AP Biology 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
One ring
within; inside
density-independent selection; selection for life history traits that maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments
-lysis; -lyte; -lyst
dissolve; decompose
crossing over gone wrong
Chlorophyll A
Initiates light-dependent rxns
Compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, in the approximate ratio of C:2H:O, e.g., sugars, starch, and cellulose.
intervertebral disks
fibrous, cartilaginous structures between vertebrae
absorb movement induced stress
impart flexibility to backbone
a simple automatic nerve circuit
the first unicellular organisms, consist of DNA and other biochemicals enclosed in a membrane
capsules with dischargeable thread under a hinged lid; has spines and barbs for protection
inside plants, these are specialised pores that assist in gas exchange
built from amino acids, located everywhere, ex/ enzymes that are proteins catalyze chemical reactions structural proteins give structure to tissues
Cancer Cells
*don't exhibit density dependent inhibition
*divide out of control
reactions that release energy; the amount of energy released is greater than the activation energy needed to start the reaction; relatively common in the body; responsible for maintaining body temperature by providing the necessary heat
Originally, all the genetic material in a cell or individual organism. The term is used more than one way, depending on context: e.g., an organism's haploid genome is all the DNA contained in one haploid set of its chromosomes, and its mitochondrial genome is all the DNA in a mitochondrion. See human genome.
an almond-shaped neural structure in the anterior part of the temporal lobe of the cerebrum that controls impulsive emotions and anger
DNA fingerprint
biometric identification obtained by examining a person's unique sequence of DNA base pairs; often used for evidence in criminal law cases
daughter cells are formed with identical genetic material, animal cells form a cleavage furrow and plant cells form a cell plate
An apparatus that measures air pressure is called a what?
rapid transport vessels for blood pumped OUT of the heart
Vertical, underground shoots that are swollen bases of leaves that store food.
Potential Energy
energy that matter possesses because of its location or structure
operant conditioning
animal modifies its voluntary behavior in response to consequences of that behavior
What are ribosomes made of?
rRNA and protein
process by which certain cells can engulf and incorporate droplets of fluid
Tertiary Consumers
Organisms which feed on secondary consumers (carnivores which feed on carnivores)
compact bone tissue
forms outerlayer
made of osteons
-have concentric ring of bone tissue with bone cells in the spaces between teh rings
-nerves and blood vessels run through channels
complementary DNA (cDNA)
DNA synthesized by reverse transcriptase, using RNA as a template.
The protein shell that encloses a viral genome. It may be rod-shaped, polyhedral, or more complete in shape.
barr body
A densely staining mass that represents an inactivated X chromosome. Heterochromatic body found in the nuclei of normal females but absent in the nuclei of normal males
the spread of cancer to locations distant form original site
contractile vacuole
vacuoles found in freshwater protists that pump excess water out of the cell
Nucleic Acids
Made of nucleotides which consist of sugar phosphate base, 1 pyrimidine to 1 purine.
DNA = function is heredity, to store genetic information.
RNA = pattern for the proteins.
immune response
a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
which structure-function pair is mismatched?
microtubule.... muscle contraction
anything takes up space and has mass
Molecules that line up along the unpaired DNA strands, holding them apart while DNA strands serve as templates for syntheses
sensory neuron
a neuron conducting impulses inwards to the brain or spinal cord
A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages: prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Mitosis conserves chromosome number by equally allocating replicated chromosomes to each of the daughter nuclei.
primary structure
(for a protein) unique sequence of amino acids
The evaporative loss of water from a plant.
a dominant trait is _____ if the father is affected and one of his daughters is not
DNA provirus
forms as an intermediary in the replication of RNA tumor viruses; proposed by Howard Temin
species that are found in one place and nowhere else in the world
secondary structure
when the chain twists and folds, second layer
the processs by which ATP is produced from the flow of protons through an ATP-synthetase channel in the thylakoid membrance of the cholorplast during the light reactions of photosynthesis and in the cristae membrance of the mitochondria during cell respiration
ester linkage
the link formed between the glycerol molecule and the fatty acids of a neutral fat by dehydration synthesis
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (plant hormones) that promote cell division
noncyclic phosphorylation
The production of ATP by noncyclic electron flow.
