Literary Terms 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
zutreffend
accurate
darstellen
to protray
epiphany
realization; awakening
verdant
green with vegetation
setting
time and place
dualogue
conversation between characters
ambiguity
open to multiple interpretations
didactic
instructive, designed to teach
cacophony
harsh dissonance of sound
Coherence
Clearness in connecting ideas.
onomatopoeia
words pronounced like they are
theme
authors message or overall purpose
Local Color
distinctive sometimes pictauresque representations in drama
exegesis
an explanation or critical interpretation (especially of the Bible)
threnody
Song or hymn of mourning
myth


an anonymous narrative, originating in the primitive folklore of a race or nation, that explains 
natural phenomena, or recounts the deeds of heroes, passed on through oral tradition.
bio.
story of a persons life
pair of lines in verse
couplet
metaphysical
highly abstract, subtle, or abstruse.
Denotation
The dictionary meaning of a word.
Hyperbole
the trope of exaggeration or overstatement.
Trope: figures of speech with an unexpected twist in the meaning of words
Julia Clarke
personification
attribution of personality to an impersonal thing
Flat Character
A simple, one-dimensional character who remains the same, and about whom little or nothing is revealed throughout the course of the work.
allegory
characters are symbols, has a moral
fable
short tale that teaches a lesson
imagery
the sensory details or figurative language used to describe, arouse emotion, or represent abstraction
motif
a recurring object, concept, or structure in a work of literature
Alliteration
the practice of beginning several consecutive or neighboring words with the same sound
situational irony
directly contradics the expectations of the character
simile
implied comparision of two dissimilar things that uses the words like or as
blank verse
unrhymed verse, especially unrhymed iambic pentameter. "Thanatopsis," Shakespeare's plays.
Dynamic character
character changes during the story
nonfiction
the branch of literature comprising works of narrative prose dealing with or offering opinions or conjectures upon facts and reality, including biography, history, and the essay (
Cynthia
the moon, the emblem of Artemis
Run-on lines
Line that exceeds the established meter or continues across a line break.
atmosphere
The emotional feelings inspired by a work. The term is borrowed from meteorology to describe the dominant mood of a selection as it is created by diction, dialogue, setting, and description.
Parallelism
use of phrases, clauses, or sentences similar or complementary in structure or meaning ("I will sing unto the Lord as long as I life: I will sing praise to my God while I have my being")
burlesque
kind of parody that ridicules some serious literary work
convention
a generally agreed upon practice or accepted literary device, style or form
iamb
a metrical foot consisting of one short syllable followed by one long syllable or of one unstressed syllable followed by one stressed syllable
Cliché
an expression that has been overused to the extent that its freshness has worn off
Plot
The pattern of elements in a narrative
connotation
the implied or associative meaning of a word
metonymy
a name or substitution for another thing
denouement
final stages of the plot, usually after the conflicts have been solved
Italian sonnet
octave and sestet, 14 lines, abbaabbacdecde or abbaaccacdcdcd. Marked turn from question to answer
antithesis
a balancing of two opposite or contrasting words, phrases, or clauses
Aside
a brief comment made on stage, sometimes directed at the audience, that is assumed not to be heard by certain characters on stage.
antagonist
a force working against the main charachter in a story
pastoral
literatuire that deals with the lives of shepherd, or of idealistically happy, peaceful, untrouble, country people.
monologue
a long speech addressed to another character onstage
suspense
a state or condition of mental uncertainty or excitement, as in awaiting a decision or outcome, usually accompanied by a degree of apprehension or anxiety.
motivation
the act or an instance of motivating.
trope
any literary or rhetorical device, as metaphor, metonymy, synecdoche, and irony, that consists in the use of words in other than their literal sense.
repetition
the act of repeating; repeated action, performance, production, or presentation.
meter
an arranged pattern of rhythm in a line of verse
Essay
A short composition on a single topic expressing the view or interpretation of the writer on that topic.
