Literary Devices 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
simile
...
Logos
logic
denotation
dictionary definition
Metaphor
an implied comparison
hyperbole
an extravagant exaggeration
exaggeration
the act overstating
Oxymoron
Self-contradictory combination of words (jumbo shrimp, Bittersweet)
Litotes
understatement, for intensification, by denying the contrary of the thing being affirmed. (Sometimes used synonymously with meiosis.)
*A few unannounced quizzes are not inconceivable.
Round/flat
no depth/depth and complexity
Aposiopesis
a dramatic interruption in mid-sentence
alliteration
repetition of sounds, especially initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words
Kinesthetic Image
image the involves movement
Allegory
Narration or description usually restricted to a single meaning because its events, actions characters... represent specific abstractions or ideas. Characters given names like Hope, Charity...
synecdoche
a part represents the whole
aphorism
saying that describes common observation or belief
Exposition
introduces the characters, setting, and basic situation
climax
the turning point in a story
Anastrophe
reversal of normal word order, emphasizes word placed earlier
TONE
The author's attitude toward the reader or the people, places, and events in a work
rhetorical modes
term describes the variety, conventions, and purposes of the major kinds of writing: argumentation, exposition, description, and narration
epithet
a descriptive phrase often substituted for a persons real name or title
Satire
Writing that blends criticism with humor to improve humanity.
Parallelism
Repetition of syntactic structure in two or more clauses
Personification
attribution of personality to an impersonal thing.
meiosis
understatement used to minimize the emphasis of the claim
anthropomorphism
animals or inanimate objects are portrayed in a story as people, such as by walking, talking, or geing given arms and legs. LT
compound-complex
A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.
Catachresis
is an extravagant, implied metaphor using words in an alien or unusual way.
ex: "I will speak daggers to her." --Hamlet
Bucolic
Of or pertaining to shepherds; pastoral. Of, or pertaining to, rural life. And see the shepherds feed their flocks, By shallow rivers, to whose falls Melodious birds sing madrigals. Christopher Marlowe
Character Foil
Comparison between 2 different characters.
Paradox
any person, thing, or situation exhibiting an apparently contradictory nature.
foreshadow
to show or indicate beforehand; prefigure:
Foil
a person who cotrasts with another character in order to hightlight various features in the characters personality
Apostrophe
the abandonment of a narrative of discourse to address an absent or imaginary person. Sudden change from 3rd person to 2nd person.
Anaphora
the repetition of a word, for emphasis, at the beginning of successive phrases or clauses.
Caesura
a pause between words occurring within a metrical foot, emphasize word immediately following or preceding
imagery
sensory details that refer to visual, auditory, tactile, gustatory, or olfactory
inference/infer
to draw a reasonable conclusion from the information presented
Example: For a moment the last sunshine fell with romantic affection on her glowing face; her voice compelled me forward breathlessly as I listened - then the glow faded, each light deserting her with lingering regret, like children leaving a pleasant str
Simile
Setting
Background against which the action or a narrative takes place.
Allusion
An indirect reference to another work of literature or art
Hendiadys
two nouns connected by a conjunction with one modifying another
Polysyndeton
the repetition of conjunctions in a series of coordinate words, phrases, or clauses.
*I said, "Who killed him?" and he said, "I don't know who killed him but he's dead all right," and it was dark and there was water standing in the street and no lights and windows broke and boats all up in the town and trees blown down and everything all blown and I got a skiff and went out and found my boat where I had her inside Mango Bay and she was all right only she was full of water. Hemingway, After the Storm
annotation
comment or note added to a text
Motif
a recurring important idea or image. it can be expressed as a single word or fragmentary phase. LE
irony
Verbal: when the words literally state the opposite of the writers meaning.
Situational: when events turn out opposite of what was expected
Dramatic: when facts or events are unknown to a character, but known to the reader or other characters in the audience
complex
A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which.
onomatopoeia
the sound of the words imitates natural sounds
ex: buzz, hiss
interior monologue
an extended presentation of a character's thoughts, not in the helter-skelter order of stream of consciousness
analogy
a similarity or comparison between two different things or the relationship between them.
Situational irony
The lifeguard drowned in his bathtub.
Structure
The manner in which the various elements of a story are assembled.