Glucose, galactose, and fructose
Name three common monosaccharides, please
Firm. Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.
A structure that has evolved in one environmental context and later becomes adapted for a different function in a different environmental context.
competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
quantitive characters
A heritable feature in a population that varies continuously as a result of environmental influences and the additive effect of two or more genes (polygenic inheritance).
the oscillating pattern of the wall of the small intestine.
Movement of land under the force of wind, running
capillary action
force of adhesion between water and a passage way that pulls water up along sides. small vessels=max effects of C.A.
restriction enzyme
an enzyme that recognizes a short DNA sequence and a restriction site and cuts both DNA strands at recognition sequences
hydroxyl group
Consists of a hydrogen atom bonded to an oxygen atom, which in turn is bonded to the carbon skeleton of a molecule.
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle contracts and the chambers pump blood.
photosystem II
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.
Prokaryotic Cells
Types of cells that don't have a nucleus, where nothing is between the DNA and cytoplasm
A nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
energy production
in a bacterium
Bacteria can produce ATP either aerobically or anerobically. Anerobic bacteria (in the absence of oxygen) produce ATP by breaking down nutrients into simpler metabolites, and using the energy released from the process to form ATP from ADP.
balancing equations 
    HgO  +  Cl2  ®  HgCl  + O2
                             reactants             products
§Must be balanced - total # of atoms in reactants and products must be same
RNA polymerase
an enzyme that pries the 2 strands of DNA apart and hooks together the RNA nucleotides as they base pair along the DNA template
unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
marriage of a woman to two or more men at one time; a form of polygamy
Connective tissues
It is the most abundant type of animal tissue. Soft connective tissues differ in the amounts and arrangements of fibroblasts, fibers, ground substance. Specialized types include adipose, cartilage, bone, and blood tissues.
List: How Scientists Use Radioactive Isotopes
a. use measurements of radioactivity in fossils to date relics
b. use as tracers to follow atoms through metabolism
Describe: Acidic and Basic Amino Acids
a. acidic amino acids usually have negatively charged side chains, because of a carboxyl group
b. basic amino acids usually have positively charged side chains
c. both are hydrophilic
apart; out
stick; club
organm producing spores
produces two iodine-containing hormones
provide support of neurons
Spherically shaped prokaryotic cell.
The endoderm-lined cavity, formed during the gastrulation process, that develops into the digestive tract of an animal.
the particular three-dimensional shape of a protein molecule
coding sequences, stay in mRNA
Hydrogen bonds hold substance together
Shelled cephalopods during Cretaceous period
vegetative propagation
flowering plants that reproduce asexually
Descent with modification; the idea that living species are descendants of ancestral species that were different from the present-day ones; also define more narrowly as the change in the genetic composition of a population from generation to generation
viruses that infect bacteria; aka phages
carbohydrate used by arthropods to build their exoskeletons, becomes hardened when encrusted with calcium carbonate, a salt
The diploid chromosome number for humans is 46. There will be ____ chromotoids in a secondary spermatocyte.
transfer RNA, anticodon that binds mRNA and it carries an amino acid
The coupling of the "downhill" diffusion of one substance to the "uphill" transport of another against its own concentration gradient.
Totality of an organism's chemical processes
carries genetic information from DNA to protein-synthesizing machinery of the cell
organic molecules consisting only of carbon and hydrogen; atoms of hydrogen are attached to the carbon skeleton wherever electrons are available for covalent bonding
angiosperms that have only one seed leaf
the regions where chromosomes are held together at the end of prophase I
dehydration synthesis
(condensation) formation of a complex molecule by removing water; ex: A-B-C-H + HO -D ---> A-B-C-D- + H2O
the branch of biology that studies heredity and variation in organisms
The conversion of fructose-6-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate in glycolysis is an example of which of the following types of reaction?
