm found in unpolluted ponds and streams
set of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials as it carries out its life processes
organelle near the nucleus that produces microtubules
benthic zone
The bottom of the ocean
Interspecific Interactions
influence each population's density and dispersion through a habitat
Lipids containing a phosphate group; important constituents of cellular membranes.
Plant hormone involved in aging and ripening of fruit
positive feedback
a physiological control mechanism in which a change in a variable truggers mechanisms that amplify the change
Are eukaryotic cells bigger or smaller than prokaryotic cells?
the contraction or shrinking of the cell membrane of a plant cell in a hypertonic solution in response to the loss of water by osmosis
An ending material in a chemical reaction.
Low-density lipoproteins
"Bad cholesterol" that contributes to abnormal blood clotting by accumulating in plaques that line the inner walls of arteries
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule.
Using a somatic cell from a multicellular organism to make one or more genetically identical individuals.
The use of living organisms to detoxify and restore polluted and degraded ecosystems.
the binding together of like molecules often by hydrogen bonds
Antigen-Presenting Cell
Lymphocyte that binds and processes antigen to T cells as antigen-MHC complexes; secretes cytokines that stimulate proliferation and differentation of lymphocytes.
Carbon doubled bonded to an oxygen bonded to a hydroxyl group
Carboxylic acids, example: acetic acid
Space between the cell membrane and the nucleus that contains the organelles, icky liquid stuff in cell.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
An organic compound containing adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups; of prime importance for energy transfers in cells.
Describe: Microfibrils
units of parallels cellulose molecules in plant cell walls
One of five supergroups of eukaryotes proposed in a current hypothesis of the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. Excavates have unique cytoskeletal features, and some species have an "excavated" feeding groove on one side of the cell body. See also Chromalveolata, Rhizaria, Archaeplastida, and Unikonta.
The chorion is the outermost membrane around the embryo in mammals.It develops from an outer fold on the surface of the yolk sac. which lies outside the vitteline envelope and is developed by the follicle cells while the egg is in the ovary.
Chemical reaction
change reactants into products while conserving matter; most are reversible; Chemical equilibrium is reached when the forward and reverse reaction rates are =
what are the scales of reptiles made out of?
The twig grafted onto the stock when making a graft.
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
recombinant DNA
DNA in which nucleotide seqences from different sorces are combined
noncompetitive inhibition
in inhibitor molecule binds to a different part of the enzyme, causing a change in shape of the enzyme, preventing the substrate from binding
Define: Nucleus
organelle that contains most of the genes in a eukaryotic cell
collar cells that line the body cavity and have flagella that circulate wtaer in sponges
ribulose biphosphate (RuBP)
the 5-carbon molecule that combines with carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle to form an unstable 6-carbon compound
The movement of materials out of the cytoplasm of a cell by the fusion of vesicles with the plasma membrane.
portion of the brain in charge of coordination and balance
What does the SV node do?
Initiate a heartbeat
Carry blood away from the heart to organs
intermediate filaments
anchorage of nucleus and certain other organelles, formation of nuclear lamina
carboxyl group
A functional group present in organic acids and consisting of a single carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group.
Spring Overturn
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) from the surface moves to deep water and nutrients released by decomposition moves to surface
types of chromosomes that, in certain combinations
Sex chromosomes
fixed-action pattern
A sequence of behavorial acts that is essentially unchangeable and usually carried out to completion once initiated
stop codon
signals the end of the protein; UAA, UGA, UAG; end PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC messages
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree
specific epithet
The second part of a binomial, it refers to one species within a genus.
bound ribosomes
attached to outside of ER or nuclear envelope- proteins that are destined for insertion into membranes or packaging certain organelles (ex: lysosome)
gene pool
consists of all copies of every type of allele at every locus in all members of the population
turgor pressure
The force directed against a cell wall after the influx of water and the swelling of a walled cell due to osmosis.
How small do organisms have to be for diffusion to happen?
The 3rd stage of mitosis, in which the spindle is complete and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all aligned at the metaphase plate
pacemaker of the heart
sinoatrial node. passes from SN to atrioventricular node, then to bundle of His
molecular weight
the sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule
descent with modification
Darwin's phrase on his view of life; he perceived unity in life with all organisms related through descent from some unknown ancestor that lived in the remote past
G0 Phase
A non dividing state in which a cell has left the cell cycle
When does the right atrium secrete atrial natriuretic hormone?
