AP BIology Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
-ule
diminutive
monosaccharides
monomers
Alto-
high
Vibrio
Comma-shaped bacteria
Dis-
apart; out
chloroplast
site of photosynthesis
apodans
The group of caecilians.
Polypeptides
Polymers of amino acids
jellylike substance within cell
cytoplasm
What do lysosomes contain?
digestive enzymes
DNA
A double-stranded, helical nucleic acid molecule capable of replicating and determining the inherited structure of a cell's proteins.
Chitin
another structural polysaccharide, is found in the exoskeleton of arthropods
also provides structural support for the cell walls of many fungi
photoautotrophs
photosynthetic organisms that harness light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide
Physics
study of energy and motion
Alkanes
hydrocarbons where the carbon atoms are linked with a single bond
cnidaria
jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones, etc.; acoelmates, have two cell layers and a digestive cavity surrounded by stinging tentacles
sporophyte
Diploid generation of the alternation of generations life cycle of a plant; produces haploid spores that develop into the haploid generation.
disaccharide
molecule that consists of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage
Thermoregulation
The maintenance of internal body temperature within a tolerable range
ic
added to nouns to form adjectives
Peroxisome
A microbody containing enzymes that transfer hydrogen from various substrates to oxygen, producing and then degrading hydrogen peroxide.
homologous structures
Having similar structure and anatomical position
lysosomes
break down damaged organelles and ingested substances
Binary Fission
asexual Reproduction in single-celled eukaryotes
Placozoans
An asymmetric, soft-bodied animal with 2 simple tissues around a thin, inner matrix.
Hypertonic
Having a greater solute concentration. Said of one solution compared to another.
sticky end
A single-stranded end of a double-stranded DNA restriction fragment.
cell wall
develops outside the plasma membrane and provides support for the cell; not found in animal cells
Secondary Structure
The localized, repetitive coiling or folding of the polypeptide backbone of a protein due to hydrogen bond formation between peptide linkages
orbital
a three dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
atom
smallest unit of matter that retains property of an element
Red blood cells
Blood cells which transport oxygen
negative feedback
mechanism activated by an imbalance that corrects the imbalance
Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
The condition describing a nonevolving population (one that is in genetic equilibrium).
host
The larger participant in a symbiotic relationship, serving as home and feeding ground to the symbiont.
matter
anything takes up space and has mass
Acetyl-CoA
Coenzyme A bound to a two-carbon fragment from pyruvate, which it transfers to oxaloacetate for Krebs Cycle.
DNA polymerase...?
-reads in the 3'-5' direction
-ADDS nucleotides in the 5'-3' direction
Immune response
a bodily defense reaction that recognizes an invading substance (an antigen: such as a virus or fungus or bacteria or transplanted organ) and produces antibodies specific against that antigen
Acid
A substance that increases the H+ concentration of a solution
Define: Enzymes
a. most important proteins
b. regulate metabolism by acting as catalysts, chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed in the reaction
Biological magnification
Ever increasing concentration of a slowly degradable or non-degradable substance in body tissues as it is passed along food chains.Some chemical substance is pased from organisms at one trophic level to those above and becomes increasingly concentrated in body tissues. : DDT.
Genes
Specific parts of DNA molecule that program amino acid sequences (primary structure)
swim bladder
An adaptation, derived from a lung, that enables bony fishes to adjust their density and thereby control their buoyancy.
inner bark(phloem)
layer of trunk where tree's food flows
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different amount of neutrons
histone acetylation
the attachment of acetyl groups to certain amino acids of histone proteins
saturated fats
fats from animals; solid at room temperature; contains NO double bonds; associated with heart disease and atherosclerosis
amphipathic molecule
a molecule that has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Aposematic Coloration
the bright, often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as warning that predators should avoid them
Gap Genes
Mutations in these genes cause "gaps" in Drosophila segmentation. The normal gene products map out the basic subdivisions along the anterior-posterior axis of the embryo.
electron transport chain
A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP.
polymer
is a long molecule consisting of many similar building blocks
autopolyploid
an individual that has more than two chromosome sets that are all derived from a single species
deductive reasoning
reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect)
tropism
The growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus
somatic cell
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
anticodon
A specialized base triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that recognizes a particular complementary codon on an mRNA molecule.
Acrosome
The forwars tip of an animal sperm. Contains enzyme that allows sperm cell to enter the egg cell.
enantiomers
isomers that are mirror images of each other
net primary production
portion of energy producers invest in growth and reproduction
vector
a gene carrier, such as a plasmid or virus
specific heat
the amount of heat that must be absorbed lost for one gram of a substance to change its temperature by one degree
anchorage dependence
to divide, most animal cells must be attached to a substratum, such as the inside of a culture jar or the extracellular matrix of a tissue
sieve tube cells
The sieve-tube cells lack a nucleus, have very few vacuoles, but contain other organelles such as ribosomes.
Where is the SV node?
Wall of the right atrium
Cardiac output
The rate at which the left ventricle pumps blood to the systemic circuit
temperature
A measure of the intensity of heat in degrees, reflecting the average kinetic energy or speed of molecules.
Estrous Cycle
A type of reproductive cycle in all female mammals except higher primates, in which the nonpregnant endometrium is reabsorbed rather than shed, and sexual response occurs only during mid-cycle at estrus
nuclear transplant
putting the nucleus from a cell of the desired organism into an egg of the same species whose nucleus has been destroyed or removed(animal cloning)
Carbonic acid anhydrase
an enzyme found in red blood cells that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water into carbonic acid as part of the system that maintains blood pH at 7.4
dehydration synthesis/condensation reaction
water is removed to form a bond between to molecules
Taxonomy and Binomial Nomenclature
the ordered division of species into categories based on similarities and differences the binomial nomenclature was developed by Linnaeus (although he sucked at organizing because it was all morphological), using latin, names the genus and the speciesDear King Phillip Came Over For Good SoupDomain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
The First Law of Thermodynamics
States that energy is neither created or destroyed.