Rhetoric
the art of presenting ideas in a clear, effective, and persuasive manner
SPEAKER
The voice of a poem, sometimes that 'of the poet, sometimes that of a fictional person or even a thing.
anaphora
the repitition of words or phrases at the beginning of consecutive lines or sentences
litote
when a point is affirmed by negating its opposite, ex. "He is not short"
Allusion
A reference to another work or famous figure that is assumed to be well known enough to be recognized by the reader.
predicate adjective
follows a linking verb and describes the subject
consonance
A common form of near rhyme, consists of identical consonant sounds preceded by different vowel sounds: home, same.
sestet
a rhythmic group of six lines of verse
Soliloquy
A speech by a character who is speaking his thoughts aloud in order to let the audience know what he is thinking. It's spoken alone on the stage.
rhythm
swing or movement of poetry or prose gained through a particular arrangement of words and phrases
Vernacular
the language spoken by the people who live in a particular locality.
Anadiplosis
a rhetorical device where a word or phrase at the end of a sentence or phrase is repeated at the beginning of the next sentence or phrase
drama
the art dealing with the writing and production of plays.
comedy
a play, movie, etc., of light and humorous character with a happy or cheerful ending; a dramatic work in which the central motif is the triumph over adverse circumstance, resulting in a successful or happy conclusion.
quatrain
a stanza or poem of four lines, usually with alternate rhymes.
COMPLICATION /RISING ACTION
the moments where the main character takes some action to resolve the conflict but is met with more problems and complications
VERBAL IRONY
the writer says one thing and means another
falling action
after the climax, in which the story resolves itself
Story of initiation
A short story depicting a decisive incident.
inversion
a reversal of the usual order of words for emphasis
subordinate clause
a group of words that cannot stand alone but contain a subordinating conjuction, a subject and a verb
Narrative (example)
38 Who Saw Murder by Gansbergor Only Daughter.
Define: epic conventions
include a hero, epic similes, in medias res
polysyndeton
the use of a number of conjunctions in close succession.
flashback
a device in the narrative of a motion picture, novel, etc., by which an event or scene taking place before the present time in the narrative is inserted into the chronological structure of the work.
setting about
to put (something or someone) in a particular place:
deus ex machina
"god from the machine". now used to describe an improbable or unexpected contrivance by which the author resolves the complications of the plot.
independent clause
a clause that can stand alone as a grammatical unit
cause and effect
two events that are related as cause and effect when one event brings about the other.
synecdoche
a figure of speech in which a part is used for the whole or the whole for a part, the special for the general or the general for the special, as in ten sail for ten ships or a Croesus for a rich man.
Point of view-first
a story told by an "I" narrator. An "I" narrator is a character in the story.
Point of view
The angle from which a story is told. For example, first-person: The narrator is a character in the story and refers to himself as “I.” Second person: The reader is the main character. Narrator uses the pronoun “you” when referring to the main character.
humorvoll
humourous
aktionsreich
action packed
Analogy (ex)
hot:cold::fire:ice
dynamic
character that changes
dissonance/cacophony
harsh sound; screech
Narrative-a story
Narrative-a story
catachresis
misapplication of a word
diction
author's choice of words
genre
a categorie of literature
Rhyme
repetition of end sounds
bathos
insincere or overly sentimental quality of writing/speech intended to evoke pity
audience
Whom the writer is addressing.
fiction
prose that tells a fanasty
Caesura
a natural pause or break
jejune
without interest or significance; dull; insipid:
Protagonist
central character in the story
Example - MB- Ms. Brill/ HIMMH- Eddie
Conflict
a struggle between two opposing forces
cacaphony
a harsh discordance of sound; dissonance
rhetorical
persuasive, a style, form, and approach intended to persuade
mood
the atmosphere suggested by the structure and style of the poem
sarcasm
Involves a reversal, the intention being to pick on or hurt
colloquialism
informal words or expressions not ususally acceptable in formal writing
Pastoral
An artistic composition dealing with the life of shepherds or w/a simple, rural experience
prosody
the study and classification of different poetic meters, rhyme schemes, and stanzas.
appendix
supplement. Matter added to a book
Connect
Connect personally with what you’re reading. Think of similarities between what is being described and what you have experienced, heard about, or read about.