An endergonic reaction
repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer
process of breaking food down into molecules small enough to absorb
Ionic Bond
one atom gains another atom's electrons
hydrogen bond
bond between hydrogen and another atom
feedback regulation
control mechanism that uses the consequences of a process to regulate the rate at which the process occurs: if, for example: the products of a reaction inhibit the reaction from proceeding (or slow down the rate of the reaction), then there is negative feedback, something that is very common in metabolic pathways.
A special sequence of nucleotides in DNA that marks the end of a gene. It signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene
collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving environment
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
Anabolic Pathways
Metabolic pathways that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones
A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy.
parental types
Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.
Intraspecific Competition
Individuals of the same species compete with one another
nuclear envelope
the membrane in eukaryotes that enclose the nucleu
Cuvier's idea that events in the past happened suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different from those in present
sign stimulus
An external sensory cue that triggers a fixed action pattern by an animal.
Do scaning electron microscopes or transmission electron microscopes show a thin section of a specimin?
transmission electron microscopes
lactic acid fermentation
series of anaerobic chemical reactions in which pyruvic acid uses NADH to form lactic acid and NAD+, which is then used in glycolysis; supplies energy when oxygen for aerobic respiration is scarce
Secondary Production
The amount of chemical energy in consumers' food that is converted to their own new biomass during a given time period (usually less than 20%, around 10)
Gas exchange
Uptake of oxygen and discharge of carbon dioxide from and to the environment (respectively)
Covalent bond
Forms between two atoms when electrons are shared between them
co enzyme
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor. Most vitamins function as coenzymes in important metabolic reactions.
Extracellular Matrix
The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded consisting of protein and polysaccharides.
isomers that are mirror images of each other
monohybrid cross
a cross that tracks the inheritance pattern of a single character
Prokaryotic Cell
Smaller than eukaryotic cell; DNA is not separated; no nucleus only membrane.
complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome
A process by which liquids or solid particles are taken up by a cell through invagination of the plasma membrane.
pH of a solution
negative logarithm of H+ ion concentration in moles per liter; ex: pH of 6 ([H+] = 1 x 10 -6 or 0.0000001) concentration of H+ ions is 10times as great as it is at a pH of 7
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate
The co-enzyme which accepts electrons from PS I and which, in a reduced form, is an energy source for the light independent reaction.
Prokaryotes(in terms of cell contents)
-membrane, naked DNA, ribosomes (smaller though), and cell wall
The ability of a single gene to have multiple effects.
5 stages of the cell cycle
Interphase, M/Mitotic phase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase/cytokinesis,
density dependent inhibition
process in which cells stop dividing when in contact with each other
Evaporative Cooling
when a liquid evaporates, what is left behind is cooler
Foramen Magnum
Where the spinal cord can connect with the brain at the base of the skulls' bones.
survivorship curve
a plot of the proportion or numbers in a cohort still alive at each age.
a hard flap serving as a cover for the gill slits in fishes
C3 plant
A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
What is a Triphosphate Tail?
A tail that has three phosphates
which cell would be best for studying lysosomes?
phagocytic white blood cell
How is mRNA transferred to the cytoplasm?
through the nuclear pores in the nucleus
seaweed, algae
wet; moist
supports the anther
neutron mass in amu.
cell division
reproduction of cells
act of flowing in.
von Frisch
scientist who studied honeybees
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a primary transcript that is removed from the transcript during RNA processing; also refers to the region of DNA from which this sequence was transcribed.
Smooth muscle
-Lacks striations
-Responsible for involuntary movements in some internal organs
-Churning of the stomach, contraction of blood vessel, etc.
storage polysaccharides of animals, composed of glucose monomers with a 1-4 glycosidic linkage, highly branched structures, stored in liver and muscle cells
Carnivore preys on small animals
relation ship where one organisim benafits another is neither hamed or helped
A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen, releases carbon dioxide, generates no ATP, and decreases photosynthetic output; generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stomata close and the oxygen concentration in the leaf exceeds that of carbon dioxide.