Response to increased blood volume
What is the respiratory pigment in vertebrates?
pigemnts that increase the oxygen carrying capactiy of blood cells, hemocyanin
start grouping
with; together
A heritable feature.
hollow ball of cells
a state or condition
decomposers are ___ (heterotrophs/autotrophs)
Scanning electron microscopes show _____ images
The X-shaped, microscopically visible region representing homologous chromatids that have exchanged genetic material through crossing over during meiosis.
enzyme that breaks down starch
Small nonprotein molecules required for proper enzyme catalysis
Any mulicelled heterotroph that ingests other organisms or their tissues, develops through a series of embryonic stages, and is motile during part or all of the life cycle. Most species have epithelial tissues and extracellular matrixes.
plants that have a symbiotic relationship with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
organelle that controls all the activities of a cell and contains hereditary material made of DNA
organic molecule that contains fatty acids and glycerol; found in adipose tissue of vertebrates which protects body organs, insulates body, and stores energy in the body
Referring to organisms for which external sources provide most of the heat for temperature regulation
Star-shaped structure formed in the cytoplasm of a cell having fibers like rays that surround the centrosome during mitosis
addition of electrons to another substance
Hydrogen bonded to an oxygen
Alcohols example ethanol
individual that arises from asexual reproduction
sugar connected to nitrogeneous base in RNA
Having the same solute concentration; said of two solutions.
which of the following describes carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor re-reflection infrared radiation back toward earth?
greenhouse effect
the entire portion of earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planter's ecosystems
The dry weight of organic matter comprising a group of organisms in a particular habitat.
a protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate
nucleic acids
polymers, chains of nucleotides where sugar of one nucleotide is joined to phosphate group of the next. acids.
Blood Vessels
Circulatory tubes through which fluids travel through the body
long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron
two dominant traits that are both shown
A symbiotic relationship in which the symbiont benefits but the host is neither helped nor harmed.
peripheral proteins
Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
Asexual Reproduction
Any reproductive mode by which offspring arise from one parent and inherit that parent's genes only. Ex: Prokaryotic fission, transverse fission, budding, vegetative propagation.
Missense Mutation
substitution of a wrong nucleotide into DNA
An energy unit equal to .239 calories
Define: Polysaccharide
macromolecules, polymers with a few hundred to thousand monosaccharides joined by glycosidic linkages
Member of a diverse clade of flagellated protists that includes predatory heterotrophs, photosynthetic autotrophs, and pathogenic parasites.
Carbon cycle
Atmospheric cycle. Carbon moves from its environmental reservoirs (sediments, rocks, the ocean) through the atmosphere (mostly as CO2), food webs, and back to the reservoirs.Moves carbon from its main reservoirs in rocks and seawater, through its gaseous from (carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere, and then through ecosystems. Deforestation and the burning of wood and fossil fuels are adding more carbon dioxide to the atmosphere than the oceans can absorb.
Like fats, but contain phosphorus and 2 fatty acids.
lateral line system
A mechanoreceptor system consisting of a series of pores and receptor units (neuromasts) along the sides of the body of fishes and aquatic amphibians; detects water movements made by an animal itself and by other moving objects.
Parenchyma cells
consist of mesophyl cells- allow CO2 and O2 to diffuse, stores pigments; flesh of fruit
A network of long protein strands in the cytosol that helps support the cell
reverse transcriptase
an enzyme encoded by certain viruses (retroviruses) that uses RNA as a template for DNA synthesis
active site
where substrate and enzyme bind; very specific fit
List: Intercellular Junctions
a. in plants: plasmodesmata
b. in animals: tight junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions
balanced polymorphism
the presence of two or more phenotypically distict forms of a trait in a single population, such as two varieties of peppered moths, black ones and white ones.
Expression Vector
A cloning vector that contains the requisite prokaryotic promoter just upstream of a restriction site where a eukaryotic gene can be inserted.
A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
cellular slime molds
protists with a unique eating strategy; when plenty of food is available they eat alone, while in stressful times they group together to form a unit.
