AP Biology 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
s orbital
move-, mot-
become fluid, liquid
combining photosynthesis and heterotrophic nutrition
First step of transcription;
ventral (anterior)
toward the front
the division of the nucleaus
Fluid in the lymphatic system.
Cytoskeletal fibers constructed from tubulin
Play a lead role in the separation of cells during cell division
phosphoglycerate (PGA)
Phosphorylated three-carbon compound that is an important metabolic intermediate.
Bone Tissue
Cells of mineral-hardened secretions.
most marine predators and scavengers with a ciliated body surface
Watson and Crick
late 1953: double helix
ECM glycoprotein
bind to cell surface receptor proteins called integrins that are built into the plasma membrane. allows for a transmission of signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton.
"loving water" substances that readily interact with water; ex: glucose
Abscisic acid (ABA)
Hormone that:
-Slows growth
-Promotes seed dormancy
-Facilitates drought tolerance
Carbon Fixation
Incorporating Carbon Dioxide into organic molecules
carbohydrates or polymers composed of many sugar building blocks the polymers of sugars, have storage and structural roles
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
organisms that must consume their food
The binding together of like molecules, often by hydrogen bonds.
A membranous vascular organ that develops in female mammals during pregnancy, lining the uterine wall and partially enveloping the fetus, to which it is attached by the umbilical cord. Following birth, the placenta is expelled
groups of atoms that contain energy
hydrocarbons where one pair of carbon atoms are linked with a double bond
observational learning
animal imitates behavior of another individual
What is the instrument used to fractionate cells?
a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined to a long alcohol chain
a solution with a lower concentration of solutes.
outlayer of heart
2 layered sac of connective tissue
fluid between layer lubricates heart
A solid-bodied animal lacking a cavity between the gut and outer body wall.
a molecule that has partially positive and partially negative charges
Loss of a DNA (chromosome) segment from a chromosome. Deletions are recognised genetically by:
endoplasmic reticulum
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
tight junctions
intercellular junction at which the membranes of neighboring cells are actually fused
a nonprotein substance that helps an enzyme catalyze a metabolic reaction
action intended to nullify the effects of some previous action
of the following molecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is capable of transmitting signals between the ECM and the cytoskeleton
electromagnetic spectrum
The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
A specific nucleotide sequence in DNA that marks the end of a gene. signals RNA polymerase to release the newly made RNA molecule, which then departs from the gene.
capillary reabsorption
tissue fluid moves into capillaries through clefts in the capillary wall
Lipid bilayer
double layer of phospholipids; form cell membranes
side chain
R-group that differs with the amino acid
dermal tissue system
The protective covering of plants; generally a single layer of tightly packed epidermal cells covering young plant organs formed by primary growth.
fragmentation and regeneration
original adult breaks into different pieces that then go back and regenerate missing components
introns (intervening sequences)
non coding regions in the gene
a process by which a protein unravels and loses its native conformation, therefore becoming biologically inactive; for DNA, the separation of two strands of the double helix; denaturation occurs under extreme conditions of PH, salt concentration, and temperature
total number of covalent bonds that it can form, equal to the number of unpaired electrons in the outermost shell. This bonding capacity is called the
a molecule with both a positive and negative pole
trace elements
elements only required by organisms in very small amounts; iron, iodine, and copper
Biomass, in ecology, is the mass of living biological organisms in a given area or ecosystem at a given time.
Firm. Walled cells become turgid as a result of the entry of water from a hypotonic environment.
Amino Acid
Name the building block of proteins; humans can synthesize only 12 and must ingest the other 8
contractile vacuoles
A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of the cell.
Lymphatic system
System that returns fluid and proteins lost from capillaries into interstitial fluid to the blood.
A human genetic disease caused by a sex-linked recessive allele, characterized by excessive bleeding following injury.
a cell creates a vesicle around a droplet of extracellular fluid
Food Web
A network of crossing interlinked food chains that shows all the possible feeding relationships at each trophic level
Plant that traps, digests, and feeds on insects an
carnivorous plant
An animal, such as a bird or mammal, that uses metabolic energy to maintain a constant body temperature.
Transmission electron microscope (TEM)
an electron microscope commonly used to study the internal ultrastructure of cells
amino acids
Consists of an amino group and a carboxyl group.
vital capacity
The maximum volume of air that a respiratory system can inhale and exhale.
ionic bonding
this type of bonding forms when the outermost, or valence, electrons of an atom are donated or received in association with a second atom
cloning vector
An agent used to transfer DNA in genetic engineering. A plasmid that moves recombinant DNA from a test tube back into a cell is an example of a cloning vector, as is a virus that transfers recombinant DNA by infection.
Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases
An enzyme that joins each amino acid to the appropriate tRNA.
dominant allele
if the two alleles differ, then this one is fully expressed in the organism's appearance
how would you classify human blood
a suspension
is a mixture
On a field trip, a student in a marine biology class collects an organism that has differentiated organs, cell walls
of cellulose, and chloroplasts with chlorophyll a. Based on this description, the organism could be a brown
alga, a red alga, a green alga
noncyclic electron flow
A route of electron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves both photosystems and produces ATP, NADPH, and oxygen. The net electron flow is from water to NADP+.
short tandem repeats (STRs)
short DNA sequences that are repeated many times in a row in the genome
Dry Shrublands and Woodlands