From Airways into the Lungs
Oxygen goes to the atmosphere into a pair of lungs, and carbon dioxide from the lungs to the atmosphere then the circulatory system takes over gas exchange then the blood moves to the heart, vocalizing, adjusting the acid-base balance
tax-
arrangement
phore
bearer
brev-
short
Photosystem I
...
Ect-
outside; without
methanogen
chemoautotroph
killed by oxygen
anerobic
Leaves
where photosynthesis occurs
epidermis covered with cuticle
-fid; fis-
divided into; split
-nomy, -nome
distribute; arrange; law
cilia
short, numerous, hairlike projections composed of pairs of microtubules; frequently aid in locomotion
Cytochrome
An iron-containing protein, a component of electron transport chains in mitochondria and chloroplasts
Chromosome
A threadlike, gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
adventitious
roots arising above the ground
chlorophyll
green pigment located within chlorplasts
Evidence shows that some grasses benefit from being grazed. Which of the following terms would best describe this plant-herbivore interaction?
Mutualism
hydrocarbons
organic molecules consisting of only carbon and hydrogen; nonpolar bonds between C and H produce hydrophobic molecules; undergo reactions that produce lots of energy (like gasoline and fats)
solute
the dissolved substance in a solution
steroids
hormones, as well as cholesterol, lipids characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings
Restriction Enzymes
cut DNA at specific points
Intermediate Filament
Protein keratin/reinforce the shape fix organelles in position.
Diffusion
The spontaneous tendency of a substance to move down its concentration gradient from a more concentrated to a less concentrated area.
Biotic factors
Living parts of the community.
competitive exclusion
slight reproductive advantage leading to local elimination of the inferior competitor
Signal Peptide
targets protein to the ER
Ruminants
hoofed mammals that have multiple stomach chambers in which cellulose is slowly digested.
Peptide Bond
covalent bond formed between amino acids
Nucleotide
The building block of nucleic acid, consisting of 5 carbon sugar covalently bounded to nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
prophase
During this phase during the cell cycle, the chromatin becomes more tightly coiled, the nucleoli disappears, and the mitotic spindle begins to form
thylakoid
a flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy; where the light reactions of photosynthesis occurs
Robert Kornberg
at Stanford, he used X-ray crystallography to elucidite the structure of RNA polymerase, an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the expression of genes
Neutrophils
Most common type of phagocytes, which enter infected tissue and engulf and destroy microbes there.
Cohesion
The tendency for water molecules to stick to each other
Human Genome Project
An international collaborative effort to map and sequence the DNA of the entire human genome.
contractile vacuoles
A contractile vacuole is a sub-cellular structure (organelle) involved in osmoregulation. It pumps excess water out of a cell and is found prominently in freshwater protists.
Rough ER
That portion of the endoplasmic reticulum studded with ribosomes.
Atherosclerosis
A medical condition in which arteries narrow in diameter as lipids and other deposits accumulate in their wall.
Transcription Steps
1-proteins position an RNA polymerase on DNA and help start transcription at the promoter
2-the enzyme RNA polymerase moves along the DNA strand, joining one nucleotide after another
3-when it is finished, the new RNA molecule is released as a free transcript
Helper t-cell
lymphocyte that activates cytotoxic T cells and stimulates B cells to produce antibodies
Chemical Bond
An attraction that holds molecules together
Allopolyploid
A fertile individual that has more than two chromosome sets as a result of two different species interbreeding and combining their chromosomes.
inquiry
the act of seeking information by questioning
Disease
Condition that arises when the body's defenses cannot overcome infection and activities of the pathogen or parasite interfere with normal body functions.
catabolic
a metabolic pathway that breaks down complex molecules into simpler compounds
meiosis II
very similar to mitosis; also occurs in 4 phases
urethra
A tube that releases urine from the body near the vagina in females and through the penis in males; also serves in males as the exit tube for the reproductive system.
photosynthesis
the process by which a cell captures energy in sunlight and uses it to make food
ground tissue
tissue that is neither dermal nor vascular
aldosterone
A steroid hormone that acts on tubules of the kidney to regulate the transport of sodium ions (Na+) and potassium ions (K+).
endocytosis
the use of energy and formation of vesicles to transport substances into the cell
Action potential
A rapid change in the membrane potential of an excitable cell.
Caused by stimulus triggered, selective opening and closing of voltage-sensitive gates in sodium and potassium ion channels.
neutral variation
Genetic variation that does not appear to provide a selective advantage or disadvantage.
energy coupling
In cellular metabolism, the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction.
coelomate
An animal that possesses a true coelom (a body cavity lined by tissue completely derived from mesoderm).
Amino Acid
Building block of proteins, these are linked by peptide (C-N) bonds.
reducing agent
the electron donor in a redox reaction.
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next
diploid cells
A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
Cellular Respiration
the process by which mitochondria make ATP for the cell to use
theory that suggests that when an enzyme and substrate bind together, the enzyme is forced to alter its shape for a tighter active site/substrate attachment, which places the substrate in a favorable position to react more quickly
induced-fit model
summer temperate lake conditions
thermocline layer forms
-acts as a barrier that keeps upper and lower layers from mixing
-nutrient shortages in top layers
-oxygen shortage in bottom layer
nuclease
an enzyme that cuts DNA or RNA, either removing one or a few bases or hydrolyzing the DNA or RNA completely into its component nucleotides
the _____, is used to measure the mass of subatomic particles
dalton
Structural Formula
A type of molecular notation in which the constituent atoms are joined by lines representing covalent bonds. (e.g. H--H)
electrochemical gradient
drive the diffusion of ions across a membrane 1. chemical force based on an ions concentration gradient. 2. the other is an electrical force based on the effect of the membrane potential on the ion's movement ion diffuses down its electrochemical gradient
chromosome compaction
when the long chromatin fibers begin a coiling process that makes them shorter and thicker. the chromatin can then be distributed to the daughter cells without tangling.
nitrogen metabolism
key steps in the cycling of nitrogen through ecosystems only performed by prokaryotes
necessary life functionsreproduction-
cellular division for growth or repair production of offspring
theory of inclusive fitness
sterile workers promote genes for self sacrifice by helping reproductive relatives survive and reproduce
restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis
A technique that permits assessment of the degree of relatedness among individuals within a population; individuals are compared on the basis of the different patterns of DNA fragments generated when their DNA is cut with the same restriction enzyme.