A type of relationship in which an individual of one sex mates with several of the other.
methyl group
A chemical group consisting of a carbon bonded to three hydrogen atoms. The methyl group may be attached to a carbon or to a different atom.
More common is?
beneficial of benign rather than harmful
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
oxidizing agent
The electron acceptor in a redox reaction.
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)
organelle that extends from the nuclear envelope through cytoplasm. Ribosomes coat the cytoplasmic side of rough ER, which modifies many new polypeptide chains in its lumen. Membrane lipids are assembled, fatty acids are broken down, and some toxins are inactivated in the lumen of smooth ER
Minimum amount of energy required to get a specifi
adaptive zone
genetics and behavior
what foods organisms of a certain population will eat is determined by their genes, not by what is in their environment
ex: coastal garter snakes eat banana slugs, inland do not. A hybrid semi likes them
hydroxide ion
a lost proton from a water molecule with a charge of 1-
prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
five subsections of the M phase
central vacuole
A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development.
What is the term used to describe two or more atoms combined chemically
Dissociation curve
Shows the amount of O2 bound to hemoglobin exposed to solutions varying in oxygen levels.
A variant form of an atom with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
Platelet-derived Growth factor (PDGF)
Required for the division of fibroblasts in culture
function of a root cap
covers and protects the apical meristem of the root
Complete Digestive Tracts
When an organism has a digestive tube that extends between two openings, a mouth and an anus. A.K.A. an alimentary canal.
If, on average, 46% of the loci in a speciesʹ gene pool are heterozygous, then the average homozygosity of the
species should be
A) 23%
B) 46%
C) 54%
D) 92%
E) There is not enough information to say
axial part
makes up the main axis of our body including the head neck, and trunk
the 4 "phases" in mitosis (in order)
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
open circulatory system
blood flows in and o ut of vessels or the heart
accept H+
storeroom; chamber
potential energy
stored energy
have two flagella, biolumiescent
A negatively charged ion
lofty, high, in air
Earth formed
4.6 billion years ago
Liquid filled membrane enclosed compartment in cytoplasm many function as digestive chambers storage chambers waste bins
missing chromosome (caused by nondisjunction)
High pH level
Substance is basic
when ion is specifcally +
free radicals
mitochondria negatively affect health and aging through release of
A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.
Kingdom Plantae
multi-cellular eukaryotes that carry out photosynthesis
the dispersing substance in the solvent; ex: salt (solute) dissolves in water (solvent)
lagging strand
discontinuously synthesized DNA strand that elongates by means of Okazaki fragments in the 5'-3' direction, away from the replication fork
compund that produces hydroxide ions in solutions
a small cellular inclusion consisting of a ring of DNA that is not in a chromosome but is capable of autonomous replication
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
differences between members of the same species
a barrel-shaped structure that arises from a centrosome and organizes newly forming microtubules into a 9 + 2 array inside a cillium or flagellum
kin selection
A phenomenon of inclusive fitness, used to explain altruistic behavior between related individuals; i.e. an individual's alleles may benefit more from that individual sacrificing itself for its kin than by selfishly saving itself
include water molds, downy mildews and white rusts. Either parasites or saprobes
concentration of hydrogen (H+) ions in fluids H+ ions are extremely reactive in solution; change shape of complex molecules; in human body can disrupt cell and tissue function- body fluids must be regulated precisely
A transcription factor that binds to an enhancer and stimulates transcription of a gene.
decomposition reaction
breaks a molecule into smaller fragments; AB -> A + B; water molecule broken into hydrogen and oxygen
The fruiting body of a sac fungus
do not code for a functioning protein
Gene flow
transfer of alleles between population due to the movement of fertile individuals or their gametes
smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element
One DNA molecule and its associated proteins, regardless of whether it's in its threadlike or condensed form
The biological role played by a particular species in its community or enviorment.
recognition protein
identifies cell type, individual, or species
Geometric Isomers
Isomers sharing the same covalent partnerships but differ in spatial arrangements
Controlled Experiment
Where the experimental group is compared to the control group.
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
Another 30% CO2 reversibly binds with certain amino acids in hemoglobin forming this (HbCO2)
Tracheal System
Gas exchange in insects, chitin-lined tubes that infiltrate the body and carry oxygen directly to cells
Endosymbiotic Theory
a theory that states that certain kinds of prokaryotes began living inside of larger cells and evolved into the organelles of modern-day eukaryotes
Within a few weeks of treatment with the drug 3TC, a patientʹs HIV population consists entirely of
3TC-resistant viruses. How can this result best be explained?