Irony (verbal)
The expression of another meaning using language that normally shows the opposite. ie: 'shcool'
Static Character
a literary character who remains basically unchanged throughout a work
The feeling or atmosphere that the writer creates for the reader
mood
repetition
the act of repeating; repeated action, performance, production, or presentation.
refrain
a phrase or verse recurring at intervals in a song or poem, esp. at the end of each stanza; chorus.
archetype
the original pattern or model from which all things of the same kind are copied or on which they are based
Frame
A narrative structure that provides a setting and exposition for the main narrative in a novel. Often, a narrator will describe where he found the manuscript of the novel or where he heard someone tell the story he is about to relate. ...
symbolism
the use of specific objects or images to represent abstract ideas
Dactyl
a metrical food of one long syllable followed by two shorts, can show rapid, abrupt, or violent action
NARRATOR
The voice of the person telling the story
extended metaphor
a metaphor occurring frequently in or throughout a work
epigraph
a quotation or motto set at the beginning of a literary work
"So we drove on toward death through the cooling twilight"
Foreshadowing
Couplet
Two lines of a verse with similare end- rhymes
Epistrophe
Repetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of successive clauses
Dynamic Character
Undergoes a permanent change in some aspect of character, personality, or outlook.
Objective
The author only tells the action of the story.
Falling meter
Poetic meters such as trochaic and dactylic that move or fall from a stressed to an unstressed syllable. The nonsense line, "Higgledy, piggledy," is dactylic, with the accent on the first syllable and the two syllables following falling off from that accent in each word. Trochaic meter is represented by this line: "Hip-hop, be-bop, treetop--freedom."
foreshadowing
where future events in a story, or perhaps the outcome, are suggested by the author before they happen. it can take many forms. LT
epanalepsis
adds emphasis in which the same word or words both begin and end a phrase, clause, or sentence. Book Ends
syntax
the way an author chooses to join words into phrases, clauses, and sentences.
Flashback
An action to interrupts to show an event that happened at an earlier time that makes the whole situation to a better understanding.
The story of a person's life written by that person.
Autobiography
quatrain
a stanza or poem of four lines, usually with alternate rhymes.
Denouement
The resolution of the plot of a literary work. The denouement of Hamlet takes place after the catastrophe, with the stage littered with corpses. During the denouement Fortinbras makes an entrance and a speech, and Horatio speaks his sweet lines in praise
Hysteron Proteron
a reversal of the natural or logical order of ideas; literally putting last things first.
CHARACTERIZATION
The process by which a writer makes a character(s) seem real
iamb
a metrical foot in poetry that has an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable as in the word protect
Mood
the feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage
Rhyme Scheme
A pattern in which the rhyme sounds occur in a poem or stanza.
A pattern of words or phrases appeals to the sense of touch.
tactile imagery
Omniscient
Told in the third person by a narrator whose knowledge and prerogatives are unlimited.
Syllepsis
use of a word with two others, with each of which it is understood differently.
*We must all hang together or assuredly we will all hang separately. Benjamin Franklin
sarcasm
use of verbal irony in a harsh or mocking manner for negative purposes
declarative sentence
In grammar, the kind of sentence that makes a statement or "declares" something: "He eats yogurt."
Dramatic irony
Where the audience or reader is aware of something important, of which the characters in the story are not aware.
figurative
of the nature of or involving a figure of speech, esp. a metaphor; metaphorical; not literal:
Synchysis
a word order in which on part of on pair of words is put between the parts of another. ABABA
Development or Rising Action
the events that occur when the conflict increases until it reaches a high point of interest or suspense
limited omniscient
the narrator sees into the mind of one character and is able to tell what he/she thinks, feels, hears, sees
Aside
on or to one side;  to or at a short distance apart; away from some position or direction: to turn aside; to move the chair aside.
blank verse
...
wit
amusing language
Assonance
repetition of vowels
connotation
the nonliteral, associative meaning
epigram
short pointed or witty saying
Tactile Image
image that involves touch.
Asyndeton
lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words.
plot
sequence of events in a story
"...he dispensed starlight to casual moths so that he could "come over" some afternoon to a stranger's garden.