Cholesterol molecules in the bilayer
provide rigidity to the plasma membranes of animal cells.
K-T Asteroid Impact Theory
The theory that a massive asteroid struck the Earth 65 million years ago and caused a mass extinction; casualties included the last of the dinosaurs.
Laws of Probability
The probability of a chance or even is independent of any other chance or event; the probability of two or more events occurring together is equal to the product of their individual probabilities
DNA contains all the following molecules
guanine adenine deoxyribose phosphate
ventr-
belly
pod
foot
Anthropo-
man
Oxidizing Agent
...
En-
in; into
nerves
bundles of neurons
Capsule
gelatenous covering; promotes adhesion; protects the bacteria
Autotroph
aka producer
Not totally self-sufficient
Photoautotroph
Chemoautotroph
Ab-
away from; out from
glucose
Although carbohydrates, fats, and proteins can all be processed and consumed as fuel, it usually uses __
nonpolar covalent bond
electron(s) shared equally
Nucleolus
(plural, nucleoli) A specialized structure in the nucleus, formed from various chromosomes and active in the synthesis of ribosomes.
ingroup
cladistic study of evolutionary relationships among taxa of organisms, the group of taxa that is actually being analyzed
during the light reactions, photosystem I occurs (before/after) photosystem II
after
large population of lab animals estimated frequency of allele A in gene pool (paragraph question)
.50
quaternary structure
aggregation of polypeptides; happens when a protein is made up of more than one polypeptide
pH
A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0 to 14.
Oxidation
an atom or molecule loses electrons
Microfilament
2 intertwined strands of actin protein/cell shape, cell division, mobility
Integral Protein
Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
Solvents
Dissolve other molecules, solutes, to create solutions.
character displacement
tendency for characteristics to diverge more in sympatric populations of two species than in allopatric populations of species, because of competition over resources, therefore leading some of the population to use different ones
Starch
polysaccharide that plants store; a polymer of glucose monomers
Appendix
a narrow projection from the cecum.
bio-; bi- (2 defs)
life; living (2 terms)
cytoskeleton
a network of protein filaments that are responsible for the strength, shape, and movement of cells
cell
basic unit of all organisms; all living things are composed of cells
nucleoid
Region in prokaryotic cell where DNA is concentrated, not enclosed by membrane
Membrane attack complex
Activated complement proteins generate this which forms a pore in the membrane, causing it to swell and burst.
Golgi apparatus
Organelle that participates in the processing of proteins. The packaging and distribution center of materials to be sent out of the cell
Locus
A genes specific location along the length of the chromosome
leucoplasts
Leucoplasts are a category of plastid and as such are organelles found in plant cells.
Hybridization
members of two different species have offspring that become different species
HIV
the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Hydrophilic
The property for having an affinity for water
Geographic variation
differences in the genetic composition of separate populations
genetic drift
random change in allele frequencies that occurs in small populations
Conjugation
Among prokaryotic species, a mode of gene transfer that is possible when one of the cells has an F plasmid.
exergonic reaction
a spontaneous chemical reaction, in which there is a net release of free energy
92
number of molecules of DNA (number of chromosomes=number strands of DNA) present in a human somatic cell prior to mitosis
evaporation
The removal of heat energy from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules.
Abiogenesis
the idea that life cand be derived from non-life; proved incorrect by Louis Pasteur in 1864
Allosteric site
the alternate location on an enzyme where noncompetitive inhibitors bond
collecting duct
The location in the kidney where processed filtrate, called urine, is collected from the renal tubules.
veins to heart
exercise induces smooth muscles in veins to contract
veins cannot hold as much blood
muscles that move limbs bulge and squeeze blood toward heart
deep breathing also forces blood to heart due to pressure organs put on veins
Actual evapotranspiration
The amount of water transpired by plants and evaporated from a landscape over a given period of time, usually measured in MM annually.
gene flow
The transfer of alleles from one population to another, resulting from the movement of fertile individual or their gametes.
action spectrum
A profile of the relative performance of different wavelengths of light.
radial cleavage
A type of embryonic development in deuterostomes in which the planes of cell division that transform the zygote into a ball of cells are either parallel or perpendicular to the vertical axis of the embryo, thereby aligning tiers of cells one above the other.
Oxidative Phosphorylation
Metabolic process of generating ATP in the presence of oxygen.
corpus callosum
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
cystic fibrosis
A genetic disorder that occurs in people with two copies of a certain recessive allele; characterized by an excessive secretion of mucus and consequent vulnerability to infection; fatal if untreated.
asexual reproduction
A type of reproduction involving only one parent that produces genetically identical offspring by budding or by the division of a single cell or the entire organism into two or more parts.
organic compound used by the cells of the human body in energy-producing reactions and as structural material.
carbohydrates
inter specific competition
hurts both species
not as severe as intra specific competition
-requirements of 2 individuals of one species is always closer than those of 2 different species
small interfering RNA (siRNA)
a small, single-stranded RNA molecule generated by cellular machinery from a long, double-stranded RNA molecule. The siRNA associates with one or more proteins in a complex that can degrade or prevent translation of an mRNA with a complementary sequence. In some cases, siRNA can also block transcription by promoting chromatin modification.
trans fats
fatty acid tails with double bond that keeps them straight. pack tightly, so they're solid at room temp
Denaturation
loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
concentration gradient
An increase or decrease in the density of a chemical substance in an area. Cells often maintain concentration gradients of ions across their membranes. When a gradient exists, the ions or other chemical substances involved tend to move from where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated
agnostic behavior
A type of behavior involving a contest of some kind that determines which competitor gains access to some resource, such as food or mates.
