Terms Definitions
produced protobionts
Evolutionary history of species
labeled probe
radioactively labeled single-stranded DNA or mRNA that will base-pair with complementary sequences of DNA; locates genes in clone of bacteria, identifies similar nucleic acid sequences, and makes a map of genes
postzygotic mechanisms
Zygotic mortality,Hybrid inviability, Hybrid sterility
J.B.S. Haldane
established the relationship of Mendelian genetics to evolution; estimating spontaneous mutation rates through the observation of harmful or sex-linked genes in populations
describes how a population changes from one generation to the next
Carl Linnaeus
Developed system of classification, binomial nomenclature, latin
occurs when two distinctly different forms of a species mate a produce progeny along a geographic boundary called a hybrid zone.
charactiristics of an organism that aid survival (finches' beaks and turtles' necks)
provides new alleles in gene pool
The state or condition of being diploid (having each chromosome in two copies per nucleus or cell)
Gametic isolation
occurs when the eggs don't work.
same ancestor, ex: humans and whales considering we evolve from a common ancestral mammal
restriction enzymes
bacteria enzymes that cut DNA molecules with in short specific nucleotide sequences
Vestigial Organs
Structures of marginal importance or function to an organism; historical remnants of structures of ancestors
UV light polymerizes _____ but breaks down everything eslse
Hybrid Breakdown
Hybrids produce offspring that have reduced life span/reproduction rate (postzygotic)
frequency-dependent selection
occurs when the least common phenotypes have a selective advantage
reproductove isolating mechanisms
prevent different species from producing viable and fertile organisms
The hypothesis by Georges Cuvier that each boundary between strata corresponded in time to a catastrophe, such as a flood or drought, that had destroyed many of the species living there at that time.
relative fitness
the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next generation, relative to the contributions of other individuals in the population
prezygotic Isolation
before zygote is formedcaused by timing, location, parts don't fit, death of gametes
phenotype frequency
proportion of a particular phenotype in the population
is the possession of more than the normal two sets of chromosomes found in diploid. Occurs as a result of nondisjunctions.
two bell curves
the graphical shape of disruptive selection
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
scientist that proposed the acquired traits were inherited and passed on to offspring
Hybrid Sterility
hybrid is functional adult, but not fertile. (ex: mule) (postzygotic)
homozygous recessive
having two recessive alleles for a trait
differential reproductive success
______ leads to accumulation of favorablit traits in a species
Anagenesis or Phyletic Evolution
When one species replaces anotherSpecies A ------------> Species B
The study of the fossil record of past geological periods and of the phylogenetic relationships between ancient and contemporary plant and animal species.
natural selection
the idea that organisms best fit for their environment will survive
What is a clade?
group of species including ancestral species and all decedents
darwin's 2nd inference
the unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to an accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations
Heterozygote Superiority
Ss normal hemoglobin so no sickle cell anemiass abnormal hemoglobinSS no sickle cell anemia but do have malaria
phosphates in the nucleic acids
in gel electrophoresis, what causes nucleic acids to move towards the positive pole?
The principle of Maximum Likelihood
When there are multiple phylogenetic hypotheses, you have to take the one that reflects the most likely sequence of evolution, based on how DNA changes over time
Independent assortment of chromosomes
During metaphase I, results in the recombination of unlike genes
inheritance of acquired characteristics
de Lamarck: the principle of use and disuse is passed on to offspring
abiotically produced polypeptides
inherited characteristic that increases an organism's chance of survival
connects classification system to phylogeny by categorizing and naming organisms
descent w/ modification
evolution (broad definition)
uses geography to explain the distribution of species.
A pattern of evolutionary change involving the transformation of an entire population, sometimes to a state different enough from the ancestral population to justify renaming it as a separate species; also called phyletic evolution.
Heterozygous Advantage
Heterozygous alleles have greater selective advantage than either homozygous condition.
*Died before Darwin published his thesis. *Studied Fossils and understood fossil record *Theory of Catastrophism *Could tell by one bone what animal something was.
comparative anatomy
The investigation and comparison of the structures of different animals.
A.I. Oparin
Russian biochemist who developed one of the first modern theories about the origin of life on Earth; abiogenesis, the spontaneous generation of life from non-living chemical substances. Oparin believed that conditions on primitive Earth were different to those of the present. He suggested that the ancient seas were like a 'primeval soup' which contained many organic compounds. These were created when sunlight, a virtually limitless source of energy, reacted with chemicals in the water. These organic compounds formed the basis of life. They combined, becoming increasingly complex, until living cells were formed
precursors of cells, can do chemical reactions, but can not produce. Made of phopholipids
homologous structures
anatomical structures that have a common origin but different functions
analogous structures
structures that serve the same function but have evolved independently of each other
Adaptive Radiation
Development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches
study of development of organism // comparing early stages of vertebrate development
Nonrandom Mating
Individuals choose mates based on special traits
relative ability to survive and leave offspring.
parapatric speciation
A speciation model. Populations in contact along a common border evolve into new species; hybrids that form in the contact zone are less fit than individuals on either side of it and thereby act as a reproductive isolating mechanism.
genetic drift
chance events that alter allele frequencies
allopatric speciation
occurs when two populations are geographically isolated from each other
Divergent Evolution
When population is isolated from others and is then becomes exposed to new selective pressures it will transform into a new species.
Parallel evolution
describes two related species or two related lineages that have made similar evolutionary changes after their divergence from a common ancestor.
the study of the development of an organism
Directional Selection
One phenotype is "weeded" out. The other is favored because it already exists
amino acids; hot
proteinoids can be produced by allowing what to dehydrate on what kind of surfaces?
Balanced polymorphism
Presence of 2 or more phenotypically distinct forms of a trait is a single population of species.
Cambrian Explosion
543 MYA, within in 10-20 million years most of the major phyla of animals appear in fossilized records
sympatric speciation
the formation of a new speices without the presence of a geographic barrier
use and disuse
Baptiste de Lamarck proposed that a used appendage became larger and stronger, while disused ones fell off
Hardy Weinberg Equillibriium
*two scientists who described what a non-evolving population would look like.*Must be large population*Population must be isolated*No mutations in population*Mating must be random *No natural selectionp(sqrd) + 2pq + q(sqrd) = 1
Origin of Life
UV Rays, Water, Carbon in a closed vacuum system which make amino acids, thus making life.
separate restriction fragments into patterns of distinct bands
what is the purpose of gel electrophoresis?
Hardy-Weinberg (conditons). There are no net ___
mutations that change the allele frequencies.
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