Metaphor
Antimetabole
Repetitition of words in successive clauses, in reverse order (a chaismus in which the exact words, not just the syntax, are flipped)
conflict
a struggle between opposing forces which is the driving force of a story.LE
Symbol
something that stands for something else
Drama
Story/situation or sequence of events that are highly emotional, tragic, and suspenseful.
Prologue
Intro to a long play/poem, etc.
A character whose qualities contrast with those of another character.
Foil
theme
a subject of discourse, discussion, meditation, or composition; topic:
Dramatic
sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect; "a dramatic sunset"; "a dramatic pause"; "a spectacular display of northern lights"; "it was a spectacular play"; "his striking good looks always created a sens
antagonist
counterpart to the main character and source of a story's main conflict
Ecphrasis
a digression from the main narrative but connecting thematically
colourful language
vulgar or rude language; particularly unusual or distictive expressions
syllogism
a deductive system of formal logic that present two premises
Epic
A long narrative poem focused around the adventures of a hero.
Coincidence
The chance concurrence of two events that have a peculiar correspondence.
narrative
story or an account of an event
red herring
something that diverts attention from a central issue
Metonymy
substituting the name of one object for another object closely associated with it.
Example:
"The pen [writing] is mightier than the sword [war]"
dialect
A way of speaking that is characteristic of a certain geographical area or a certain group of people.
A brief descriptive essay that highlights certain qualities of the subject's personality or character.
Character sketch
Conceit
A fanciful poetic image or metaphor that likens one thing to something else that is seemingly very different. An example of a conceit can be found in Shakespeare's sonnet “Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?” and in Emily Dickinson's poem “There is no
character
the people who inhavit and take part in a story
Euphemism
the mild expression of a painful or repulsive idea. Taboo words.
pun
a play on words based on different meanings of words that sound alike.
transition
a word or phrase that links different ideas
farce
a type of comedy in which ridiculous and often stereotyped characters are involved in silly farfetched situations
Atmosphere
the prevailing tone or mood of a piece. generally established by setting.
Apposition
Placing two elements side by side in which the second defines the first
Antistrophe
repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses
literary terms
refers to the words themselves with which we identify and describe literary elements and techniques.
style
how the author writes rather than what he or she writes
Aubade
A lyric poem regretting the arrival of dawn - Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet: Wilt thou be gone? it is not yet near day: It was the nightingale, and not the lark, That pierc'd the fearful hollow of thine ear
Dramatic Monologue
Lyric poem in which a speaker addresses a silent or absent listener in a moment of high intensity or deep emotion, as if engaged in private conversation. The speaker proceeds without interruption or argument, and the effect on the reader is that of hearing just one side of a conversation.
A figure of speech in which human qualities are given to an object, animal, or idea.
Personification
amplification
the matter or substance used to expand an idea, statement, or the like:
figurative language
any use of language where the intended meaning differs from the actual literal meaning of the word themselves (metaphor, simile, hyperbole, personification, onomatopoeia, verbal irony, oxymoron)
Enjambement
delay of the final word or phrase to the beginning of the following line, emphasizes and idea
I must have stood for a few moments listening to the whip and snap of the curtains and the groan of a picture on the wall.
Personification
Direct Presentation
When an author tells about a character whether through explanation or analysis.
periodic sentence
independent clause is at the end of the sentence after a phrase or clause
Soliloquy
a speech in a play in which a character, usually alone on the stage, talks to himself or herself so that the audience knows their thoughts.ie: monologue
A special kind of satire that mocks a specific literary work or type of literature.
Parody
antithesis
The placing of a sentence or one of its parts against another to which it is opposed to form a balanced contrast of ideas, as in Give me liberty or give me death.
rhetorical question
a question that is asked that is asked merely for effect and is not intended for a reply
zeugma
use of a word to govern two or more words though appropriate to only one
Chiasmus (aka antimetabole)
is a device in which a writer reverses the order of repeated words or phrases (a loosely chiastic structure, AB-BA) to intensify the final formulation, to present alternatives, or to show contrast:
es: "All work and no play is as harmful to mental health as all play and no work"
Point of view
The angle of vision from which a story is narrated. See Narrator. A work's point of view can be: first person, in which the narrator is a character or an observer, respectively; objective, in which the narrator knows or appears to know no more than the re
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