Percipitation - 25-60cm of rain per year

Soil - low in nutrients and highly acidic

Plants - hardened tough evergreen

Animals - coyotes, foxes, bobcats, mountain lions

Temperature - hot dry summers with periodic fires and cool moist winters

Found at latitudes between 30° - 40°

Western or southern coastal region

Define: Nonpolar Covalent Bond
a bond in which electrons are shared equally
Between Glycolysis and Citric Acid Cycle
Pyruvate, in the cytosol, uses a transport protein to move into the matrix of mitochondria.
same, alike
vascular plant
mouth of windpipe
White blood cells
Four-carbon compound; important intermediate in the citric acid cycle and in the C4 and CAM pathways of carbon fixation in photosynthesis.
Fluid inside the nucleus
Deoxy, phosphate group, nitrogenous base, double stranded.
Homologous chromosomes, each having sister chromatids that are joined by a nucleoprotein lattice during meiosis; also called a tetrad
club mosses and their relatives
Aggregates of abiotically produced molecules.
The simplest carbohydrate, active alone or serving as a monomer for disaccharides and polysaccharides. Also known as simple sugars, the molecular formulas of are generally some multiple of CH2O.
Mature female gamete; an ovum.
genetic annealing
horizontal gene transfers occurred between many different bacterial and archean lineages
cell that carries messages throughout the nervous system
vascular non-flowering plant, in which seeds are naked, collected in a cone and not protected by an ovary.
transparent layer in front of eye
refracts light
Cyclic AMP
cyclic adenosine monophosphate, a ring-shaped molecule made from ATP that is a common intracellular signaling molecule in eykaryotic cells
A (+/+) interaction between species, sometimes involving the evolution of related adaptations, with changes in either species likely to affect the survival and reproduction of the other
advocating the protection of nature; often associated with ecology, because of its relevancy
neutral theory
hypothesis that much evolutionary change in genes and proteins has no effect on fitness and therefore is not influences by Darwinian natural selection
xylem lacks vessel members and fibers
not as dense or strong as hard wood
bilateral, soft-bodied animals with a reduced coelom
reproductive table
An age-specific summary of the reproductive rates in a population.
Bryophytes may feature all of the following at some time during their existence except
A) microphylls.
B) rhizoids.
C) archegonia.
D) sporangia.
E) placental transfer cells.
A cluster (functional group) of nerve cell bodies in a centralized nervous system.
growth stimulated by contact with an object
the final stage in the digestive process in which wastes are removed
concentration of hydrogen (H+) ions in fluids H+ ions are extremely reactive in solution; change shape of complex molecules; in human body can disrupt cell and tissue function- body fluids must be regulated precisely
chemical bonds
an attraction between two atoms resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atom; the bonded atoms gain compounds outer electron shells
selective reabsorption
selective uptake of essential solutes from a filtrate of blood, coelomic fluid, or hemplymph in the excretory organs of animals so they are not loss ex glucose, certain salts,amino acids, only nonessential solutes/waste are left
motor protein that connects the 9 outer sets of microtubules that make up cilia or flagella
One of several formed bodies with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
An insect or closely related wingless, six-legged arthropod
are attached to each centromere and are a structure formed from proteins to which microtubules can bind.
The control of water balance in organisms living in hypertonic, hypotonic, or terrestrial environments.
the diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
bilateral symmetry, has more than two cell layers, tissues and organs, body without cavity.
Tay-Sachs disease
lethal disorder inherited as a recessive allele
A small, membrane-bound sac in the cytoplasm; different sacs transport or store substances or hold enzymes that digest their contents
One of three major flowering plant groups; include
an animal whose body fluids have a different osmolarity than the environment and that must either discharge excess water if it lives in a hypotonic environment or take in water if it inhabits a hypertonic environment
short structures that move in a back and forth motion; protrudes from the cell membrane
an enzyme that digests the cell walls of many kinds of bacteria and thus destroys many bacteria entering the upper respiratory tract and the openings around the eyes.
organic molecule
A molecule that contains only carbon and any of the following: hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and/or phosphorous
pH above 7 is basic (alkaline); more OH- ions than H+ ions
phylogenetic tree
A branching diagram that represents a hypothesis about the evolutionary history of a group of organisms.
sexual dimorphism
A special case of polymorphism based on the distinction between the secondary sex characteristics of males and females.
competitive inhibitor
A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics.
the direct transfer of DNA between two cells that are temporarily joined.
oxidative phosphorylation
The production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain.
..., the piece of DNA that overlaps the promoter site and serves as the on-off switch
ground state
The lowest energy state of an atom.
The phase change of an apical meristem from the juvenile to the mature vegetative phase is often revealed by
A) a change in the morphology of the leaves produced.
B) the initiation of secondary growth.
C) the formation of lateral roots.
D) a change in the
starts as a tiny mass of sporophyte tissue.
an electron transport chain is made up of mainly ___ built into the inner membrane of the mitochondria
rivet model
The concept, put forth by Paul and Anne Ehrlich, that many or most of the species in a community are associated tightly with other species in a web of life. According to this model, an increase or decrease in one species in a community affects many other species.
