AP Biology Pre-Fix Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
adip-
fat
chroma-
colored
histo
tissue
pharyngo
pharynx
Haploid #
23
anti-
against, opposite
neo
new, recent
anteridium
Male reproductive structure
phyla
Classes go into phyla.
Bowman's capsule
Surrounds the glomerulus.
Lysosome
membrane-bound sac containing digestive enzymes that can break down proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides
crossing-over
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Bone marrow
B cells mature where?
Inducible
Causes repressor to let go
Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Fungi, Plants, Animals
6 Kingdoms
alleles
The alternative version of a gene.
carbohydrate
key source of energy; organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen.
Chloroplast
Organelles that capture energy from sunlight and convert it to chemical energy
Vitamin A
Helps maintain epithelial tissues; components of visual pigments
what subatomic particle is NOT included in atomic mass?
electrons
What were the earliest land vertebrae?
...
inbreeding
continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
Prokaryote
a unicellular organism having cells lacking membrane-bound nuclei
neutron
an elementary particle having no charge, mass slightly greater than that of a proton, a constituent of the nuclei of all atoms except those of hydrogen
carrier protein
a protein that transports substances across a cell membrane
lipid bilayer
double-layered sheet that forms the core of nearly all cell membranes
nucleus
structure containing DNA and RNA and controls the cell's activities
enzyme
protein that acts as a cell's biological catalyst
diffusion
PASSIVE movement of particles from a higher concentration to a lower concentration of particles through a permeable membrane
CD4
A surface protein present on most helper T cells, binds the class II MHC molecule.
Heat-shock proteins
These molecules help maintain the integrity of other proteins that would be denatured by severe heat.
what reasons is reproductive isolation caused
genetic, behavioral
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants is known as ___________.
Pollination
seven
How many characteristics of life are there?
Leading Strand
the new continuous complementary DNA strand synthesized along the template strand in the mandatory 5' --> 3' direction
transformation
change in genotype caused when cells take up foreign genetic material
edge effect
brings habitats together and creates more biodiversity (forest with lake)
continental drift
The theory that all of earth's landmass was once together.
chromatid
Either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome, which are joined at the centromere.
equilibrium
when the concentration of a solute is the same throughout the solution
chemical energy
form of potential energy in organic compounds that make up food
Connective tissue
Functions to bind and support other tissues, with a sparse populations of cells.
Acid chyme
A nutrient-rich broth created by the mixing and enzyme action of your stomach.
Helicobacter pylori
An acid tolerant bacterium that cause gastric ulcers.
Enzymatic Hydrolysis
The breaking of bonds with the addition of water, found in digestion
Step 3 in Lac.
Ribosomes translates B.Gala. and Permease
What are the three body segments of insects?
...
sex chromosomes
one of two chromosomes that determine an individuals sex
Cell Theory
(biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and functional units of all living organisms
telophase
the final stage of meiosis or mitosis, in which the separated chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the dividing cell and the nuclei of the daughter cells form around the two sets of chromosomes.
five kingdom system
A kingdom system that puts prokaryotes in the kingdom Monera.
base pairing
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between adenine and thymine and between guanine and cytosine
Vitamin D
Absorption of and use of calcium and phosphorus; bone growth
what is geographic isolation
a physical barrier divides a population
What are the five levels of organization in a body (from cells to organ system)?
atoms & molecules
cells
tissues
organs
organ system (organelles)
Photic Zone
Portion of the marine biome that is shallow enough for sunlight to penetrate.
electron transport chain
a series of proteins in which the high-energy electrons from the Krebs cycle convert ADP into ATP
Unsaturated fatty acids are different from saturated fatty acids because the have
carbon to carbon double bonds
response to stimuli
What is a physical or chemical change in the internal or external enviornments?
What substances can enter/exit the cell through diffusion?
O2, CO2, and lipid soluble molecules
overall equation for cellular respiration
glucose + oxygen --> carbon dioxide + water + energy
What is the difference beween a TE Microscope and a SE Microscope?
