AP Biology Lab Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
cell
epigastric region
gallbladder
liver
stomach
diaphragm
transverse colon
Marine Sponge
Phylum Porifera
Asymetrical
Digestion: filter water through pores with collar cells
Specialized Cells: spicules- silica- provide structure and support; amoebocytes- wandering cells carry nutrients
Reproduction: sexually and asexually
Hydra
Phylum Cnidaria
Class Hydrozoa
Description: polyp (mouth up)
Symmetry: radial
Digestion: incomplete
Tissue Layers: epidermis, mesoglea, endodermis
Reproduction: sexual or asexual (fission)
Special: nematocysts- "stinging cells"
nerve net- sensory cells
hydrostatic skeleton- uses water for support and movement
left upper quadrant
liver
spleen
stomach
pancreas
transverse colon
descendiing colon
adrenal gland
left kidney
Sea Slug
Phylum Mollusca
Class Gastropoda
Protosome
Description: "soft bodied" "belly foot"
Symmetry: bilateral
Digestion: complete
Body Cavity: coelom
Reproduction: sexual
Special: have mantle, gills, and radula (tongue)
Mole Crab
Phylum Arthropoda
Subphylum Crustacea
Protosome
Description: "having jointed appendages"
Symmetry: bilateral
Digestion: complete
Body Cavity: coelom
Reproduction: sexual
Special: exoskeleton made of chitin
molts
specialized appendages- 6
Division of labor: metamorphosis: Incomplete-egg, nymph, adult; Complete- egg, larva, pupa, adult
mitosis
division of somatic cells
mammary
pertaining to the breast
carpal
pertsining to the wrist
oral
pertaining to the mouth
Restriction enzymes
(restriction endonucleases) essential tools in recombinant DNA methodology. They are named according to a specific system of nomenclature: 1st letter of name stands for genus name of organism. Next two letters represent second word or species name. Fourth letter represents the strain of the organism. Roman numerals indicate whether the particular enzyme was the first isolated or the second, or so on.
right upper quadrant
pancreas
duodenum
right adrenal gland
liver
gallbladder
right kidney
pylorus
ascending colon
transverse colon
left lumbar region
decending colon
small intestine
Conjugation
mating process during which genetic material is transferred from one bacterium to another of a different mating type.
nucleus
part of cell that has chromosomes
telophase
stage when daughter nuclei form; nuclear envelop begins to form around each group of chromosomes that are at respective poles
metaphase
(middle)
 

 
chromosomes attach to spindle fibers at their centromeres and then move to the equater
prophase
(before)
 
the replicated chromatids begin to coil into recognizable chromosomes; the nuclear membrane fragments; spindle fibers form; nucleus and nuclear membrane disintegrates
Transpiration
Construct a potometer to measure the amount of water using two-week-old bean seedlings. 2. Measure the rate of transpiration in a plant under various conditions in a controlled environment
crossing over
the exchange of genetic material between homologus chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis. Homologus chromosomes pair up to form a tetrad, then chromosomal segments are exchanged.
meristems
special growth regions in plants where mitosis occurs, usually at the TIP of stems or roots
patellar
pertaining to the anterior knee cap region
cardiovascular system
 
 
via blood, distributes oxygen and nutrients to all body cells and delivers wastes and carbon dioxide to disposal organs
 
heart , blood, blood vessels
 

—G1
 cells grow in voulume, produces cell componenets
antecubital
pertaining to the anterior surface of the elbow
abdominal
pertaining to the anterior body trunk region inferior to the ribs
dermis
 
dermal papillae
 
peglike projections that indent the overlying epidermis
paper chromatography
a technique used to separate and identify pigments and other molecules from cell extracts that contain a complex mixture of molecules.
meiosis
division of sex cells that results in cells with half as many chromosomes
chromatin
long, thin fibers of DNA that are condensed to make up the eukaryotic chromosome
chromatids
2 structures that make up one X-shaped chromosome
lymphatic system
 
picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
 
red bone marrow
thymus
lymphatic vessels
thoracic duct
spleen
lymph nodes
tonsils
sensory receptors

