AP Biology Ecology Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
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Mullerian Mimicry
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phytoplankton
algae and cyanobacteria
Parasitoid
A parasite that kills
interoparity
(repeated reproduction) large number of offspring over many years
k-selection
species with constant sized populations
estuaries
where salt water meets freshwater
consciousness
conscious thinking and self awareness
Autotroph
Manufactures food using energy from the sun or from chemical compounds
Marine Biomes
Estuaries, intertidal zones, shelves, coral reefs
Practical Goal
management of populations, fisheries, endangered species
Fecundity
The power of reproducing abundantly; fruitfulness or fertility
Temperate broadleaf forests
distribution: midlatitudes in northeastern hemisphere, precipitation: 70-200 cm/yr, temp: winters- 0 degrees C, humid sumemrs, 30 degrees C, plants: high, diverse vertical layers, closed canopy, understory trees, shrub layer, herbacious stratum, epiphytes, deciduous trees dominant, animals: mammals, birds, insects
coral reef
typically a warm-water, tropical ecosystem dominated by the hard skeletal structures secreted primarily by the resident cnidarians
tropics
Latitudes between 23.5° north and south.
altruism
behavior which reduces an individual's fitness while increasing the fitness of a recipient
Carnivore
Organism that feeds only on animal life
competition
(-/-) both organisms work for same resources
Interspecific Interactions
A relationship between individuals of two or more species in a community.
Population Cycles
Fluctuations in population size in response to varying effects of limiting factors; i.e. snowshoe hair and lynx
epiphytes
plants that live commensially on other plants
population
group of individuals of a single species living in the same general area
K-selected populations
Density dependent selection- type of selection that operates in populations that are living near the limit imposed by resources (K); competition for resources is strong
thermocline
a narrow layer of abrupt temperature change that separates the more uniformly warm upper layer from more uniformly cold deeper waters
Life Tables
Age-specific summaries of the survival pattern of a population.
climate
The prevailing weather conditions at a locality.
sociobiology
the study of evolutionary basis of social behavior
westerlies
winds that blow from west to east
Density-Independent Factors
The effects of these factors increase as population size increases
territoriality
A behavior in which an animal defends a bounded physical space against encroachment by other individuals, usually of its own species.
density-dependent factors
affect population based on size ex. competition
Population Ecology
Study of the growth, abundance, and distribution of populations.
Canopy
The uppermost layer of vegetation in a terrestrial biome
pyramid of energy
energy pyramids correspond to the amount of energy present at each trophic level. the amount decreases as the trophic levels progress since some energy is lost as heat during transfer.
littoral zone
in lakes, the shallow, well-lit water close to the surface
population dynamics
the study of how complex interactions between biotic and abiotic factors influence variations in population size
estuary
a transition area between a river and sea
Ecotone
The area of intergradation may be wide or narrow.
imprinting
learning that is limited to a specific time period in an animal's life that is irreversible
kinesis
a random movement in response to a stimulus
gross primary productivity (gpp)
total primary production of an ecosystem
Type II Survivorship Curve
Curve that describes organisms in which the length of survivorship is random, death likelihood is the same at any age. (rodents and hydras)
Operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
mark-recapture method
used by ecologist to estimate the size of wildlife populations
Density Dependent
In contrast, a death rate that rises as population density rises is said to be _______.
landscape ecology
The study of past, present, and future patterns of landscape use, as well as ecosystem management and the biodiversity of interacting ecosystems.
Competitive Exclusion Principle (Gause's principle)
When two species compete for exactly the same resources (or occupy the same niche), one is likely to be more successful. One species lives, the other is eliminated.
Size of a Population (N)
The number of individuals living within specific boundaries
Batesian mimicry
a type of mimicry in which a harmless species looks like a species that is poisonous or otherwise harmful to predators
r = (births - deaths)/n
the reproductive rate is found with what equation?
trial and error learning
an animal learns to associate one of its own behavioral acts with a positive or negative effect
In an ecosystem, what are the primary consumers?
the primary consumers are the herbivorous organisms that eat the producers.
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