TEM's explore cell structures and large protein molecules. SEM's produce 3D images of cells
Who is Jan van Helmont and what did he do?
a Belgian physician. Did an experiment with plants to figure out what made them grow. determined that plants did NOT get food from soil. opened door for other experiments.
amyl-
starch
gamo-
marriage
hepato
liver
pan
all
Define ossicles.
...
onc-
mass, tumor
phren
mind, diaphragm
Describe spore-forming protists.
.
domain
A group of kingdoms.
Cecum
Part of the colon.
hyphae
threadlike structures of fungi
NAD+
electron carrier involved in glycolysis
Metanephridia
Excretory system with internal openings that collect body fluids, found in annelids, excrement is released through a nephridiopore.
Hydrogen Bonds
form between water molecules
septa
divide hyphae into individual cells
Hydrophobic
Repelling, tending not to combine with, or incapable of dissolving in water
gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Smooth ER
Contains enzymes that perform specialized tasks
epiglottis
A cartilaginous flap that blocks covers the glottis (opening to the trachea)
which organic compound has no monomer
lipid
_______ are the branching, threadlike tubes that make up the bodies of Multicellular fungi.
hyphae
Plasmid
circular DNA molecule found in bacteria
Symbiosis
the relation between two different species of organisms that are interdependent
cytoskeleton
a shifting lattice arrangement of structural and contractile components distributed throughout the cell cytoplasm, composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and larger filaments, functioning as a structural support and transport mechanism.
reactant
An element or compound that enters into a chemical reaction
golgi apparatus
stack of membranes that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and sends proteins to their final destination
tumor
masses of cancer cells that divide uncontrollably
Secretin
A hormone secreted by the duodenum that stimulates the pancreas to release sodium bicarbonate, which neutralizes acid chyme from the stomach.
who established the theory of evolution and natural selection?
charles darwin
What is the difference between monkeys and apes?
...
descent with modification
Evolution, or _________________, is the process in which the inherited characteristics within population change over generations.
Producer
organism that can capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce food from inorganic compounds; also called an autotroph
RNA polymerase
enzyme that adds and links complementary RNA nucleotides during transcription
osmosis
the tendency of a fluid, usually water, to pass through a semipermeable membrane into a solution where the solvent concentration is higher, thus equalizing the concentrations of materials on either side of the membrane.
cross fertilization
Fertilization of one plant by pollen from a different plant.
homologous
Term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
krebs cycle
second stage- each acetyl CoA molecule is broken down to 2 molecules of carbon dioxide, and one ATP molecule is made- occurs in the matrix of the inner membrane of the mitochondrion
Bile
A mixture of substances stored in the gallbladder and produced in the liver.
Transport epithelium
A layer or layers of specialized epithelial cells that regulate solute movements.
Transcription
process in which sequence of DNA is copied
A _____ is a short, hairlike protein structures on the surface of some bacteria.
pili
selective breeding
method of breeding that allows only those individual organisms with desired characteristics to produce the next generation
biology
the science of life or living matter in all its forms and phenomena, esp. with reference to origin, growth, reproduction, structure, and behavior.
ion channel
in a cell membrane, a pore through which ions can pass
ionic bond
formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another
30 serum proteins
How many proteins make up the complement system?
what is stabilizing speciation
natural selection favors the average individual
What is the function of xylem?
To support water-conducting tissue
Cell cycle
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
ATP production
2nd part of the final stage- occurs in the inner membrane of the mitochondria- uses ATP synthase to produce up to 34 ATP molecules per glucose molecule
adaptive radiation is what
species evolve into many species to fit in a diverse environment
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
Fungal cells are identical to animal cells EXCEPT
they have a cell wall
Who is Priestly and what did he do?
English minister. experimented with candle and mint leaf. discovered that there was something that the flame had given off that made the leaf stay fresh for days (carbon dioxide)
Name the 3 parts of a nucleotide.
a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
why is O2 NOT a limiting factor of photosynthesis
because it is a product of the reaction
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