A) HIV can change its surface proteins and resist vaccines.
B) The patient must have become r
member of a gene pair - not necessarily the same expression of a trait
intermembrane space
the narrow region between the inner and outer membranes of mitochondria.
a group of similar cells that carry out a similar function
Types of monosaccharides
glucose(6 ring) and fructose (5 ring)
a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
Genomic imprinting occurs
during the formation of gametes. e
use info, from the DNA to make proteins and carry out protein synthesis
Infoldings of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP
the retention in an adult organism of the juvenile features of its evolutionary ancestors
aphotic zone
where little light penetrates in an aquatic zone
cell fractionation
ability to use centrifuges to split apart cells
Radiometric dating
the process of measuring the absolute age of geologic material by measuring the concentrations of radioactive isotopes and their decay products
A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited
Linear Electron Flow
Primary Pathway, produces ATP and NADPH
An atom or group of atoms with electrons added or removed, giving it a negative or positive electrical charge.
the conversion of the signal in a cell to a form that can bring about a specific cellular response
The sum total of all processes in an organism which break down chemicals to produce energy and simple chemical building blocks
Define: Thylakoids
a membranous system in the form of flattened interconnected sacs inside the chloroplast
Lactic Acid Fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to lactate with no release of carbon dioxide.
temperate phage
A phage that is capable of reproducing by either the lytic or lysogenic cycle.
scanning electron microscope
used to view the surface of cells
Contractile Vacuoles
sac that helps move excess water out of certain freshwater protists
Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium equation
p^2+2pq+q^2 = 1p+q=1p= number of dominant allelesq= number of recessive allelesp^2 = Homozygous dominant2pq = heterozygotesq^2 = homozygous recessive
DNA replication
life cycle of HIV: what is step 6? (after reverse transcription)
single-strand binding proteins
a protein that binds to the unpaired DNA and holds them apart during replication
sickle cell anemia
A human genetic disease of red blood cells caused by the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; it is the most common inherited disease among African Americans.
Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (CDKS)
A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin.
crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM)
A type of metabolism in which carbon dioxide is taken in at night and incorporated into a variety of organic acids.
which of the following pieces of evidence most strongly supports the common origin of all life on earth?
all organisms use essentially the same genetic code.
naked; bare
new; recent
H-W Equation
p^2 +2pq+q2=1
If intelligent extraterrestrials visited Earth 475 million years ago, and then again 300 million years ago (at the
close of the Carboniferous period), what trends would they have noticed in Earthʹs terrestrial vegetation over
this period?
1. a trend from
individuals join population
causes population to gain alleles
Animal having a backbone.
Eukariotic Cell
Plant and animal cells
tiny, finger-like structures that protrude from the wall of the intestine
not like a parent type
Hydrogen bonds, helix or twist
negatively charged ion; more electrons than protons
prokaryotes givve genes to prokaryotes through pilus
mineral nutrients
Essential chemical elements absorbed from the soil in the form of inorganic ions.
a substance that increases the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution
sufhydryl groups
R-S-H=thiols, important to protein stucture
Krebs Cycle
Occurs in mitochondrial matrix
Makes ATP by substrate level
CO2 is waste product Also referred to Citric Acid Cycle
the mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function
Triplet Code
A series of non-overlapping, three-nucleotide words. The flow determines which amino acid is produce.
An aggregation of several ribosomes attached to one messenger RNA molecule.
found nowhere else in the world
substances that conduct an electrical current in a solution
alll ions are electrolytes
contains all of the organelles in cytoplasm bound by a plasma membrane which is enclosed by a cell wall; living component of cell
efferent arteriole
the blood vessel draining a nephron
exchange reaction
parts of reacting molecules are "shuffled around" to produce new products; AB + CD ---> AD + CB
A type of elicitor (molecule that induces a broad defense response in plants) that is derived from cellulose fragments released by cell wall damage.