Protons have a __________ electrical charge
the smallest carbohydrates, serve as fuel and a source of carbon.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
remove nucleotides that are wrongly placed or that have something wrong with them
Nucleotide Excision Repair takes place when DNA polymerase and ligase come in a repair the gap that the nucleases created
A specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon.
constructed from glycerol and fatty acids
Pattern Formation
development of a multicellular organism's spacial organization
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate)
collenchyma cell
unevenly thick primary walls, support for young plants
triplet code
A set of three-nucleotide-long words that specify the amino acids for polypeptide chains.
Which of the following vertebrate endocrine glands secretes hormones that are involved in regulating biological rhythms?
Pineal gland
giant molecules formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a condensation reaction; polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids are considered these
Desmosome Junction
cells are held together by proteins
animals that kill and eat other animals
A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate.
endergonic reaction
A nonspontaneous chemical reaction in which free energy is absorbed from the surroundings
An enzyme that joins RNA nucleotides to make the primer.
rate of incorporation of energy and materials into bodies of organisms
The ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis.
An educated guess proposed as a tentative answer to a specific question or problem
the ability of an animal's nervous system to perceive, store, process, and use information gathered by sensory receptors
The reactant on which an enzyme works
Climax Community
A stable mature community that undegoes little or no change in species
A noncoding portion of a pre-mRNA transcript; exci
Epidermis in Roots
zone of differentiation contains root hairs
associative learning
learning in which an organism learns that certain events occur together, such as my cat knowing that she will be fed when I get home from work
The ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is A. wind B. sunlight C. electricity D. geothermal vents E. radioactivity
B. sunlight
nucleic acid
an organic compound, either RNA or DNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry genetic information
meaning it has both a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic end.
Neurogenic heart
Name given to arthropod hearts where the pacemakers are located in motor nerves from outside the heart.
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
A nucleotide consisting of adenine, ribose, and two phosphate groups; formed by the removal of one phosphate from an ATP molecule.
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited
Geometric isomers
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms.
in proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its mative conformation. therefore becoming inactive
Stanley Miller
conducted experiments that lead to the theory of possible sponanteous production of nucelic acids and amino acids in early earth conditions
An already existing RNA chain bound to template DNA to which DNA nucleotides are added during DNA synthesis.
A critical control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle
Amino Acid
a compound of a class of simple organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group and an amino group and that combine to form proteins
energy coupling
the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one.
A hollow rod of tubulin protein in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells and in cilia, flagella, and the cytoskeleton.
Haploid Cell
A cell containing only one set of chromosomes (n).
respiratory surface
part of the animal where gases are exchanged with the environment
In all cells, that has genes in the form of DNA
Map Units
distance between two genes, or 1% of recombination frequency
two or more atoms of the same or different elements joined in a chemical bond
zero population growth
occurs when the per capita birth and death rates are equal (r=0). Births and deaths still occur in such a population, but they balance each other exactly.
myogenic heart
A type of heart, such as in vertebrate animals, in which the pacemaker is made up of specialized muscle tissues and located within the heart itself.
Insight learning
the process of learning how to solve a problem or do something new by applying what is already known
Sequential order of bases in a DNA or RNA strand.
Base sequence
Molecular Weight
Sum of the weight of all atoms in a molecule
What do the folds in mitochondria do?
increase surface area and allow more ATP to be created.
mov-; -mot
outside; without
A disease-causing agent.
