AP Biology Test: The Chemistry of Life Flashcards

Terms Definitions
hydrophilic
water loving
Properties of Life
Order--Evolutionary Adaptation--Response to the Environment--Regulation--Energy Processing--Growth and Development--Reproduction
Cation
a positively charged ion
Energy
the capacity to cause change
Three Domains
Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
Inert
non-reactive; applies when valence shell is full
Sulfhydrly
The -SH functional group. (Thiols)
Cohesion
attraction between like substances (occurs in water because of the hydrogen bonding between water molecules. creates a high surface tension)
Polyunsaturated
monounsaturated fatty acid except there are two or more double covalent bonds
DNA
polymer of nucleotides, three parts—a nitrogen base, a five-carbon sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group, (Nucleic acids, adenine, thymine, cytosine, guanine)
glycerol
the head of a triglyceride
Products
Ending materials in a chemical reaction.
Genome
The entire "library" of genetic instructions that an organism inherits
Gene
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
Enzymes
molecules usually proteins or nucleic acids that act as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
Hydrophobic
substances that are non-ionic and nonpolar, therefore actually repel water
Chaperonins
Protein molecules that assist the proper folding of other proteins; they work by keeping the new polypeptide segregated from bad influences in the cytoplasmic environment while it folds spontaneously
Storage Proteins
Stockpile building components that cells can use to make other proteins
Hydroxyl
-OH, (alcohols.) Polar. Attracts water molecules
plastids
structures made of starch in plants
fructose
a six-carbon monosaccharied with the chemical formula C6H12O6, a common sugar in fruits
hydrocarbon
organic molecule with only Hydrogen and Carbon
Triacylglycerol
Three fatty acids linked to one glycerol molecule; another name for a fat.
Hydrolysis
A chemical process that lyses, or splits, molecules by the addition of water.
Positive Feedback
A physiological control mechanism in which a change in some variable triggers mechanisms that amplify the change.
Molecule
the smallest particle (one or more atoms) of a substance that has all the properties of that substance
Genes
the units of inheritance that transmit information from parents to offspring
Properties of Water
cohesion; insulation through floating ice; moderation of temperature; versatile solvent
Structural Formula
represents the covalent bonds by dashes and shows the arrangement of covalently bonded atoms
Phospholipid
a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes
Atom
smallest unit of matter that still retains the properties of an element
Solvent
substance in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
Catalysts
substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is not used up itself or permanently changed
Substrate
substance or substances upon which the enzyme acts
Primary Structure
describes the order of amino acids
Steroids
characterized by a backbone of four linked carbon rings
Monosaturated
Each fatty acid has one double covalent bond and each of the 2 carbons has one hydrogen atom bonded to it
nonpolar covalent
if electrons are shared equally between atoms
heterotrophes
living organisms that rely on organic molecules for food
Ketones
Name of carbonyl compound when it is within the C-skeleton
Organic Chemistry
The study of all chemicals containing carbon
Chitin
in the cell wall of hyphae, a polysaccharide that also makes up the exoskeleton of insects, crustaceans, and other anthropods
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
Aldehydes
Name carbonyl compound when it is at the end of a C-skeleton
Atomic Mass
the weighted average mass of isotopes of an element, found below the element symbol
Trace Elements
elements required by an organism in only minute quantities
Surface Tension
the uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid; as if a thin film was stretch across the surface
Hydroxide Ion
A negatively charged ion made of oxygen and hydrogen.
Isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
Lipid
Any of a group of organic compounds, including the fats, oils, waxes, sterols, and triglycerides, that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents, are oily to the touch, and together with carbohydrates and proteins constitute the principal structural material of living cells.
Solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
Transport Proteins
transport materials into and out of cells (ex. Hemoglobin)
Activation energy
energy needed to get a reaction started
Tertiary Structure
overall 3-D shape of a polypeptide (resulting from interactions between the R groups of the amino acids, hydrophobic effect that occurs when hydrophobic R groups move toward the center of the protein, formation of disulfide bonds when the sulfur atom in the amino acid cysteine bonds to the sulfur atom in another cysteine)
glycosidic bond
the linking of two glucose molecules by removing a water molecule
polypeptide
a group of amino acids joined together in a string
autotrophs (or producers)
organisms that make their own food
polar molecules
H2O with opposite charges at different ends
Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Nucleic Acids
very long organic compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphurous, contain instructions that cells need to carry out all the functions of life
Peptide Bond
A bond that links amino acids together in a protein
Quaternary Structure
protein that is assembled from two or more separate peptide chains
Dehydration (condensation) Reaction
Reaction in which two molecules are covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a water molecule
steroid
a lipid with a basic structure of four linked carbon rings
hydrogen bond
weak chemical bonds that form when a hydrogen atom that is covalently bonded to one electronegative atom is also attracted to another electronegative atom
Heat of Vaporization
quantity of heat a liquid must absorb for 1g of it to be converted from the liquid to the gaseous state
Molecular Mass
the sum of the masses of all atoms in a molecule
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