jargon
the language, esp. the vocabulary, peculiar to a particular trade, profession, or group:
foreshadowing
to show or indicate beforehand; prefigure:
Satire
form of literature in which irony, sarcasm, and ridicule are employed to attack human vice and folly
invective
abusive or violent language used to attack, blame, or denounce somebody
Extended Metaphor
a figurative comparison that is developed throughout an entire work or a great part of it - two things are compared at some length and in several ways - prose as well as poetry
dystopia
modern term invented as opposite of utopia, and applied to any alarmingly unpleasant imaginary world, usually of the projected future
stock character
a character quickly recognized and accepted by the reader or viewer and requiring no development by the writer
Style
the choices a writer makes; the combination of distinctive features of a literary work
Parody
A literary work that imitates an artistic style
Foil
A character who is used contrast another character (same age and gender)
iambic pentameter
a line comprised of five iambs
comic relief
A humorous scene, incident, character, or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious or tragic moment
metaphor
a comparison of two things, often unrelated.
couplet
two-line poetry, each line has the same number of syllables and rhymes
resolution
sometimes called the denouemont or end of the story concluding the lesson to be learned
oxymoron
ex: loving hate, cruel kindness, to make haste slowly.
Hyperbole-extravagant exaggeration or overstatement
Hyperbole-extravagant exaggeration or overstatement
red herring
something intended to divert attention from the real problem or matter at hand; a misleading clue.
character
the aggregate of features and traits that form the individual nature of some person or thing.
inference
any process of reasoning from premises to a conclusion
TRAGEDY
a play in which a main character suffers a downfall
Irony
A situation or a use of language involving some kind of incongruity or discrepancy.
Example - In "HIMMH", the heartbreak resulted in love and happiness.
...
Duple meter
Meter with two syllables in a foot.
Frame story
a secondary story or stories embedded in the main story.
Catharsis
In his Peotics, Aristotle wrote that a tragedy should arouse arouse pity and fear in such a way as to accomplish a catharsis of such emotions in the audience.
Non sequitur
the inference that does not follow logically from the remises (literally, "does not follow")
first-person narration
a narrative in which the narrator tells the story from his/her own point of view
euphony
Refers to language that is smooth and musically pleasant to the ear.
apostrophe
the mark (') used to indicate the omission of one or more letters from a printed word
Description
Is the process by which the author creates picture in readers minds.
classic
A literary work of highest class and acknowledged excellence.
literary devices
rhetorical elements used to create a desired mood or tone in a piece of writing
form of verse often set to music
literary ballad
syntax
the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language
cast
the group of performers to whom parts are assigned; players.
MAN vs. NATURE
main character is put against a natural phenomenon
dramatis personae
latin for "persons of the play". used to refer collectively to the characters represented in a dramatic work
internal rhyme
rhyming two words within a single line of poetry
compound sentence
a sentence that contains more than one independent clause, with no subordinate clauses, and the clauses may be linked by a coordinating conjunction, ex. Odysseus never gives up hope, and he eventually triumphs.
narrative
The telling of a story or an account of an event or series of events.
synesthesia (or synaesthesia)
describing one kind of sensation in terms of another ("a loud color", "a sweet sound")
Figurative
of the nature of or involving a figure of speech, esp. a metaphor; metaphorical; not literal: a figurative expression
Define: Cinquain
Poems that are five lines in length; syllable sinquains give each line a certain number of syllables: first-2, second-4, third-6, fourth-8, and fifth-2.
Extended Similie
A simile continued with the help of an entire supporting paragraph.
5 areas of conflict
Man vs man
Man vs society
Man vs himself
Man vs nature
Man vs unknown force
objective point of view
does not enter the mind of any character but describes events from the outside
third person limited point of view
the narrator is allowed inside the mind of only one character
Romantacism
romantic
erklären
to explain
epigram
meaningful saying
Tactile
Related to touch
Elegy
a mournful poem
Idiom
Popular expressions or sayings.
Personification (ex)
A smiling moon.
litotes
understatement: basically the opposite of hyperbole. Often it is ironic
point-of-view
who is telling the story
maxim
a generally truthful expression; curiosity killed cat
Confronts a social issue
Problem Play
hubris
excessive pride or self-confidence; arrogance.