LH (luteinizing hormone)
a positively charged ion
Sugar, phosphate group, nitrogenous base.
the study of cellular structure
produce female gametophytes which produce eggs
Nonpolar hydrocarbons. Don't dissolve in water well, but can dissolve in nonpolar substances
Plant hormone; induces stem lengthening and respon
hormone in plants that regulates growth
Sliding-filament model
the mechanism describing the contraction of skeletal muscle. Triggered by the release of acetylcholine (Ach) from a motor neuron that signals the sarcoplasmic reticulum to release Ca ions that, in turn, bind to troponin and unblocks tropomysoin so the myosin cross-bridge can form. ATP allows the power stroke so that the actin is pulled over the myosin towards the midline of the sarcomere
vertebrate skeleton
enclose and protect spinal cord
support body
attachment site for muscles
A white blood cell; typically functions in immunity, such as phagocytosis or antibody production.
tay-sachs disease
autosomal recessive disease: inability to properly break down certain lipids. Accumulation of the lipids in brain cells causes progressive nervous system dysfunction and is usually fatal by age four
fibrous root
mat of threadlike roots
-mostly monocots
-extensive exposure to soil, water, and minerals
-prevents erosion
seasonal growth
primary growth resumes at buds
secondary growth thickens stems and roots
the electron transport chain brings electrons down many energy releasing steps and finally to ___
An approach that applies the top-down model of community organization to alter ecosystem characteristics. For example, ecologists can prevent algal blooms and eutrophication by altering the density of higher-level consumers in lakes instead of by using chemical treatments.
Beginning with the germination of a moss spore, what is the sequence of structures that develop after
1. embryo
2. gametes
3. sporophyte
4. protonema
5. gametophore
A) 4 →1 → 3 → 5 → 2
B) 4 → 3 → 5 → 2 → 1
C) 4 → 5 → 2 →
what is another name for lysogenic viruses?
a white blood cell typically functions in immunity such as phagocytosis or antibody produtcion
pump composed of cardiac muscle and generating its own electrical impulse for regular contraction and propulsion of blood throughout the vessels
adenosine triphosphate
organic mc called adenosine attached to string of 3 phosphate grps; stores the potential to react with water
a specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle
clonal selection
antigens bind to specific receptors, causing a fraction of lymphocytes to clone themselves
A solid-bodied animal lacking a cavity between the gut and outer body wall
What are substances called that are made up of many small, repeating subgroups called monomers
cis face
golgi appartus--> usually located near the ER a vesicle that buds from the ER will add its membrane and the contents of its lumen,cavity, to this face
the network of fibers that determines the shape of a cell
the inner germ layer that develops into the lining of the digestive and respiratory systems
Which of the following root tissues gives rise to lateral roots?
A) endodermis
B) phloem
C) cortex
D) epidermis
E) pericycle
An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
Lipid bilayer, formed from ocean foam, grow by getting more subunit lipids from surroundings, can pinch in two, can contain amino acids
Water molecules move into a seed, attracted by its
proximal tubule
in the vertebrate kidney, the portion of a nephron immediately downstream from Bowman's capsule that conveys and helps refine filtrate
Substrate-Level Phosphorylation
making ATP by an enzyme transferring phosphate group from a substrate molecule to ADP.
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
nuclear pore
opening in the nuclear envelope that permits the passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out of the nucleus
Informal term for a fungus that grows as a filamentous fungus, producing haploid spores by mitosis and forming a visible mycelium.
The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism.
light reactions
first stage of PS, in thylakoid, converts solar energy to chemical energy, produces ATP and NADP+, O2 is released (water splits)
A type of lipid characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four rings with various functional groups attached.