Electrons with the least amount of potential energy are located in the __________ shell.
first portion if small intestine where acid chyme from the stomach mixes with digestive juices from the pancreas, liver, gallbladder, and the small intestine itself
collagenous fibers
made of collagen(the most abundant protein),nonelastic
pure substance that contains only one kind of atom
a specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
new layers of sediment cover older ones and compress them into superimposed layers of rock
biological magnification
increasing concentration of a harmful substance in organisms at higher trophic levels in a food chain or food web
moves two substances at the same time
The materials left after a chemical reaction
chlorophyll A
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
Social Parasite

Manipulates the social behavior of another species to complete life cycle

Ex. cuckoo bird and cowbird
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast us
Males of one species sing only when its predators are absent; males of another species sing only when its
predators are present.
A) behavioral
B) gametic
C) habitat
D) temporal
E) mechanical
What seperate''s the cell's contents from the cytoplasm?
the nuclear envelope
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
coenzyme of oxidation-reduction that accepts electrons and hydrogen ions to become NADH + H+ as oxidation of substrates occurs; during cellular respiration, NADH carries electrons to the electron transport chain in the mitochondria
form in which the liver and muscles store glucose
Lymphatic system
System that returns fluid and proteins lost from capillaries into interstitial fluid to the blood.
Feedback inhibition
The formation of an end product inhibits an earlier reaction in the sequence
region of space where an electron can be found 90 percent of the time
A type of endocytosis in which the cell ingests extracellular fluid and its dissolved solutes.
Light Reactions
the steps in photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and that convert solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH evolving oxygen in the process
population genetics
The study of how populations change genetically over time.
The osmotic pressure or tension of a solution, usually relative to that of blood
a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area
the first subphase of mitosis in which the chromatin is condensing and the mitotic spindle begins to form but the nucleolus and nucleus are still in intact
PEP Carboxylase
An enzyme that adds CO2 to phosphoenolpyruvate to form oxaloacetate
Condensation reaction
A reaction in which two molecules become connected by a covalent bond and a molecule of water is released. (AH + BOH -> AB + H2O.)
receptor protein
A protein, located on a membrane (or in the cytoplasm), that recognizes and binds to specific molecules. Binding typically triggers a response by a cell, such as endocytosis, increased metabolic rate, or cell division.
lymph vessel
return fluid that flows out of blood to blood
w/o system fluid collects in tissue producing an edema
The period in the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Interphase accounts for 90% of the cell cycle.
properties of lipids
made up of hydrocarbon chains, include fats, phospholipids, and steroids
primary cell wall
A relatively thin and flexible layer first secreted by a young plant cell.
lies outside of the cell wall, made of carbohydrates, and is pathogenic
Klinefelter Syndrome
XXY; the extra X is inactivated. It gives males feminine like features
an end evolves into a head, with a concentration of sensory and nerve cells that responds more efficiently to environmental stimuli
radial symmetry
when an animal has a top and bottom but no right and left sides
a cell with a cell wall that has a reasonable amount of pressure but is healthy
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG)
A record of the electrical impulses that travel through cardiac muscle during the heart cycle.
law of independent assortment
Mendel's 2nd law; each pair of alleles segregates independently during gamete formation
surface tension
how hard it is to break the surface of a liquid
two components of the cell theory
(1) cells are the basic living units of organisation and function in all organisms. (2) calls come from other cells.
3 bonds
wet; moist
Multicellular Diploid phase
-gene; gene-
origin (two words)
G phase
a nondividing state
A spiral-shaped prokaryotic cell.
large diameter, lower resistance transporter
valves prevent back flow
can expand more than arteries
contain more blood than arteries
structure: out coat, smooth muscle, elastic tissue, basement membrane, endothelium, valves
invaginated respiratory surfaces of terrestrial vertebrates, land snails, and spiders that connect to the atmosphere by narrow tubes
components of control mechanism
control center
organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
skeletal muscle
Striated muscle generally responsible for the voluntary movements of the body.
Polar Microtubules
Do not pass through chromosome
abundant organic components of the human body; contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; perform a variety of essential functions - support, movement, transport, buffering, metabolic regulation, coordination, defense
stop of mRNA synthesis (i.e., transcription) at the terminator site
an electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Which describes an African butterfly species that exists in two strikingly different color patterns?
A) artificial selection
B) directional selection
C) stabilizing selection
D) disruptive selection
E) sexual selection
bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
The vascular system of a three-year-old eudicot stem consists of
A) 3 rings of xylem and 3 of phloem.