Gram stain
used to seperate the species into 2 groups--negative of positive
biotic components
the living factors or organisms of an ecosystem
complementarity
what a structure can do depends on its form
 
. ex. bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits
equilibrium of island biogeography
used to estimate how many speicies there will be when biodiversity stops increasing
-number of species reflects immigration rates of new species and extinction rates
Factors:
-distance between island and mainland
-island size
Accessory fruit
A fruit (s) in which the fleshy parts are derived largely/entirely from tissues other than the ovary.
There observed and tested in expirements.
How are scientific hypothesis tested?
radioactive decay
is the process when the nucleus of an element disintegrates
Amino Group
(-NH2) acts as a base and can pick up a proton from surrounding solution
4 basic types of tissues in humans are
epithelium, muscle, connective tissue, and nervous tissue
cata-
down
gross
thick
Derm-
skin
post
after, behind
-itis
inflammation; disease
sori
clusters of sporangia
ionic bonds
transfer of electrons
Lysosome
Membrane-bound organelle that specializes in digestion
Contains enzymes that break down proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates
compounds containing amino groups
amines
migration
regular, long-distance change in location; observed in birds, fish, etc.
Active immunity
Long-lasting immunity:
-Conferred by the action of B cells and T cells and resulting B+T memory cells specific for a pathogen.
-Can develop as a result of infection or immunization
linkage map
based on recombination frequencies
glycerol
Three-carbon compound with three hydroxyl groups; component of fats and oils.
Spongocoel
Central cavity of simple sponge
Venule
vessels that take blood from capillaries and join to form veins
rubisco
Ribulose carboxylase, the enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the Calvin cycle (the addition of CO2 to RuBP, or ribulose bisphosphate).
Many scientists hypothesize that the first genetic material to evolve was
RNA
thermodynamics
the study of the energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter
Gap junctions
Cell to cell communication
Cytoplasmic channels
Large molecules can pass
Like plasmodesmata in plants
LH
Stimulates the corpus luteum in females
F1 generation
First filial, offspring of parent
Bacteria
A domain including prokaryotic diverse and widespread organisms.
Phosphorylated
describes the recipient of the phosphate group
Photosystem
composed of a reaction center surrounded by a # of light-harvesting complexes
tracheids
Xylem cells in gymnosperms forming a connected network; when they die, their cell walls leave a channel for the transport of water.
inducer
turns on transcription by binding to the repressor on a protien and causing it to fall off the operator, so it is no longer inhibiting transcription
anabolic pathway
a metabolic pathway that consumes energy to synthesize a complex molecule from smaller molecules
transcription initiation complex
The completed assembly of transcription factors and RNA polymerase bound to the promoter.
Centriole
contains a circular arrangement of 27 microtubules
What are the heads of the phospholipids
hydrophilic
cleavage furrow
the furrow produced by actin microfilaments where the cytoplasm begins to split
Antigen
any molecule that triggers an immune response
nitrification
the oxidation of ammonium compounds in dead organic material into nitrates and nitrites by soil bacteria (making nitrogen available to plants)
monosomic
A chromosomal condition in which a particular cell has only one copy of a chromosome, instead of the normal two; the cell is said to be monosomic for that chromosome.
exergonic reaction
A spontaneous chemical reaction in which there is a net release of free energy
nitrogen fixation
process in which bacteria convert nitrogen gas into nitrogen compounds plants can use to make proteins
electromagnetic spectrum
The entire spectrum of radiation ranging in wavelength from less than a nanometer to more than a kilometer.
metabolism
The totality of an organism's chemical reactions, consisting of catabolic and anabolic pathways.
Mimicry
Close resemblance in form, behavior or both between one species and another
Any substance or agent that can trigger cancer.
Carcinogen
Bundle Sheath Cells
enclose vein, prevalent in C4 plants
the Trans face of the golgi apparatus is involved in
shipping
potential energy
stored energy that is latent but available for use. A rock poised at the top of a hill or water stored behind a dam are examples.
phagocytosis
when a cell engulfs a particle by wrapping pseudopodia.
Negative pressure breathing
Breathing system in which mammals create a vacuum in the lungs by pushing them open, and exhale by contracting their lungs.
adaptive peak
An equilibrium state in a population when the gene pool has allele frequencies that maximize the average fitness of a population's members.
estivation
a period of reduced activity that some animals experience in the summer
S phase
synthesis phase of cell cycle; portion of interphase which DNA is replicated
Structural isomers
compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
translocation
one part of a chromosome is attached to another part of a different chromosome
Evolution
Includes all the changes of life from the beginning of earth to the diversity of today's life.
krebs Cycle
A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration.
Double Helix
form of native DNA, referring to its two adjacent polynucleotide strands wound into a spiral shape.
steroid
a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings to which various functional groups are attached and that usually has a physiological action; examples are cholesterol, testosterone, and estrogen.
Types of dissacharides (gluctose + fructose, glucose + galactose, and glucose + glucose)
Sucrose, Lactose, and Maltose
Genetic Map
An ordered list of genetic loci (genes or other genetic markers) along a chromosome.
1st law of thermodynamics
The principle of conservation of energy. Energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Membrane-bound Organelles of Specialized Form and Function
Within the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells.