Types of Organic Compounds
Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids Nucleic Acids
A protein serving as a catalyst, a chemical agent that changes the rate of a reaction without being consumed by the reaction.
white blood cells
carry out all immune responses
found in blood, lymph, lymph nodes, and spleen
all are secretory
-secrete cytokines
when a substance moves across the plasma membrane along a concentration gradient at a rate faster than would be expected by simple diffusion alone but without the expenditure of metabolic energy, the process is best described as
facilitated diffusion
Allows a cell to continue to produce ATP without the use of oxygen. It is under anaerobic conditions. Consists of Glycolysis.
a unit of living matter separated from its environment by a boundery called a membrane; lowest level of a structure that can peform all activities required for life
each molecule of ___ yields 38 ATP when degraded into carbon dioxide and water
repeated reproduction
A life history in which adults produce large numbers of offspring over many years; also known as iteroparity.
core protein
what is the layer of protein found inside the capsid of HIV called?
bilateral symmetry
the equal division of an organism into a left and right half
a network of blood vessels and a small lymphatic vessel contained in each villus
Cloning Vector
An agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering. A plasmid that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into a cell is an example of a cloning vector, as is a virus that transfers recombinant DNA by infection.
free energy
The portion of a system's energy that can perform work when temperature is uniform throughout the system.
unsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids with double bonds, liquid at room temp, "kinked"
action spectrum
A graph of the effectiveness of light at specific wavelengths in promoting a light-requiring reaction
embryo sac
the two sperm travel down the pollen tube into the ....
the two compounds that the light reaction stores energy in
Movement Corridor
A series of small clumps or a narrow strip of quality habitat that connects otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat.
PEP carboxylase
the enzyme that fixes PEP; has a very high affinity for carbon dioxide
Definition of Adventitious Roots
Roots arising above ground from stems or leaves.
beta (B) pleated sheet
One form of the secondary structure of proteins in which the polypeptide chain folds back and forth, or where two regions of the chain lie parallel to each other and are held together by hydrogen bonds.
Which of the following is NOT a trend evident in plant evolution?
a. increasing independence from water
b. development of vascular tissue
c. increasing dominance of the gametophyte generation
d. evolution from homospory (one type of spore) to heter
increasing dominance of the gametophyte generation
gaining electrons
body functions
neritic zone
costal zone
the simplest ketone
sperm is formed constantly
a root-like absorptive structure.
brown algae; multicellular, have photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids)
A three-dimensional biological polymer constructed from a set of 20 different monomers called amino acids.
The polymers of monosaccharides; involved in the storage of carbohydrates in organisms
organic chemistry
study of carbon-containing compounds
Important polysaccharides
Starches, Glycogen, amylose, Cellulose, Pectin, Chitin
storage tissue that provides nutrition to the developing seedling
2 in Dicots
1 in Monocots
Niche Shift
As a resource partitioning, characteristics may enable individuals to obtain resources in their partitions more successfully. Leads to a divergence of features.
the RNA-protein complex that removes the introns from transcribed mRNA
three-carbon alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to each carbon.
Cyto plastmic strand connecting two ajacent plant cells
break down polymer into a monomer
The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
association between plant roots and fungi; helped make colonization of land possible for both plants and fungi
plasmids replicate?
independently of the main chromosome
four closely associated chromatids of a homologous pair visible in the light microscope
hormone that causes smooth muscle inside the uterine wall to contract during labor
Joint evolution of two closely interacting species
proboscis worms or ribbon worms; lack a true ceolom but they have an alimentary cannal
Rank the following from most general to most specific:
1. gametic isolation
2. reproductive isolating mechanism
3. pollen-stigma incompatibility
4. prezygotic isolating mechanism
A) 2, 3, 1, 4
B) 2, 4, 1, 3
C) 4, 1, 2, 3
D) 4, 2, 1, 3
E) 2, 1, 4, 3
organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place
food vacuole
particles from phagocytosis fuse with a lysosome which then digests the food to become nutrients for the cell
angiotensin II
A peptide hormone that stimulates constriction of precapillary arterioles and increases reabsorption of NaCl and water by the proximal tubules of the kidney, increasing blood pressure and volume.
Define: Pseudopodia
cellular extensions that extend and contract through the reversible assembly of actin subunits into microfilaments and of microfilaments to networks
the body does not produce enough metabolic heat to have much effect on body temperature.
A group of flower tightly clustered together.