B) 2 rings of xylem and 2 of phloem.
C) 2 rings of xylem and 1 of phloem.
D) 2 rings of xylem and 3 of phloem.
E) 3 rings of xylem and 1 of phloem.
A condition of mental disturbance, typically with lack of energy and difficulty in maintaining concentration or interest in life
Prokaryotic gene transfer mode; also protistan sex
apical meristem
sustains the growth in length throughout the plant's life.
ecological succession
gradual change in living communities that follows a disturbance
type of reaction in which two molecules are put together and 1 water molecule is lost
A double sugar, consisting of two monosaccharides joined by dehydration synthesis, A molecule composed of two monosaccharides; such as maltose, sucrose, and lactose.
Electron Shells
an energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
a chemical secreted by blood vessel endothelium and monocytes during an immue response to attract phagocytes to an area
A method of organizing the chromosomes of a cell in relation to number, size, and type.
Which of these precautions would have been most important to insuring the validity of the results?
A) Chlorella in the three cultures were genetically identical.
B) Roughly equal numbers of each strain of Chlorella were present in the reintroduction mixtu
Structural Formula
an expanded molecular formula showing the arrangement of atoms within the molecule
vascular tissues
consist of strands of specialiezed clyndrical or elongated cells that form a netowrk throughout a plant
..., error in meiosis in which homologous chromosomes don't separate; gametes end up with wrong number of chromosomes
Inositol triphosphate
the pathways leading to calcium release involve still other second messengers, this is one and is produced by cleavage of a certain kind of phospholipid in the plasma membrane
The study of statistics relating to births and deaths in populations
A partial or total loss of memory
High Surface Tension
Hydrogen bonds between water molecules make it difficult to stretch or break the surface of water.
he tendency for particles of any kind to spread out evenly in an available space, moving from where they are more concentrated to regions where they are less concentrated. Molecules vibrate and move randomly as a result of a type of energy called thermal motion (heat). requires no work; it results from the thermal motion of atoms and molecules.
greenhouse effect
much of the solar radiation that strikes the planet is reflected back into space. Although CO2 and water vapor in the atmosphere are transparent to visible light, they intercept and absorb much of the reflected infrared radiation, re-reflecting some of it back toward Earth.
special sequences of the DNA strand at which transcription begins
a homogeneous mixture of two or more substance (liquid)
Salivary Amylase
an enzyme that hydrolyzes starch and glycogen.
Homologous Chromosome
Chromosome pairs of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. One homologous chromosome is inherited from the organism's father, the other from the mother.
peptide bond
The covalent bond between two amino acid units, formed by a dehydration reaction
DNA ligase
A linking enzyme essential for DNA replication; catalyzes the covalent bonding of the 39 end of a new DNA fragment to the 59 end of a growing chain.
F1 generation
The first filial, or hybrid, offspring in a genetic cross-fertilization.
Casparian strip
A water-impermeable ring of wax around endodermal cells in plants that blocks the passive flow of water and solutes into the stele by way of cell walls.
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
A distinct cluster of cell bodies of neurons.
Narrow corridor of vegetation along a stream or ri
riparian zone
phospholipid spontaneously form membranes
Because of their cylindrical shape, tend to spontaneously form bilayers in aqueous solutions. Also tend to close on themselves to form sealed compartments, thus, eliminating free edges where the hydrophobic tails would be in contact with water. For the same reason compartments formed by lipid bilayers tend to reseal when they are torn.
types of protein (in cell membrane)
integral and peripheral proteins
axial skeleton
the part of the skeleton that includes the skull and spinal column and sternum and ribs
a two stage type of cell division in sexually reproducing organims that results in cells with half the chromosomes number of the original cells
ATP/ADP cycle
How a cell regerates its ATP supply. ADP forms when ATP gives up a phosphate group, then ATP forms as ADP binds to inorganic phosphate or a phosphate group split from a molecule.
dihybrid cross
a genetic cross in which two different traits vary
Illegitimate Receiver
A signal meant for individuals of a different species
Which of these is the smallest unit upon which natural selection directly acts?
an individuals genotype
Antigen presentation
Process by which an MHC binds to the plasma membrane.
origins of replication
Sites where the replication of a DNA molecule begins.
