AP Biology 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Dissolving agent
moist; liquid
mela, melan
black, dark
a state or condition
Looking at 2 Traits
dorsal (posterior)
toward the back
another name for decomposers, consumers that get their energy from nonliving organic material.
turner syndrom
X0 female but sterile
Tail-like projections that protrude from the cell body of certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
deoxyribonucleic acid, long sequences of four different subunits called nucleotides
multicelled heterotrophs that ingest other organisms or some portion of them
bilateral symmetry
form found in a shovel
endoplasmic reticulum
manufactures membranes and other functions, includes membranous tubules and internal, fluid filled spaces called cisternae
the sites of photosynthesis. Typically have 3 membranes made by free ribosomes.
contain small amounts of DNA
process the reverse of dehydration rxn, to break using water
One of the most common neurotransmitters
Binds to receptors and alters the permeability of the postsynaptic membrane; either depolarizing or hyperpolarizing the membrane.
Condensation Reaction
Dehydration synthesis create polymers from monomers by removing water.
bacteria that live under extreme conditions such as: high temperature, high salt content, and low oxygen
steroid lipid used in cell membranes
contains hydrolytic enzymes that break down macromolecules, aid in phagocytosis and intracellular digestion
The pattern of distribution of organisms in a population
large vessels that transport blood back to the heart
Root System of Monocot
Fibrous Root System
sub-units of polymers, which can link into long chains
exploitative competition
species do not interact directly
each reduces the amount of resources available to the other by using that resource
What is the extracellular matrix made of?`
pH scale
measurement system used to indicate the concentration of hydrogen ions (H+) in solution; ranges from 0 to 14
The process of nutrient build-up in lakes, causing algae blooms
cardiac muscle
only in the heart
has more mitochondria than any other muscle
cells attached end to end with intercalated disks
cells neighboring communicated with gap junctions
-allows signals to go swiftly over the heart
A virus that reproduces in bacteria. Also simply called phage.
A complex assembly that interacts with the ends of an RNA intron in splicing RNA, releasing the intron, and joining the two adjacent exons.
1. The relocation of a chromosomal segment in a different position in the genome. A chromosomal configuration in which part of a chromosome becomes attached to a different chromosome.
carbonyl groups
A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
the entire region between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
Active Transport
movement of solutes against the gradient.
immune adherence
the collective action of antibodies, complement, and phagocytes. Microbes coated with antibodies and complement proteins adhere to blood vessel walls, making the pathogens easier prey for phagocytic cells circulating in the blood
all of the following contain amino acids except
sex cells (haploid cells; egg or sperm) unite to form a diploid zygote
Transcription Initiation Complex
Completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase band to promoter
A sleep-inducing drug; a person under or open to the influence of hypnotism
formed by molecule of glucose and fructose; C(12) H(22) O(11)
similar to fat, but only have two fatty acids (third hydroxyl group of the glycerol is joined to a phosphate group)
sclerenchyma cell
A rigid, supportive plant cell type usually lacking protoplasts and possessing thick secondary walls strengthened by lignin at maturity.
growth factor
a protein released by certain cells that stimulates other cells to divide
release factor
a protein that recognizes the stop codon at the end of the coding sequence
connect one plant cell to the next. The same as a gap junction, but for plants
The attraction of an atom for the shared electrons of a covalent bond is called its ____________
a form of photosynthesis that is an adaption to dry conditions; stomates remain closed during the day and open only at night
alkaline solution
basic; releases lots of hydroxide ions when added to water
double fertilization
Double fertilisation is the process in angiosperms (flowering plants) during reproduction, in which two sperm nuclei from each pollen tube fertilise two cells in an ovary.
A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
Active Site
Name the place where enzyme and substrate bond
One of a family of closely related plant organelles, including chloroplasts, chromoplasts, and amyloplasts (leucoplasts).
Neurogenic heart
Name given to arthropod hearts where the pacemakers are located in motor nerves from outside the heart.
A phenomenon in which one gene alters the expression of another gene that is independently inherited
hydroxyl groups
A functional group consisting of a hydrogen atom joined to an oxygen atom by a polar covalent bond. Molecules possessing this group are soluble in water and are called alcohols.
Small Intestine
the long muscular tube that recieves secretions from the liver, gall bladder, and pancreas; it also digests most nutrients and absorbs them; unabsorbed material is moved to the large intestine.