meissner's corpuscle
 
small nerves light touch receptors
in dermal papillae
 
accessory pigment
pigments, found in the antenna of a photosystem, whose job itis to gather photons and channel the light energy down to the reaction center of the photosystem
Transduction
requires presence of a virus t act as a vector (carrier) to transfer small pieces of DNA from one bacterium to another.
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
 
single layer of cells of differing height, some not reaching the free surface; nuclei seen @ different levels; amy contain mucus secreting cells and bear cilia
 
secretion particularly of mucus; propulsion of mucus by ciliary action
 
noncilated type in male sperm carryin ducts and ducts of large glands
ciliated variety lines the trachea, most of the upper respitory tract
Meiosis and Mitosis
Observe the stages of mitosis in the apical meristem of an onion root tip or a whitefish blastula; determine how long a cell undergoing mitosis remains in each stage 2. Study cell undergoing the phases of mitosis from a prepared microscope slide 3. Use colored beads to simulate meiosis, show crossing-over and meiosis I and II
active site
the area on an enzyme that binds to the substrate
Experimental Procedures to Enzyme Catalyzed Rate of Hydrogen Perozxide Decomposition
Experimental Group: Fill a burette of syringe with Potassium Permanganete and record its initial volume. Place 10 ml of 1.5% H2O2 into a beaker. Add 1ml of catalase. Swirl the beaker for 10 seconds. After 10 seconds, add 10 ml of H2SO4. Remove 2ml of this mixture and place it into another beaker. Swirl this beaker and add KMnO4 drop by drop until the solution remains purple. Record the final volume of the burette or syringe. Repeat the above experiment four times, but instead of a 10 second time period swirl the beaker 30, 60, 120, 180 seconds.
Control Group: Repeat the above experiment, but instead of adding 1 ml of catalase you should add 1 ml of water each time. This experiment is often called the baseline.
Variables: The independent variables are whether or not catalase is present and the time period during which the reaction is allowed to run. The dependent variable is the amount of KMnO4 used (related to the amount of substrate used).
Plant Pigments and Photosyntheis Lab
What pigments occur in a spinach leaf, and how far do they migrate during paper chromatography?
Experimental Group: Obtain an 8 cm by 3 cm piece of chromatography paper. Use a fine paint brush to streak a line of chlorophyll extract 1.5 cm from the botton of the piece of paper (draw a baseline with pencil, then streak over this). Aternatively, use a coin to grind pigment directly from a spinach leaf into the paper, 1.5 cm from the bottom of the piece of paper. Apply the pigment streak 6 times, allowing the paper to dry between each application. Alternatively, roll the coin over the spinach six times, moving the leaf after each roll. Place 10 ml of chromatography solvent (9 parts petroleum ether to 1 part acetone) in a glass jar. Stand the chromatography paper in the jar so that the pigment streak end is barely immersed in the solvent. If the paper will not stand, form a cylinder with the paper and staple each end such that the two edges do not overlap (now it should stand in the jar). Cover the jar and do not disturb for several minutes. When the solvent is about 1 cm from the top margin fo the paper, remove the paper and immediately mark the locatin of the solvent from before it evaporates
No control group is necessary in this type of qualitative study (no variable is being manipulated).
faint yellow-->yellow-->bright green--->yellow green
How are complementary overhangs or sticky ends produced?
By using the same restriction enzyme to cut DNA from two different organisms, complementary overhangs or sticky ends are produced and allow the DNA from 2 sources to be recombined. Digestion with EcoRI or HindIII will produce DNA fragments with sticky ends.
Conclusions of the Enzyme Catalyzed Rate of Hydrogen Peroxzide Decomposition
A graph of the sample data shows that the slope of the curve decreases as time goes on, indicating that the reaction slows down as time goes on. The initial rate of an enzyme catalyzed reaction is always highest, due to the abundance of substrate molecules. But as time passes, fewer and fewer substrate molecules are availabe for reaction with the enzyme, and thus the rate of the reaction goes down. Additional experiments could examine reaction rates as influenced by pH, temperature substrate concentration, the presence of inhibitors, etc.
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