AP Biology Unit Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
disease
patho
chlor-
green
intra-
within; inside
-gene; gene-
origin
glucose
most common monosaccharide
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
...
ion channels
transmembrane protein channels
granum
a stack of thylakoids
Crenation
Plasmolysis of red blood cell.
plasma membrane (all)
selectively permeable membrane
nucleolus
Organelle
Prominent region seen in nucleus during interphase
Where ribosome components are synthesized and assembled
Microfilaments
thinnest Class of cytoskeletal elements that form flexible linear bundles and networks that reinforce or restructure the cell surface
ECM
function in support, adhesion, movement, and regulation (glycoproteins) collagen most abundant in animal cells
Undeveloped shoot, mainly meristematic tissue. Sma
bud
prothrombin
plasma protein; converted to thrombin in the clotting process
primary
first level protein structure, order of amino acids in chain
bone
rigid structures composed of living cells rooted in a matrix of calcium, phosphate salts, and collagen fibers. the main component of most vertebrate skeletons
antidiuretic hormone
posterior pituitary
causes kidneys to retain more water so urine concentration increases
capillary
A microscopic blood vessel that penetrates the tissues and consists of a single layer of endothelial cells that allows exchange between the blood and interstitial fluid.
turner syndrome
non-disjunction of sex chromosones disease: XO and female. Union of a gamete missing the sex chromosone with a normal egg or sperm bearing an x chromosone
substrate
the reactant an enzyme acts on
endothelium
The innermost, simple squamous layer of cells lining the blood vessels; the only constituent structure of capillaries.
xylem vessels
water transporting cells of plants
sclerenchyma
rigid support
dead at maturity but ligin wall remains
-very strong- resist compression
-keeps plant upright and deters fungal attacks
makes fibers
-long tapered cells that structurally support vascular tissues
-flex and twist but do not stretch
many bacteria carry out alcoholic fermentation, the process in which pyruvate is converted into ethanol with the waste product ___
CO2
Nonequilibrium model
The model of communities that emphasizes that they are not stable in time but constantly changing after being buffeted by disturbances
The following are common to both charophytes and land plants except
A) sporopollenin.
B) lignin.
C) chlorophyll a.
D) cellulose.
E) chlorophyll b.
b
cochlea
The complex, coiled organ of hearing that contains the organ of Corti.
ectoderm
layer that produces skin, eyes, and nervous system
Protonephridium
a tubular excretory system utilized by flatworms consisting of flame bulbs that move the filtrate into the tube and nephridiopores in the body wall through which the excretory product exits the organism
Tertiary Structure
Superimposed on the patterns of secondary structure
grana
A stacked portion of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. Grana function in the light reactions of photosynthesis
chemokine
Any of about 50 different proteins, secreted by many cell types near a site of injury or infection, that help direct migration of white blood cells to an injury site and induces other changes central to inflammation.
cristae
folds inside the inner membrane of mitochondria to increase surface area (more can pass in and out)
anaphase
fourth subphase of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the poles of the cell
Ediacaran biota
An early group of soft-bodied, multicellular eukaryotes known from fossils that range in age from 565 million to 545 million years old.
What does the SV node produce?
Spontaneous depolarizations
parental types
Offspring with a phenotype that matches one of the parental phenotypes.
active transport
movement against the natural flow; when a substance moves from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration via a transport protein; requires cellular energy
parthenogenesis
process in which an unfertilized egg develops into a new individual
Which of the following are the water-conducting cells of xylem, have thick walls, and are dead at functional
maturity?
A) parenchyma cells
B) collenchyma cells
C) clerenchyma cells
D) tracheids and vessel elements
E) sieve-tube elements
d
amino acid
An organic molecule possessing both carboxyl and amino groups. Amino acids serve as the monomers of proteins.
Prolactin
Prolactin is the hormone that produces milk in the mammary glands.
Processes leading to the natural death of an organ
senescence
evaporation
the removal of heat energy from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules
G protein
a type of protein involved in transmitting chemical signals outside the cell, and causing changes inside the cell
Tumor-Suppresor Gene
A gene whose protein products inhibit cell division, thereby preventing uncontrolled cell growth (cancer).
alcoholic fermentation
process that produces ethanol and CO2 from sugars
condensation reaction
A reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other through the loss of a small molecule, usually water; also called dehydration reaction.
clade
A group of species that includes an ancestral species and all its descendants.
Compound
A substance consisting of 2 or more elements in a fixed ratio.
mesophyll
tissue in the interior of the leaf where chloroplasts are found
ultrafiltration
the removal of excess water from the blood.
control elements
segments of noncoding DNA that help regulate transcription of a gene by binding proteins
bioenergetics
The flow of energy through an animal, taking into account the energy stored in the food it consumes, the energy used for basic functions, activity, growth, reproduction, and regulation, and the energy lost to the environment as heat or in waste.
disadvantages of antibodies
not effective against pathogens inside cells
T cells kill infected body cells that are missed by antibodies
Antibodies miss cancer cells and infected cells but T cells recognize these
When blood glucose level rises, the pancreas secretes insulin, and as a result blood glucose level declines. When blood glucose level is low, the pancreas secretes glucagon, and as a result blood glucose level rises. Such regulation of blood glucose level
negative feedback
In a root, a vessel element completes its development in which area of growth?
A) zone of cell division
B) zone of elongation
C) zone of differentiation
D) root cap
E) apical meristem
c
domains
three groups that all kingdoms of life can be organised into
these are tightly bound to proteins that make up the electron transport chain, and are nonprotein components of the chain
prosthetic groups
in unstable environments
longer food chains are less efficient than short ones because the energy biomass decreases with each level it travels
compoud eye
A type of multifaceted eye in insects and crustaceans consisting of up to several thousand light-detecting, focusing ommatidia; especially good at detecting movement.
Class I MHC molecules
molecules presented after a cell becomes injured or cancerous and trigger cytotoxic T-cell response
meiosis I
the first round of cell division in meiosis; consists of prophase I, metaphase I, anaphase I, and telophase I
homozygous
having the same allele (PP or pp, not Pp)
base pair substitution
A point mutation; the replacement of one nucleotide and its partner in the complementary DNA strand by another pair of nucleotides.
lichens
rugged and able to live where there is little or no soil; grow in tiny rock crevices where acids break down rock to soil; paves way for new plant growth; can survive in both sever cold and drought
Allosteric Site
Specific receptor site on some part of the enzyme molecule other than the active site
Which amino acids have side chains that are generally negative in charge owing to the presence of a carboxl group?
acidic amino acids
C.B. van Niel
hypothesized that plants split H2O as a source of electrons (H) to make sugar
Starch (and its molecular formula)
Storage polysaccharide of plants that consists entirely of glucose; C6H12O6
Stem Cell
In the bone marrow, a type of cell that gives rise to all the types of blood cells.
fluid mosaic model
the membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic of various proteins embedded in or attached to a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids (what kind of model is this?)
First Law of Thermodynamics
1. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed.
2. Energy can be transferred or transformed.
Carbon's electron configuration determines the kinds and numbers of bonds that carbon will form
Allows for there to be four covalent bonds, there is a likleyhood of their being a double bond, they are very compatible with other molecules such as nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen
C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O
Equation for cell respiration
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