Removal of some nutrients from soil as water perco
selective reabsorption
The selective uptake of solutes from a filtrate of blood, coelomic fluid, or hemolymph in the excretory organs of animals.
cell fractionation
To take cells apart and separate the major organelles from one another
hydroxyl group: compound example
Ethanol, the alcohol present in alcoholic beverages http://farm1.static.flickr.com/91/236026867_3fdd7409bb.jpg
The stage of the heart cycle in which the heart muscle is relaxed, allowing the chambers to fill with blood.
seed coat
Seeds are surrounded by one or two integuments, which develop into a seed coat that is usually hard. They are enclosed in the ovary of a carpel and thus are protected from the elements and predators.
genomic library
A set of thousands of DNA segments from a genome, each carried by a plasmid, phage, or other cloning vector.
Poly-A tail
A sequence of 50 to 250 adenine nucleotides added onto the 3' end of a pre-mRNA molecule.
response to environmen
They will move their leaves towards light, for example. Flowers will also turn to face the sun. Most plants move, but the motion is too subtle or too slow for humans to detect.
****  H2CO3  « H+ + HCO3-  ****
chemical substance or system that minimizes changes in pH by releasing or binding hydrogen ions
weak acids and bases (dont disassociate completely) that resist abrupt and large changes in pH and keep it between 6.5 and 7.5 (blood 7.35---7.45) to control reaction rates
1st law of thermodynamics
no energy is ever created or destroyed
induced fit
The change in shape of the active site of an enzyme so that it binds more snugly to the substrate, induced by entry of the substrate.
Alcohol Fermentation
Conversion of sugar to a fuel and CO2 in the absence of oxygen gas.
Mechanical processing and motility
movements that break up, mix, and directionally propel food material.
Describe: Changing Electron Shells
an electron an change the shell it occupies, but only by absorbing or losing an amount of energy equal to the difference in potential energy between its position in the old shell and that in the new shell
Describe: Functions of DNA and RNA
DNA directs RNA synthesis, and RNA directs protein synthesis
cytosine, thymine
The earth.
low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
Oxidizing Agent
the electron acceptor
The sites of Translation
red algae
(rhodophytes, rhodos-red) closest relatives of plants; have no flagellated stages in thier life cycle; red due to the pigment phycoerythrin; coloration depends on the depth that they inhabit; most are multicellular; thalli of red algal are filamentous; life cycles are especially diverse; alternation of generations is common
second modification of eukaryotic mRNA; occurs at the 3' end of the molecule
carrier of a DNA segment
Plant morphological adaptations for growing in darkness
macromolecules joined by glycosidic linkages, its function and architecture are determined by its monomers and the positions of its glycosidic linkages
Photoautotroph or hererotroph (or both) unlike bac
endocrine gland and also in reproductive system; make ova; secrete estrogen and progesterone
Kingdom composed of heterotrophs; many obtain energy and nutrients from dead organic matter
the branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of Multicellular fungi
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
One female mates with many males
Which organisms represent the common ancestor of all photosynthetic plastids found in eukaryotes?
A) autotrophic euglenids
B) diatoms
C) dinoflagellates
D) red algae
E) cyanobacteria
Squamous cell shape
flat like floor tiles
sites of photosynthesis. convert solar energy--> chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from CO2 and H20
The primary functional component of cells
dense region of chromosomes in bacterium
change in genetic make-up from generation to generation
a diverse clade that includes the kinetoplastids and euglenids; distinguished by the presence of a spiral, or crystalline rod inside thier flagella
A single gene that has multiple effects and affects more than one trait
R-Selected species
exhibits rapid growth (J-Shaped or exponential or logitsic)
(1) a specific substance (reactant) on which an enzyme acts. Each enzyme recognizes only the specific substrate(s) of the reaction it catalyzes. (2) a surface in or on which an organism lives
an animal that lacks a coelom, exhibits bilateral symmetry, and has one internal space, the digestive cavity
the clinging of one substance to another
sacs made of membrane inside the cells
nitrogen base found in DNA; purine(2 rings)
non-polar bond
electrons are shared equally between two identical atoms. H-H. will not dissolve in water
mixture of humus, clay, and other minerals that forms the crumbly, topmost layer of soil
Homologous Structures
Structures in different species that are similar because of common ancestry.
A quantum, or discrete amount, of light energy.