Sticky part of the carpel (traps pollen, the male gamete).
The passive diffusion of water down its concentration gradient
1) In plants, a specialized plastid that contains dense starch grains and may play a role in detecting gravity; 2) In invertebrates, a grain or other dense granule that settles in response to gravity and is found in sensory organs that function in equilibrium.
What is the estimated frequency of allele A in the gene pool?
A) 0.05
B) 0.25
C) 0.50
D) 0.75
E) 1.00
oxidative phosphorylation
..., The oxidation of high-energy electron carriers (NADH and FADH2) coupled to the phosphorylation of ADP, producing ATP. In eukaryotes, oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondira.
Batesian mimicry
palatable or harmless species mimics an unpalatable or harmful model
electrical potential energy due to the separation of opposite charges
the growth towards or away from gravity
Sticky meshlike capsule or slime layer around a prokaryotic cell wall.
substances that absorb light are known as ___
Referring to a condition in the life cycle of all modern plants in which the sporophyte and gametophyte generations differ in morphology.
Golgi Apparatus
a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells (especially in those cells that produce secretions)
Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure to UV radiation. Rank the cells below, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this pigment.
1. Cells of sporangium
one of four nitrogenous bases that can make up a DNA molecule; another pyridimine (single-ringed base); binds with adenine
somatic cell
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
one of several atomic forms of an element each containing different number of neutrons and different in atomic mass
trace elements
elements required by an organism in only minute quantities
An element that an organism needs in very small amounts and that functions as a component or cofactor of enzymes. See also macronutrient.
Judging from Table 28.1 and given that waterʹs density and, consequently, its buoyancy decrease at warmer
temperatures, in which environment should diatoms (and other suspended particles) sink most slowly?
A) cold freshwater
B) warm freshwater
C) cold se
nuclear lamina
A netlike array of protein filaments that maintains the shape of the nucleus.
Type of vesicle that are sacs of enzymes that break down fatty acids and amino acids.
base-pair substitution
replacement of one nucleotide and its partner with another pair of nucleotides
beta oxidation
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments which enter the Krebs cycle as acetyl CoA.
A protist, such as Euglena or its relatives, characterized by an anterior pocket from which one or two flagella emerge.
Limiting Factor
any essential resource that is in short supply
Fungus that forms sexual spores in sac-shaped cell
sac fungus
what does hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex do?
reduce inflammatory response
f factor
a piece of DNA that confers the ability form a sex pili
Inclusive Fitness
The total effect an individual has on proliferating its genes by producing its own offspring AND by providing aid that enables other close relatives, who share many of those genes, to produce offspring
base pair substitution
A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
cell fractionation
the process of taking cells apart and separating the major organelles so that their functions can be studied
A cell or organism having two sets of chromosomes.
Moment-of-Truth Defense
When luck runs out survival of prey that are cornered or under attack may try a last ditch trich
Ex. spew chemicals
If a meteor impact or volcanic eruption injected a lot of dust into the atmosphere and reduced the sunlight reaching Earth's surface by 70% for one year, all of the following Marine communities most likely would be greatly affected except
deep sea vent communities
Define: Cell Fractionation
a process that takes apart cells and separates the major organelles from one another using centrifuges
Define: Mole (mol)
a. represents an exact number -6.02 * 10^23
b. there is one mole of daltons in a gram
Fat Digestion Enzymes
Lipase in the pancreas; active in the small intestine; substrate=triglycerides; main brakdown products=free fatty acids, monoglycerides)
A eukaryotic cell lacking telomerase would
Experience a gradual reduction of chromosome length with each replication cycle.
Describe: Potential Energy in Atoms
a. the more distant electrons are from the nucleus, the greater their potential energy
b. changes in the potential energy of electrons can occur only in steps of fixed amounts
c. an electron cannot exist between its fixed states of potential energy
what comes out of glycolysis (3 things)
2 pyruvate, 4 ATP (2 net), and 2 NADH
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