Enjambment
The continuation of meaning, without pause or break, from one line of poetry to the next
Sardonic
expressing scorn, mockery or bitter disdain
Clause
(grammar) an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence
euphemism
an inoffensive expression that is substituted for one that is considered offensive
Anecdote
A very short story; A narrative.
homily
informal sermon; serious talk with moral/spiritual advice
Juxtaposition
1.the act of positioning close together (or side by side); "it is the result of the juxtaposition of contrasting colors"2.a side-by-side position
soliloquy
A long uninterruped speech presented to charectors on stage
Hero
protagonist who is the central character in a work
refrain
a sound, word, phrase, or line repeated regularly in a poem
penitential
of, pertaining to, preceding from, or expressive of repentance
Characterization
the method by which an author describes the personality of a character in a written work - physical appearance, personality, behavior, thoughts, feelings, and speech
Analogy
the comparison of two unlike things; the relation of one thing (abstract idea) to something more familiar (concrete idea).
humanism
A belief that emphasizes faith and optimism in human potential and creativity
round
a character with many facets, quirks, and specific traits; usually a main, secondary, or tertiary character
Asyndeton
a construction in which elements are presented in a series without conjunctions
Ad hominem
An argument attacking an individual's character rather than his or her position on an issue.
Classic
the arts of ancient Greece and Rome
assonance
resemblance of sound in words or syllables
symbol
anything that represents or stands for something else
figurative language
language that has deeper meaning beyond the literal meaning. Examples include symbols, metaphors, similes and hyperboles
Plain Style
Writing style that stresses simplicity and clarity of expression,and was the main form of the puritan writers.
act of creating and developing a character
Characterization
symbolism
the practice of representing things by symbols, or of investing things with a symbolic meaning or character.
decorum
the quality or state of being decorous; orderliness; regularity.
sonnet
a poem, properly expressive of a single, complete thought, idea, or sentiment, of 14 lines, usually in iambic pentameter, with rhymes arranged according to one of certain definite schemes, being in the strict or Italian form divided into a major group of
Masculine Rhyme
rhyme of only a single stressed syllable
blank verse
a type of poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no rhyme
Naturalism
works which show a strong interest in, sympathy with, and love of natural beauty; the belief that everything that exists is a part of nature and can be explained by natural causes.
complex sentence
independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses; the use of that
antecedent
The word a pronoun replaces. Can come before or after the pronoun.
analysis
examination of the parts in order to determine the nature of the whole
End Rhyme
Literary technique in which the words at the end of the lines rhyme.
author's purpose
the reason for creating a particular work. It may be to entertain, to explain or inform, to express an opinion or to persuade readers to do or believe something
Rising Action
series of small conflicts serving to build the plot
climax
(in a dramatic or literary work) a decisive moment that is of maximum intensity or is a major turning point in a plot.
purple prose
writing that calls attention to itself because of its obvious use of certain effects, as exaggerated sentiment or pathos, esp. in an attempt to enlist or manipulate the reader's sympathies.
Euphemism N.
Mild expression in place of bad ones
biography
a story of a person's life written by someone else
Colloquial-
the use of slang in writing, often to create local color and to provide an informal tone. Huckleberry Finn is written in a colloquial style
Thesis Statement
a sentene or groups of sentences that announces thesis
end-stopped
poetic line that has a pause at the end-marked by punctuation
Novel
A novel is a long work of fiction. Novels contain such elemants as characters,plot,conflict,and setting.The writer of novels, or novelist, develops these elements.In addition to its main plot,a novel may contain one or more subplots,or independent,related stories.A novel may also have several themes. See Fiction and Short Story.
Horror
A type of literature that has the main goal of terrifying the reader.
Define: Main Character
Most important figure in a literary work.
straw man
occurs when a person engaging in an argument defines his opponent's position when the opponent is not present and defines it in a manner that is easy to attack
epistolary novel
A novel in which the story is carried forward entirely trhough letters from one or more persons.
Situation irony
the result of an action is the reverse of what the actor expected
Limited Point of View
A third-person narrator able to see into the mind of only one character.
Blank verse vs free verse
Blank verse - Contains five iambic feet per line and IS NOT rhymed
Free verse - Poetry without meter
es stellt hohe Ansprüche an den Leser
it makes great demands on the reader
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Term:
Definition:
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