Common Environment
Two complete different species evolved similarly since they both lived in a similar.
vascular bundle
plant stem structure that contains xylem and phloem tissue
living organisms
distinguished by their ability to reproduce their kind
redox reactions
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
The outer body covering of all vertebrate organ systems.
An era (240-65 mya) of spectacular expansion in th
the thickest of the three types of fibers that make up cytoskeleton; eukaryotic cells; hollow tube made from tubulin
primary production
rate at which producers capture and store energy
beginning of flow of energy thru ecosystem
The sugar component of DNA having one less hydroxyl group than ribose, the sugar component of RNA
the process by which a cell membrane surrounds a particle and encloses the particle in a vesicle to bring the particle into the cell; phagocytosis (cellular eating) or pinocytosis (cellular drinking)
Describe: Natural Selection
1. population with varied inherited traits
2. elimination of individuals with certain traits
3. reproduction of survivors
4. increasing frequency of traits that enhance survival and reproductive success
If cells in the process of dividing are subjected to colchicine, a drug that interferes with the functioning of the spindle apparatus, which stage will mitosis be arrested?
Smooth Muscle
A type of muscle lacking the striations of skeletal and cardiac muscle because if the uniform distribution of myosin filaments in the cell; responsible for involuntary body activity
a person who eats all kinds of foods
(1) The conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell. (2) A change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell.
Noncompetitive Inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by binding to a location remote from the active site, changing its conformation so that it no longer binds to the substrate.
A toxin that is confined inside a microorganism that releases when it is broken down or die
a wormlike animal that has a flattened body
interstitial fluid
The fluid filling the spaces between cells in an animal.
Norm of Reaction
explores behavior phenotypes for a particular genotype for range of environments
Integral proteins
penetrate the hydrophobic core of the lipid bilayer, often completely spanning the membrane (as transmembrane proteins).
organismal level
represents the sum total of all structural levels working together to keep us alivehumans aRE MADE UP OF MANY OF THESE WORKIN TOGETHER
total solar energy
total amount of energy in organic molecules + amount reflected and dissipated as heat
repressor enzyme
in lysogenic viruses, what is the name of the enzyme that hold the DNA of the virus in place so that it isn't removed?
peptide bond
A covalent bond that links amino acids together in a protein
Humoral immune response
Activation and clonal selection of B cells
Replication Fork
A Y-shaped region on a replicating DNA molecule where new strands are growing.
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
Synthesizes proteins.
Activation Energy
The amount of energy required to start a reaction.
The flow of air or water over a respiratory surface.
transportation of auxin
phloem moves it from shoots to root
-over short distances it is moved through cell to cell with active transport
-comes into cell from top
-efflux carrier pump it out of cell at the bottom
moves into cell from top and out the bottom
transported from apical meristem to base of stem
local signaling molecules
One of many cell secretions into extracellular fluid. All have potent effects but are inactivated so fast that the signal is confined to local tissues.
origins of replication
A particular sequence in a genome at which replication is initiated.
a pill in the form of a small rounded gelatinous container with medicine inside
bicarbonate ions
..., how 70% of the carbon dioxide in blood plasma is transported, enzyme that changes carbon dioxide into water so it is not poisonous to the body, remove excess H ions or release if water too alkaline
a large number of genes on each type of chromosome
Linkage group
What is a saturated fat
all hydrogen it can have, full chain
What are the characteristics of saturated fats?
Cs are fully reduced, all C-C single bonds, fatty acids are linear, tightly packed, solid at room temp
epinephrine,norepinephrine,dopamine,and serotonin
population size
egg (w/ V)
spec-; spic-
look at
change in nucleic acid
hunting or searching for food
Nonprotein helpers needed by enzymes
involved in animal cell division
organic compounds containing hydroxyl groups
Facilitate the dehydration process; are special macromolecules that speed up chemical reactions in cells
Protozoan, parasitic or predatory; four to many fl
specialized leucoplast used for bulk storage of starch, lipids or proteins
The Earliest Humanlike Creature That Flourished in Eastern and Southern Africa 3 to 4 Million Years Ago. bipedalism 1/3rd brain size
requiring free oxygen from the atmosphere for normal activity and respiration
(structural material in plants, gives them tough fibers to stand up. most abundant organic molecule in biosphere)
An automatic, oriented movement toward (positive) or away from (negative) a stimulus
An individual mixotroph loses its plastids, yet continues to survive. Which of the following most likely
accounts for its continued survival?
A) It relies on photosystems that float freely in its cytosol.