Cline
a graded change in a character along a geographical axis
Characteristics of Chordates
A supporting rod (notochord), a dorsal nerve chord, a pharynx with gill slits in the wall, and a tail extending past the anus.
life expectancy at birth
the predicted average length of life at birth
semilunar valve
A valve located at the two exits of the heart, where the aorta leaves the left ventricle and the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle.
allosteric regulation
the binding of a moleculd to a protein that affects the function of the protein at a different site
smooth ER
Portion of the ER that is free of ribosomes
Which of these is a correct representation of the hierarchy of biological organization from least to most complex?
molecule, intestinal cell organelle, intestinal cell, intestinal tissue, digestive system, organism
What do lysosomes do to material in the cell?
digest it or break it down
andro
male
deci-
tenth
phago-
eating, feeling
trait
A characteristic
Cation
positively charged ion
graphy, graph
writing, record
cell plate
cytokinesis of plant
polygyny
One male, many females
-lions
reptilia
contains lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles
pentose
any monosaccharide sugar containing five atoms of carbon per molecule; five-carbon sugar that is one of three subunits composing nucleotides; is either ribose (found in RNA) or dioxyribose (found in DNA - has 1 less O than ribose)
glycoproteins
membrane carbohydrates that are covalently bonded to proteins
Carbohydrates
What biologically important compound consists of C, H, and O; give quick energy; polymer chains of monosaccharides
Microevolution
evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
Irrevocable loss of a species.
extinction
Of the following list, flagellated (swimming) sperm are generally present in which groups?
1. Lycophyta
2. Bryophyta
3. Angiosperms
4. Chlorophyta
5. Pterophyta
A) 1, 2, 3
B) 1, 2, 4, 5
C) 1, 3, 4, 5
D) 2, 3, 5
E) 2, 3, 4, 5
b
exocytosis
process by which vesicles release their contents outside the cell
budding
asexual reproduction process in which a small portion of the cell membrane and cytoplasm receive a nucleus and pinch off from the parent cell.
endoskeleton
internal frame work of hardened elements to which muscles attach
echinoderms and vertebrates
sea urchins/stars
-calcium carbonate plates embedded in body
Learning
altered behavior because of past experiences
hormone
In multicellular organisms, one of many types of circulating chemical signals that are formed in specialized cells, travel in body fluids, and act on specific target cells to change their functioning.
Telomerase
enzyme that creates and maintains telomeres
parallel evolution
2 similar evolutionary adaptations from common ancestor
stroma
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Lungs
Internally moistened sacs for gas exchange.
Keystone species
exert an important regulating effect on other species in a community than would be expected on the basis of their
abundance. STARFISH-provide space for other species to occupy & proliferate.
A number of characteristics are very similar between charophytes and members of the kingdom Plantae. Of the
following, which characteristic does not provide evidence for a close evolutionary relationship between these
two groups?
A) alternation of generat
a
endomembrane system
includes many of the internal membranes, either directly continuous or connected via transfer of vesicles, includes: nuclear envelope, ER, glogi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, and the plasma membrane
oxygen concentration
generally doesnt play important role in respiration
Lung
the site of respiration in terrestrial vertebrates comprised of tubes leading from the nose and mouth that transport air to the alveoli where O2 and CO2 are exchanged. Upon inspiration, air travels from mouth to pharynx to trachea to bronchus to bronchioles to alveolus
Chemical Energy
the potential energy available for release in a chemical reaction
centromere
centralized region that joins the two sister chromatids
protonephridium
an excretory system, such as the flame-cell system of flatworms, consisting of a network of closed tubules having external openings called nephridiopores and lacking internal openings
gap junction
pores surrounded by proteins that regulate what goes in and out
nuclear envelope
double membrane perforated by pores which regulate entry and exit of certain macromolecules and particles
imprinting
the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life
insertion
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a gene.
Cholestrol
A steroid that forms an essential component of animal cell membranes and acts as a precursor molecule for the synthesis of other biologically important steroids.
mechanism
the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction
mitotic spindle
an assemblage of microtubules and associated proteins that is involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis
Adaxial
Referring to a leaf surface, facing the stem
Outermost tissue layer of plants and all animals a
epidermis
DNA replication
copying the long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell associated with transmission of genetic information.
mRNA
carries genetic message of DNA to the protein making machinery of the cell in the cytoplasm
PR Protein
A protein involved in plant responses to pathogens (PR = pathogenesis-related).
fatty acid
a long carbon chain carboxylic acid; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; linked to a glycerol molecule form fat.
primary structure
the unique structure of amino acids; example: a polypeptide composed of 127 amino acids has 20^127 different ways it can be organized
gastric ulcers
lesions in the lining, are caused mainly by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori
Okazaki fragment
short segment of DNA synthesized away from the replication fork on a template strand during DNA replication; many are joined together to make up the lagging strand of newly synthesized DNA
ribosomal subunits
protein + rRNA, only happens within the nucleus, then they leave nucleus through pores and then come together to form a ribosome
trace elements
an element indispensable for life but required in extremely minimum amounts
genome mapping
The generation of a physical or sequence map of an organism
for establishing consensus sequence composition. The map then serves as a wild type or baseline for additional studies
bivalent
..., The structure formed by the pair of homologous chromosomes during crossing over. Also called a tetrad because it consists of four chromatids.
pH Scale
Scale used to measure degree of acidity, ranging from 0 to 14
The best word to describe the growth of plants in general is
A) perennial.
B) weedy.
C) indeterminate.
D) derivative.