motor unit
A single motor neuron and all the muscle fibers it controls.
Adrenal medulla
a region of the adrenal gland that produces epinephrine and norepinephrine
double helix
The form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
A DNA segment very similar to a real gene but which does not yield a functional product; a DNA segment that formerly functioned as a gene but has become inactivated in a particular species because of mutation.
the form that glucose is stored as in the liver
Hydrogen Ion
A single proton with a charge of +1
ionic bond
A chemical bond between two ions with opposite charges, characteristic of salts.
T Cell Receptors
the antigen receptors on a T cell. they are structurally related to membrane antibodies, and they recognize antigens just as specifically.
Nondisjuction in meiosis 1
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes do not move apart properly during meosis 1
ecological species concept
defines a species as a set of organisms that are adapted to a particular set of resources
High Heat of Vaporization
amount of heat a liquid must absorb for 1 gram of it to go from a liquid to a gaseous state---Hydrogen bonds must be broken for water to evaporate.
energy production
in an animal
Anarobic, it can produce ATP and other sugars. Cellular respiration.
role of ATP and NADPH in psn
Transfer E and e- between thylakoids and stroma
nucleus, kernel
neutron charge
end-; ent-
within; in
clevage furrow
cytokinesis of animal
The study of fossils.
Pairing of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I
Social Learning
Learning through observing others
evolution on its smallest scale
A noncoding, intervening sequence within a eukaryotic gene.
Archaebacterium or eubacterium; single-celled orga
prokaryotic cell
Some green algae exhibit alternation of generations. All land plants exhibit alternation of generations. No
charophytes exhibit alternation of generations. Keeping in mind the recent evidence from molecular
systematics, the correct interpretation of these
sensory neurons
neurons that carry incoming information from the sense receptors to the CNS
a neurotransmitter released by neurons to excite an action potential or trigger a muscle to contract
2 forces
hydrostatic pressure outward from blood pressure
osmotic pressure inward from difference in solute concentration
A surface appendage in certain bacteria that functions in adherence and the transfer of DNA during conjugation.
Trophic Structure
The feeding relationships between organisms
ecological time
minute-to-minute time frame of interactions between organisms and the environment
radial cleavage, indeterminant - fate of cells not decided until later, blastopore becomes anus
salicylic acid
regulates transcription of gene products that resist pathogens
the division of functionally connected units along the main body axis
Foundation species
exert influence by causing physical changes to environment. (example: 􀃆beavers)
Two, small, poorly drained lakes lie close to each other in a northern forest. The basins of both lakes are
composed of the same geologic substratum. One lake is surrounded by a dense Sphagnum mat; the other is not.
Compared to the pond with Sphagnum, the
oval window
In the vertebrate ear, a membrane-covered gap in the skull bone, through which sound waves pass from the middle ear to the inner ear.
directional selection
one extreme of phenotype is favored
the skeletal muscle that is positioned between the thoracic and abdominal cavity. Contracts during inspiration and acts to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity
Organic Chemistry
The branch of chemistry that specializes in the study of carbon compounds
The subunit that serves as the building block of a polymer.
renal artery
an artery originating from the abdominal aorta and supplying the kidneys and adrenal glands and ureters
plasma membrane
surrounds every cell, must provide sufficient surface area for exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and wastes relative to volume of the cell
fluid mosaic
A description of membrane structure, depicting a cellular membrane as a mosaic of diverse protein molecules embedded in a fluid bilayer made of phospholipid molecules.
Member of the phylum Chordata, animals that at some point during their development have a notochord; a dorsal, hollow nerve cord; pharyngeal slits or clefts; and a muscular, post-anal tail.
M phase
involves two main processes, mitosis and cytokinesis
process in which amoebas and many other protists eat by engulfing smaller organisms or other food particles
the master gland of the endocrine system
quantitative characters
a character in which either-or classification is impossible, because the characters vary in the population along a continuum (in gradations)
carbonyl groups
A functional group present in aldehydes and ketones and consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom.
Cell cortex
a dynamic mesh of crosslinked cytoskeletal elements just underneath the plasma membrane and attached to it
Of older stems and roots, secondary growth in betw
sexual reproduction
type of reproduction in which two individuals contribute genes to the offspring
further promote blood flow to the side of injury; released by leukocytes and damaged tissue cells.
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bond formed by the attraction of positively charged hydrogen atoms to other negatively charged atoms
primary structure
unique sequence of amino acids, first layer
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
relative fitness
The contribution of one genotype to the next generation compared to that of alternative genotypes for the same locus.
free ribosome
found in cytoplasm, free, not attached to anything, make proteins that are needed in the cell
gene amplification
The selective synthesis of DNA, which results in multiple copies of a single gene, thereby enhancing expression.
species of plants and animals that are found no where else in the world