B) It must have gained extra mitochondria when it
RNA interference
method uses synthetic double-stranded RNA molecules matching the sequence of a particular gene to trigger breakdown of the gene's messenger RNA
sites of cellular respiration the catbolic process that generates ATP by extracting energy from sugars, fats + other fuels w/ oxygens help
Atomic and subatomic unit for measuring mass;
(= 1.67 x 10-24 g)
Oxidative Phosphorylation
accounts for 90% of ATP
heterozygote advantage
greater fitness than homozygotes (sickle-cell anemia example)
sign stimulus
an external sensory stimulus that triggers a FAP
an aging process during which large particles are broken down form one part of plant and carried to another part
through what process does ssDNA make RNA?
action potential
the change in electrical potential across a nerve or muscle cell when stimulated, as in a nerve impulse
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
An organic phosphate, primary energy-transforming molecule in the cell
(plural, cristae) An infolding of the inner membrane of a mitochondrion that houses the electron transport chain and the enzyme catalyzing the synthesis of ATP.
bottleneck effect
Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
DNA replication
process of DNA being doubled; semi-conservative.
chlorophyll A
A type of blue-green photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in the light reactions.
organic compound with a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group
Hardy-Weinberg principle
the frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant from generation to generation
An organism that is heterozygous with respect to a single gene of interest. A monohybrid results from a cross between parents homozygous for different alleles. For example, parents of genotypes AA and aa produce a monohybrid genotype of Aa.
grouping of species derived from two or more different ancestral forms
free ribosomes
suspended in cytosol which will function in cytosol (ex:enzymes)
Neritic Zone

Zone of the Pelagic zone

All water above continental shelf
Of some protistans, a flexible body covering of pr
Central vacuole
The largest compartment in the plant cell; functions include storage, waste disposal, protection, and growth
form of learning that occurs during a genetically determined time
In proteins, a process in which a protein unravels and loses its natural conformation, thereby becoming biologically inactive. In DNA, the separation of the two strands of the double helix, occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, and temperature
Production of eggs in female by the process of meiosis and maturation
glycosidic linkage
a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction; the most common type of this in nature is a "1-4"
Referring to a plant sexual life sycle, which of the following terms describes the process that leads directly to the formation of gametes?
gametophyte mitosis
a virus transfers DNA from one to another
any animal that lives by preying on other animals
law of segregration
Mendel's first law, stating that allele pairs separate during gamete formation, and then randomly re-form as pairs during the fusion of gametes at fertilization.
Energy Coupling
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
Critical Period
An optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development
A decrease in the diameter of blood vessels caused by contraction of smooth muscles in the vessel walls.
an individual of one sex mating with several of another
Artificial Selection
selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
NATURAL SELECTIONthe guppy example
killifish like guppies small, therefore, the guppies are larger at sexual maturity, therefore they have a better chance of making offspringpike-chiclids like large guppies, therefore the guppies are small at sexual maturity, therefore they will be more likely to reproduce successfullymove sexually small guppies into pond will killifish - 11 years later, the guppies grew to be larger at sexual maturitythey adapted!
secondary endosymbiosis
they were ingested in the food vauole of a heterotrophic eukaryote and became endosymbionts themselves; red/green algae underwent this
what is the name of the life stage when a virus is inside a host?
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
Which functional groups can act as acids?
Carboxyl and phosphate
unsaturated fat
a fatty acid that has a double covalent bond between each pair of carbon atoms
C3 Plants
A plant that uses the4 Calvin cycle for the initial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate.
systolic blood pressure
Blood pressure in the arteries during contraction of the ventricles.
photosystem II
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll.
Malpighian tubules
One of many small tubes that help insects on land dispose of toxic wastes without losing body water.
cell body
part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus
Unsaturated Fatty Acid
a fatty acid whose carbon chain can absorb additional hydrogen atoms
animal pole
the portion of the gg where the last yolk is concentrated
definition of "behavioral ecology"?
the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior
Who Is: Charles Robert Darwin
author of On the Origin of Species by Natural Selection
inflammation, disease
loosen; free
negatively charged particle
P generation
true-breeding parents
group of similar cells
higher concentration of solutes
the scientific discipline concerned with naming organisms is called
the connection between sister chromatids.
cohesive strength between polar molecules
Nucleoid Region
where chromosomes are located
convergent evolution
The independent development of similarity between species as a result of their having similar ecological roles and selection pressures.