E) primary.
c
Organ
A structural unit of at least two tissues, organized in certain proportions and patters, that carries out one or more common tasks.
endoderm
the start of the gut's inner lining and organs derived from it
Heat
Is the measure of the total amount of kinetic energy due to molecular motion in a body of matter.
electron microscope
instead of using light, focuses a beam of electrons through the specimen, provides detailed study of the surface of the organism
T lymphocyte (T cell)
a lymphocyte that has receptors composed of one heavy chain and one light chain bound by a disulfide bridge and specific to a given antigen. Includes helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells and participates in cell-mediated immunity
Sex Chromosomes
the X and Y chromosomes, determine the sex of the offspring
genomic imprinting
a phenomenon in which expression of an allele in offspring depends on whether the allele is inherited from the male or female parent
vestigial structures
remnant of a structure that may have had an important function in a species' ancestors, but has no clear function in the modern species.
Snowball earth hypothesis
life would have been confined to deep sea vents and hot springs or those few locations where enough ice melted for sunlight to penetrate the surface waters of the sea
Law of Independent Assortment
Each pair of alleles will segregate independently during gamete formation
generation time of prok?
1-3hrs but some can regenerate every 20 min
Molecular Mass
the sum of the masses of all the atoms in a molecule
layers of mesophyll (dicots only)
palisade mesophyl is attached to upper epidermis
-have lots of chloroplasts
spongy mesopyll
-2nd layer
-less chloroplasts
It will lose turgor (rigidity). Eventually the cell membrane will shrink away from the cell wall (plasyolysis).
What will cells lose if water moves out of the cells?
hybrid
mix
counter
against
troph-
food, growth
Dehydration synthesis
C12H22O11
in
to, toward, into
Causes of Speciation
...
hydrogen bond
attraction with hydrogen
Coenzymes
Carbon-containing molecules required for the action of one or more enzymes.
anatomically modern humans
Fully modern humans.
-aceus; -aceous
of or pertaining to
repetitive DNA
Nucleotide sequences, usually noncoding, that are present in many copies in a eukaryotic genome. The repeated units may be short and arranged tandemly (in series) or long and dispersed in the genome.
maturation
biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience.
Social Learning
learning through observing others
Root System of Dicot
Taproot System
Which of the following characteristics of plants is absent in their closest relatives, the charophyte algae?
A) chlorophyll b
B) cellulose in cell walls
C) formation of a cell plate during cytokinesis
D) sexual reproduction
E) alternation of multicellular
e
Nematoda
Roundworms soil dwellers and have pseudocoelomate bodies; some parasites
cardiac cycle
atria expands with blood
fluid pressure opens atrioventricle valve
-blood travels through this to ventricle
blood flows in ventricles which expand when atrium contracts
when ventricles fill they contract
fluid pressure opens semilunar valves to the artery
when ventricle empties it relaxes while atria fills
contraction of ventricles causes blood to circulate
contraction of atrium serves the ventricles
Monomer
Individual molecules that may chain together to form polymers
altruism
organism is said to behave altruistically when its behaviour benefits other organisms, at a cost to itself.
Define: Kinetic Energy
in anything that moves
cytoplasmic
More positively charged residues are found on the residues on the [cytoplasmic or luminal] side of the anchor.
nephridia
organs that remove metabolic wastes from an animal's body
What are the six kingdoms?
HELP ME!!!
testcross
cross between an organism of phenotypic dominance for a specific trait, and an organism that is homozygous recessive for the same trait to determine the genotype of the original organism
interspecies interaction
Relationships between species of a community.
protracheophyte polysporangiophytes
A group of Silurian moss-like ancestors that were like bryophytes in lacking lignified vascular tissue but were different in having independent, branched, sporophytes that were not dependent on gametophytes for their growth.
Okasaki fragments
spaces between nucleotides during DNA replication
Hypothesis
A tentative theory about the natural world
gametes
sex cells (haploid cells; egg or sperm) unite to form a diploid zygote
Cofactors and coenzymes
These assist enzymes
Some are minerals
Some are vitamins
endotherm
Animal that generates its own body heat and controls its body temperature from within
macroevolution
the broad pattern of evolution above the species level
endoplasmic reticulum
An extensive membranous network in eukaryotic cells, continuous with the outer nuclear membrane and composed of ribosome-studded (rough) and ribosome-free (smooth) regions.
nitrogenous base
Linked to the end of sugar.
commensalisms
a symbiotic relationship in which one member is benefited and the second is neither harmed nor benefited
which ion is responsible for the acidic taste in foods
hydrogen
Narrow, waxy, impermeable band between walls of ab
Casparian strip
Beta oxidation
A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA.
specificity
each enzyme catalyzes only one type of reaction
De-etiolation
The changes a plant shoot undergoes in response to sunlight; also known informally as greening.
gametogenesis
Development of the male and female sex gametes
proteins
organic compounds made of one or more chains of amino acids
G2
phase of interphase in which a cell grows and produces other needed proteins and enzymes
inflammatory response
A line of defense triggered by penetration of the skin or mucous membranes, in which small blood vessels in the vicinity of an injury dilate and become leakier, enhancing the inflitration of leukocytes; may also be widespread in the body
middle lamella
thin layer rich in pectins (stick polysaccharides) that "glues" adjacent cells together
microspores
maller of the two types of spore produced in heterosporous plants; develops in the pollen sac into a male gametophyte
Involved in lipid syntesis, carbohydrate (glycogen) metabalism and detoxification of drugs and poisons, network of tubes.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (sER)
trypsin
..., an enzyme from the pancreas that digests proteins in the small intestine
Closed System
Collection of matter under study which is isolated from its surroundings
Which cells are no longer capable of carrying out the process of DNA transcription?
A) xylem
B) sieve tube elements
C) companion cells
D) A and B only
E) A, B and C
d
Lungfishes
Have gills and one or two small, modified outpouchings of the gut wall which help take in oxygen and remove carbon dioxide.