Covalent Bond
The bond formed by the sharing of a pair of valence electrons by two atoms 
Hydrogen + Oxygen in Water = Methane 
H + O = CH4
metabolism and replication in simplest form
interacting group of molecules can copy itself and get energy from other molecules
Three factors that affect growth rates
Sex ratio, generation time, and age structure.
how do completed proteins escape the rough ER?
they move to the edge and go out in a vescle that buds off of the ER membrane.
filarial worm
sexual reproduction
sharp; acid; oxygen
Prokaryotic photosynthetic microorganisms that possess chlorophyll and produce oxygen during photosynthesis. Formerly known as blue-green algae.
connect muscle to bone
the female flower organ
Modified leaf of a plant
the ability to do work
In classification, the taxonomic category above genus
Electrogenic Pump
transport protein that generates voltage across the membrane
The genetic makeup of an organism
An acceptor that temporarily stores energized electrons produced during the light reactions.
reptilia characteristics
amniote (shelled) egg with extraembryonic membranes, absence of feathers, hair and mammary glands; extothermic with scales, well developed lungs, 3 1/2 chambered heart
process by which the characterization of an animal in regard to environmental variables. The animal is a conformer if it allows some conditions within its body to vary with certain external changes.
repeats a segment of a chromosome
Aerobic respiration
Cellular respiration that requires oxygen; the terminal electron acceptor is molecular oxygen.
crassulacean acid metabolism, a form of photosynthesis that is an adaptation to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
what can detect relationships between species?
A transposable genetic element; a mobile segment of DNA that serves as an agent of genetic change.
Homologous Structures
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
ATP can power active transport by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to the transport protein. This may induce a conformation change in the transport proteins translocating the solute across the membrane
A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness, symbolized by S.
A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
In comparing two solutions, the one with a lower solute concentration.
a quercus albans (white oak) belongs to what genus?
valence electrons
the electrons in the outtermost electron shell.
Primary consumers
Herbivores which feed onplsnts and other primary producers
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time.
Cellular respiration is the process by which cells generate ATP through a series of redox reactions. In aerobic respiration the terminal electron acceptor is molecular oxygen; in anaerobic respiration the terminal acceptor is an inorganic molecule other than oxygen.
In a cladistic study of evolutionary relationships among taxa of organisms, the group of taxa that is actually being analyzed.
cones of conifers
how do gymnosperms produce seeds?
Dense Fibrous Tissue
contains many collagenous fibers packed together --> tendons: connect muscle to bones --> ligaments: connect bones to bones at joints
ex, e
out, out of, away from, formerly
Batesian Mimicry
evolution by one species to resemble the coloration body shape or behavior of another species that is protected from predators by a venomous stinger bad taste or some other defensive adaptation
law of segregration
Mendel's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and then randomly re-form as pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Electrons from NADH and FADH2 pass along an electron transport chain
Primary production
The amount of light converted to chemical energy by autotrophs during a given time period; happens a lot in warm, moist climates
Hardy-Weinberg Theorem
An axiom maintaining that the sexual shuffling of genes alone cannot alter the overall genetic makeup of a population.
Adaptive Radiation
The emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment, presenting a diversity of new opportunities and problems.
any chromosome that is not a sex chromosome; appear in pairs in body cells but as single chromosomes in spermatozoa
struggle for existence
production of more individuals than environment can support leads to a struggle for existence among individuals of a population, with only a fraction surviving each generation
acrosomal reaction
enzymes are released to digest holes in the egg
Concentration Gradient
The region along with the density of chemical substance decreases.
benign tumor
a mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin
Optical isomers
Two isomers that are mirror images of one another.
Tortoiseshell Cat
Female cat that has patches of orange and black fur
A change in the gene pool of a population from generation to generation.
gene cloning
The production of multiple copies of a gene.
polar body
A cell produced after meiosis I in females; it simply recieves half the genetic information and is cast away
polygenic inheritance
An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character.
what is a niche
a population's role in its community. the sum total of a population's use of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat
action potential
a rapid change in the membrane of a nerve or muscle cell when a stimulus causes an impulse to pass
evolutionary advantage of long plant life
produce many offspring over many years
van helmont should have concluded
plants get all or almost all of mass from source other than soil
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