A specific small molecule that inactivates the repressor in an operon.
In certain symbiotic fungi, a specialized hypha that can penetrate the tissues of host organisms.
Differences between members of the same species.
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Plama Membrane
Thin, outermost membrane that maintains the cell. It allows certain substances to enter and leave the cell.
..., breathing tubes of insects located on abdomen
thylakoid space
the interior of the thylakoid
releases H+ when in solution [H+] --brackets mean concentration.
A protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate
One of two distinct evolutionary lines of coelomates, consisting of the echinoderms and chordates and characterized by radial, indeterminate cleavage, enterocoelous formation of the coelom, and development of the anus from the blastopore.
a substance that reduces the hydrogen ion concentration of a solution; reduces H+ concentration by accepting H+ ions into itself OR by dissociation to form OH-
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
lakes in temperate regions undergo a semiannual mixing of their waters as a result of changing temperature profiles. This ________, as it is called, brings oxygenated water from a lake's surface to the bottom and nutrient-rich water from the bottom of the surface in both spring and autumn.
Leading Strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
sister chromatids
replicated forms of chromosomes joined together by the centromere and separated during mitosis and meiosis II
In water, what charge does Hydrogen have?
ATP can power active transport by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to the transport protein. This may induce a conformation change in the transport proteins translocating the solute across the membrane
A sequence within a primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processing.
ionic compound
A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond; also called a salt.
a type of photoautrotoph once grouped with other green algae but now known to be more closely related to land plants.
the antagonist to insulin
raise blood sugar levels
hyperglycemic hormone
The sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in an organism, or some subset of that total (as in respiratory metabolism).
What does an electrocardiogram measure?
Electrocardiogram: uses electrodes placed on the skin to detect and record the heart's rhythmic beat currents. The resulting graph has a characteristic shape that represents the stages in the cardiac cycle.
what is a piece of genetic material enclosed in a protein coat?
Countercurrent exchange
the opposite flow of adjacent fluids that maximizes transfer rates; for example, blood in the gills flows in the opposite direction in which water passes over the gills, maximizing oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide loss.
living, as in living organism in the environment
strong acid/strong base
dissociates completely when mixed with water (hydronium and hydroxide from water)
fluid mosaic model
The arrangement of phospholipids and proteins in biological membranes is described by the
A small protein with a high proportion of positively charged amino acids that binds to the negatively charged DNA and plays a key role in chromatin structure.
secondary succession
occurs when an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact.
water potential
-high to low
-can be altered by addition of solutes
-the physical property predicting the direction in which water will flow, governed by solute concentration and applied pressure.
Which of these is a statement that Darwin would have rejected?
A) Environmental change plays a role in evolution.
B) The smallest entity that can evolve is an individual organism.
C) Individuals can acquire new characteristics as they respond to new envir
vegetative propagation
A form of asexual reproduction in which plants produce genetically identical offshoots (clones) of themselves, which then develop into independent plants.
RNA Processing
both ends of the primary transcript are altered. This makes mRNA
The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses
base sequence in DNA that has been repeated two or more times
Primary Growth
Growing taller and stop at a certain time
lagging strand
The strand of DNA that is synthesized discontinuously during replication (because DNA synthesis can proceed only in the 5´ to 3´ direction).
huntington's disease
A genetic disease in which there is neurological breakdown that starts at 35 years old.
vital capacity
The maximum volume of air that a respiratory system can inhale and exhale.
Plasma Membrane
The membrane at the boundary of every cell that acts as a selective barrier, thereby regulating the cell's chemical composition.
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
What type of polysaccarides do plants have
plastids (meaning starches)
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree
Primary cell wall
A relatively thin and flexible layer first secrete
molecular weight
the sum of the weights of all the atoms in a molecule
Host cell
living cell in which a virus can can actively multiply or in which a virus can hide until activated by environmental stimuli
lipid; made up of 3 fatty acids and a glycerol; protects body organs, insulates body, and stores energy in the body
Darwins Main Idea 3
If an enviroment changes over time, or if individuals of a species move to a new enviroment, Natural Selection may result in adaptation to the new conditions, sometimes giving rise to a new species in the process.
Shape of structural proteins
in hair and tendons. Long and thing (fibrous)
what does "density dependent" mean?
a death rate that rises as population density rises or a birth rate that falls with rising density.
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