Barr body
dense object lying along the inside of the nuclear envelope in female mammalian cells. representing an inactivated x chromosome
B lymphocyte (B cell)
a lymphocyte that has receptors composed of two heavy chains and two light chains linked by disulfide bridges and specific to a given antigen. If triggered, it participated in humoral immunity (antibody-mediated immunity) by encouraging the proliferation of specific plasma cells and their successive production of antibodies
selective permeability
(the ability to allow some sub. to cross the plasma membrane more easily) A property of biological membranes that allows some substances to cross more easily than others.
Cyclin Dependent Kinases
cell kinases that require cyclin to start cell cycles
catalyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
Phosphorylation
The transfer of a phosphate group to a molecule from ATP
genome
the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism
Root System
All of the plants roots that anchor it in the soil, absorb and transport minerals and water, and store food
amine group (polar / weak base)
What group has an -NH_2?
down syndrome
trisomy 21, presence of all or part of an extra chromosome 21
What are histamines? What do antihistamines do?
Histamine: stored in mast cells, connective tissue cells that store chemicals in granules for secretion
What is the scientific method?
Organized approach used in science to explain iobservations of the natural world.
Primary Structure of a Protein
The order of the amino acids that make up the protein
macr
large
hetero-
different, other
Abscisic Acid
posterior
rear end/ tail
volume of a cell
cytoplasm
kinetic energy
energy of motion
centrosome
organelle that organizes microtubule cytoskeleton
Negative
feedback loop that restores homeostasis
second messengers
small, nonprotein, water-soluble molecules or ions involved in cell signaling
Anther
Pollen-producing portion of a plant.
Enzyme
Macromolecules that are biologic catalysts. They lower the activation energy required to perform a chemical reaction in the body.
Tissues
a group of identical cells
phragmoplast
An alignment of cytoskeletal elements and Golgi-derived vesicles across the mid-line of a dividing plant cell.
capillarity
the attraction between molecules that results in the rise of the surface of a liquid when in contact with a solid
Estrogen
Hormone that originates in the follicles.
gigantism
excess production of GH in childhood
makes large people
polymorphism
The occurrence of different forms, stages, or types in individual organisms or in organisms of the same species, independent of sexual variations.
tonoplast
membrane which encloses the central vacuole
Sarcolemma
an extensible membrane enclosing the contractile substance of a muscle fiber
chorion
outermost membranous sac enclosing the embryo in higher vertebrates (reptiles, birds and mammals)
hormones
what causes growth patterns in plants?
Rotifer
Bilateral, cephalized animal with a false coelom and a crown of cilia
community
All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interaction.
pteridophytes
Seedless plants with true roots with lignified vascular tissue. The group includes ferns, whisk ferns, and horsetails.
wild type
an individual with the normal phenotype
mitosis
the process of cell division in eukaryotic cells
photoperiodism
an organism's response to the length of day and night within a 24 hour period. can determine when flowering occurs
reactant
the beginning substances of a chemical reaction
ketone
An organic compound with a carbonyl group of which the carbon atom is bonded to two other carbons.
Tight junctions
Cell to cell communication
Adjacent cell membranes are fused forming a seal.
DNA polymerase
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA (for example, at a replication fork) by the addition of nucleotides to the 3′ end of an existing chain. There are several different DNA polymerases; DNA polymerase III and DNA polymerase I play major roles in DNA replication in prokaryotes.
metastasis
the spread of cancer to locations distant form original site
Mesophyll
the ground tissue of a leaf, sandwiched between the upper and lower epidermis and specialized for photosynthesis
endomycorrhizae
A type of mycorrhizae that, unlike ectomycorrhizae, do not have a dense mantle ensheathing the root. Instead, microscopic fungal hyphae extend from the root into the soil.
electron
a subatomic particle with a single negative charge; one or more electrons move around the nucleus
Fat (Triacylglycerol)
A biological compound consisting of three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule.
adhesion
the clinging of one substance to another
eukaryotic cell
cell subdivided by internal membranes of which the largest is the nucleus and contains DNA
reduction
The addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction.
glycogen
excess sugar stored in muscles and liver
Cylindrical sheet of cells inside the root epiderm
exodermis
alcohol fermentation
The conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol.
reversible reactions
chemical reactions are reversible; A + B <-----> AB
Trasformation
the conversion of a normal animal cell to a cancerous cell / a change in genotype and phenotype due to the assimilation of external DNA by a cell
Positive feedback
end product speeds up its production. IE: blood platelets
monoclonal antibodies
Antibodies produced by a single clone of B lymphocytes and that are therefore identical in structure and antigen specificity.
renal cortex
the outer portion of the vertebrate kidney
saturated fatty acids
contain only single bonds between carbon atoms
E Site
One of a ribosome's three binding sites for tRNA during translation. This site is the place where discharged tRNAs leave the ribosome.
pepsin
..., an enzyme produced in the stomach that splits proteins into peptones
Carbohydrate
Organic molecule made up of sugars and their polymers
complete dominance
the phenotypes of the heterozygote and dominant homozygote are indistinguishable
compounds
are molecules that consist of two or more different elements in proportions that never do vary
cell to cell adhesion
oligosacaachride of a specific shape on one cell can bind to a mirror imagfe shape of an adjacent cell.
anaerobic respiration
ATP is made without the presence of oxygen
intertidal zone
the most shallow zone in a marine habitat. algae, sponges, mollucks, starfish, and crabs live here
polysaccharides
A polymer of up to over a thousand monosaccharides, formed by dehydration reactions.
mole
amount of a substance when the mass is at its molecular weight
transfer RNA
An RNA molecule that functions as an interpreter between nucleic acid and protein language by picking up specific amino acids and recognizing the appropriate codons in the mRNA.
Allele
one of two (or more) expressions of a trait in a trait pair
green algae
forms lichen and is an ancestor of plants
systematics
study of the diversity of life and the evolutionary relationships between organisms
Cell Cycle Control System
A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
cross-fostering study
the young of one species are placed in the care of adults from another species; measures how social and physical environments affect behavior
pluripotent stem cell
Describing a stem cell, from an embryo or adult organism, that can give rise to multiple but not all differentiated cell types.