..., The ball of capillaries at the beginning of the nephron where blood filtration takes place.
A particle with one unit of negative charge and negligible mass, located outside the atomic nucleus.
Which of the following is a true statement?
A) Flowers may have secondary growth.
B) Secondary growth is a common feature of eudicot leaves.
C) Secondary growth is produced by both the vascular cambium and the cork cambium.
D) Primary growth and secondary
refers to the actual arrival of pollen on female reproductive parts of a seed plant.
nerve cords
two lines of communication that extend down the length of the body
dominant species
Those species in a community that have the highest abundance or highest biomass. These species exert a powerful control over the occurrence and distribution of other species.
eustachian tube
The tube that connects the middle ear to the pharynx.
Motor neuron
one of three major types of neurons that function in the communication of a nervous impulse to a specific effector cell to initiate a desired response. Can connect to muscles to trigger movement or to a gland to stimulate secretion of a product
Peripheral proteins
are not embedded in the lipid bilayer at all. Instead, the are loosely bound to the surface of the protein, often connected to integral proteins
The study of whole sets of genes and their interactions.
sodium potassium pump
A special transport protein in the plasma membrane of animal cells that transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell against their concentration gradients.
law of segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
Polar Covalent Bond
Covalent bond formed by an unequal sharing of electrons between atoms
An animal, such as a reptile, fish, or amphibian, that must use environmental energy and behavioral adaptations to regulate its body temperature.
the tendency of an atom or radical to attract electrons in the formation of an ionic bond
point mutation
A change in a gene at a single nucleotide pair.
Gene pool
all the alleles for all the loci in all individuals of the population
Tidal volume
Volume of air a mammal can inhale and exhale in each breath.
Second law of Thermodynamics
when energy is changed from one form to another, some useful energy is always degraded into lower quality energy (usually heat)
Acid Precipitation
rain, snow, or fog with a pH of less than 5.2
What is the basis for the difference in the synthesis of the leading and lagging strands of DNA molecules?
DNA polymerase can join new nucleotides only to the 3' end of a growing strand.
green algae
luteal surge
Agnatha means
without jaw
passes the information
before; ahead of time
Theory of Evolution (modern)
a fluid-filled membrane-bounded sac found within the cytoplasm; may function in storage, digestion, or water elimination
prokaryotic cell without a nucleus
string of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis.
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
source- root
stimulates cell division at stem tip and bud
inhibits aging in leaves
(ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other
openings in exoskeleton of insects. connect to tracheal tubes that lead to hemocoels (diffusion of respritory gases)
Clonal Selection
the antigen-driven cloning of lymphocytes. each antigen, by binding to specific receptors, selectively activates a tiny fraction of cells from the body's diverse pool of lymphocytes; this relatively small number of selected cells gives rise to clones of thousands of cells, all specific for and dedicated to eliminating that antigen.
the body cells have ____ chromosomes
A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of life.
A technique for determining genetic abnormalities in a fetus by the presence of certain chemicals or defective fetal cells in the amniotic fluid, obtained by aspiration from a needle inserted into the uterus.
a substance that prompts the generation of antibodies
Class of cytoskeletal elements that helps in directional movements that put cell structures and organelles in new locations.
mixture of sperm, proteins, nutrients, ions, and signaling molecules (prostaglandins)
seminal vesicle secrete fructose rich fluid into vas deferentia
sperm use fructose as their energy source
linkage that forms dissacharides and polyssacharides
A long cellular appendage specialized for locomotion, formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules, ensheathed in an extension of plasma membrane.
1. An evolutionary modification that improves an organism's chances of survival and reproductive success
2. A decline in the response of a receptor subjected to repeated or prolonged stimulation
six membered ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms (cytosine, thymine, and uracil)
chemical energy
Energy available in molecules for release in a chemical reaction; a form of potential energy.
spontaneous process
processes that occur without energy input
measures the average kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
consists of one or more polypeptides folded/coiled into specific conformations
different atomic forms of element - different # of neutrons
photic zone
aquatic biome where there is sufficient light for photosynthesis.
DNA polymerases
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA by the addition of nucleotides to the 3' end of an existing chain. There are several different DNA polymerases; DNA polymerase III and DNA polymerase I play major roles in DNA replication in prokaryotes.
redox reactions
A chemical reaction involving the transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; also called oxidation-reduction reaction
gene sequences which code for proteins that stimulate normal cell growth and division
nitrogeneous bases that have a double ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms such as adenine and guanine
functional group
A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of "language" from nucleotides to amino acids.
A starting material in a chemical reaction.
When ions or molecules of any substance are concentrated in one place and tend to move to a place where they are not as concentrated.
frontal planes