Local and long-distance cell communication in animals
animal cells can communicate through direct contact between membrane-bound cell-surface molecules, which occurs during a process called CELL-CELL RECOGNITION which is important in such processes as embryonic development and the immune response
G zero
the stage a cell is in if it will never divide (ex. brain and nerve cells)
saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
How do amphibians get extra oxygen?
When they are in water, it diffuses through their skin
somn
sleep
Fract-
break
di-
two; double
monocots
1 cotyledon
organic compounds
Carbon-based molecules.
Hypo-
beneath; under; less
various NT's
norepinephrine and epinephrine
-adrenaline
-prepares body for stress or excitement
dopamine
-reward based learning
seratonin
-affects memory and mood
GABA
-inhibits release of NT's
Mutations
changes in genetic information
Primary
Chain of amino acids, structure-wise
Ribosome
assemble polypeptide chains in organelles without membranes
cyanobacteria
A type of single-celled photoautotroph; the first to use a noncyclic pathway of photosynthesis, which slowly enriched the early atomsphere with oxygen.
anurans
The group of frogs and toads.
anchoring junctions
protein attachments between adjacent animal cells
Who adopted Catastrophism?
Cuvier------------> speculation that boundaries between strata were due to local floods or droughts that destroyed species. Eventually repopulated by species immigrating from unaffected areas.
Chaperonins
Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins
paleontology
the study of fossils; largely developed by french anatomist, Georges Cuvier
ribosomes
complex particles that facilitate the orderly linking of amino acids into polypeptide chains
Prokaryotic Fission
Cell reproduction mechanism that starts when a prokaryotic cell replicates its DNA and is anchored to the plasma membrane. Proteins and lipids are added to the membrane and make it grow. The cytoplasm divides and result in two daughter cells.
'Fungus-root.'' A form of mutualism between fungal
mycorrhiza
Granum
a stack of thylakoids (piled like poker chips)
If ʺxʺ indicates the location of fossils of two closely related species, then fossils of their most-recent common
ancestor are most likely to occur in which stratum?
c
stoma
A microscopic pore surrounded by guard cells in the epidermis of leaves and stems that allows gas exchange between the environment and the interior of the plant.
Substrate
The substance acted upon by an enzyme
Catastrophism
principle that events in the past occurred suddenly and were caused by mechanisms different from those operating in the present
aldehyde
An organic molecule with a carbonyl group located at the end of the carbon skeleton.
species
A group whose members possess similar anatomical characteristics and have the ability to interbreed.
Thylakoids
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy to chemical energy.
mass extinction
loss of many lineages
after mass extinction adaptive radiation fill niches that were vacated by extinct species with new species
megaspore
A spore from a heterosporous plant species that develops into a female gametophyte
human ezymes
can break down alpha, not beta
hydroxyl group
-OH; molecules with this functional group are considered alcohols
domains
A taxonomic category above the kingdom level. The three domains are Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya.
root nodules
bacteria infected roots where nitrogen fixation occurs
Allergen
A normally harmless substance that can provoke immune responses.
Source
Regions of plant where compounds are loaded into sieve tubes.
ecological capacity
the actual resource base of a country
Which of the following is a true statement about plant reproduction?
A) ʺEmbryophytesʺ are small because they are in an early developmental stage.
B) Both male and female bryophytes produce gametangia.
C) Gametangia protect gametes from excess water.
D)
b
Analogous Structures
Similiar Function but did not arise the same..wings in insects, wings in bird, wings in bat.
What are the plant cell's cell walls made of?
Cellulose
In fungi, food materials are digested
a. within food vacuoles.
b. outside the body.
c. intracellularly.
d. by the mitochondria.
e. by the host organism.
outside the body
Alpha Helix
A spiral shape constituting one form of the secondary structure of proteins, arising from a specific hydrogen-bonding structure.
NaD+
a coenzyme present in all cells that helps enzymes transfer electrons during the redox reactions of metabolism
Calorie
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius (1°C) from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. Calorie spelled with a capital C refers to the kilocalorie (1 kcal = 1,000 cal).
organic chemistry
The study of carbon compounds (organic compounds).
Define: Enantiomers
molecules that are mirror images of each other
ovary
where are the ovules produced in the female gametophyte?
cacrdiac cycle
when all four chamberss go through expansion and contraction (diastole and systole)
What type of mates de animals seek?
Quality mates.
bolus
food after you chew it and before it gets to stomach
centriole involved in cell division
what plant cells don't have
what is purines
six membered ring fused of five membered rings
Gamete
A haploid cell, such as an egg or sperm.
A P. bursaria cell that has lost its zoochlorellae is ʺaposymbiotic.ʺ If aposymbiotic cells have population growth
rates the same as those of healthy, zoochlorella-containing P. bursaria in well-lit environments with plenty of
prey items, then such an o
b
long-day plant
A plant that flowers (usually in late spring or early summer) only when the light period is longer than a critical length.
intracellular digestion
..., The joining of food vacuoles and lysosomes to allow chemical digestion to occur within the cytoplasm of a cell.
proton motive force
The potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis.
pons
The part of the brain stem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus
plasmodial slime mold
A type of protist that has amoeboid cells, flagellated cells, and an amoeboid plasmodial feeding stage in its life cycle.
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to stretch or break the surface of a liquid; water has a great amount of this due to the intricate patterns and layers of hydrogen bonds
Primary Structure of protein
Sequence of Amino acids in the polypeptide
What is countercurrent exchange?
opposite flow of adjacent fluids with maximum transfer rates
Atoms whose outer shells contain 8 electrons tend to
be stable and chemically nonreactive, or inert.
What does a tight junction do between to cells?
makes a seal between two cells and bring them closer together
/ 547
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