like sagittal planes lie vertival; however, divide the body into interior and posterior parts
A substance which can accept a hydrogen ion in solution. (Contrast with acid.) (2) In nucleic acids, the purine or pyrimidine that is attached to each sugar in the backbone.
which cells and which signaling molecules are responsible for initiating inflammatory response?
mast cells; histamines
true or false: the envelope is always present
convergent evolution
the process in which two unrelated species come to have similar traits because of similar circumstances
a purine base that pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA
geometric isomers
Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms.
RNA processing
Modification of RNA before it leaves the nucleus, a process unique to eukaryotes.
triglyceride (triacylglycerol)
what the third reaction yields, aka glycerol joined to three fats!
fundamental niche
the niche potentially occupied by a species, but may be different from its realized niche.
The process by which an organism takes in and makes use of food substances.
The same gene that causes various coat patterns in wild and domesticated cats also causes the cross -eyed
condition in these cats, the cross-eyed condition being slightly maladaptive. In a hypothetical environment, the
coat pattern that is associated with
polar molecule
atoms that, when combined, have an unequal distribution of electrons; the two ends of this conjunction have opposite charges
The rate at which something occurs or is repeated over a particular period of time or in a given sample
water is absorbed by the ___ of plants
the ratio of an object's image to its real size
short term memory
memory stage in which information is held in consciousness for 10 to 20 seconds
cleavage furrow
The first sign of cleavage in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface near the old metaphase plate.
Age Structure Pyramid
the relative number of individuals of each age in a population
noncompetitive inhibitors
bind to another part of an enzyme, changing the function
Concentration Gradient
An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated.
G2 phase
the second growth face of the cell cycle consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
Unsaturated fat
At least one double bond with carbon, liquid
allosteric site
A specific receptor site on some part of an enzyme molecule remote from the active site.
One of 64 possible base triplets in an mRNA strand
New data have recently challenged the older classification system that placed all living organisms in five kingdoms. Which of the following best describes the three domains of the current system of classification?
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
polygenic inheritance
An additive effect of two or more gene loci on a single phenotypic character
What are polysaccharides good for
storage material and building material for structures that protect cell
Cell cycle stimulating pathways
this pathway is triggered by 1) a growth factor that binds to 2) its receptor in the plasma membrane. The signal is relayed to 3) a G protein called Ras. Like all G proteins, Ras is active when GTP is bound to it. Ras passes the signal to 4) a series of protein kinases. The last kinase activates 5) a transcription activator that turns on one or more genes for proteins that stimulate the cell cycle. If a mutation makes Ras or any other pathway component abnormally active, excessive cell divisiona and cancer may result.
what is the "optimal foraging model"?
natural selection favours a foraging behaviour that minimises the costs of foraging and maximises the benefits
N 􀃆V 􀃆H 􀃆P n goes to v goes to h goes to p
increasing minerals, increases plant numbers, which increases herbivores, that then increases predators
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