AP Biology: Cell Respiration Flashcards

Terms Definitions
ATP Synthase
kinases
What transfer phosphate groups?
Citrate
Acetyl CoA creates what product?
phosphoglucoisomerase
What turns glucose-6-phosphate into fructose-6-phosphate?
three ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation produces how many ATP per NADH that's oxidized?
oxygen
In cellular respiration, what becomes reduced?
3
How much ATP can NADH produce?
CoA
Pyruvate combines with what Pre-Krebs cycle?
substrate-level phosphorylation
fermentation is the anaerobic catabolism of organic nutrients to generate ATP by what?
FAD
an electron carrier; a coenzyme derived from riboflavin, a B vitamin- carriers electrons at lower energry level than NADH
Glycolysis
1. Generation of high-energy molecules (ATP and NADH) as cellular energy sources as part of aerobic respiration and anaerobic respiration; that is, in the former process, oxygen is present, and, in the latter, oxygen is not present.2. Production of pyruvate for the citric acid cycle as part of aerobic respiration.3. Production of a variety of six- and three-carbon intermediate compounds, which may be removed at various steps in the process for other cellular purposes.
2
How many NADH are produced during glycolysis?
two
How many molecules of CO2 are generated for each molecule of acetyl CoA introduced into the citric acid cycle?
the intermembrane space
Where is the proton gradient?
dehydrogenase enzymes
What enzymes transfer electrons to NAD+
one
How many ATp are made by substrate-level phosphorylation?
oxaloacetate
During the citric acid cycle, citrate is progressively decomposed back to what?
Coenzyme
An organic molecule serving as a cofactor (any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme)
Fermentation
a partial degradation of sugars that occurs without the use of oxygen; a anaerobic/catabolic process to "empty" electron carrier NADH
Cell Respiration
The most prevalent and efficient catabolic pathway for the production of ATP, in which oxygen is consumed as a reactant along with the organic fuel.
intermediates
Fats and proteins can be converted to what of glycolysis or the citric acid cycle?
H+
What is housed that has been pumped across the inner membrane during the redox reactions of the electron transport chain?
FADH2
What adds its electrons to the chain at a lower energy chain?
oxidizing agent
By gaining electrons, a substance acts as a what and becomes reduced?
Acetyl CoA
Pyruvate becomes what before the Krebs cycle?
glycolysis with NAD+
Both fermentation and respiration use what as the oxidizing agent to convert glucose and other organic fuels to pyruvate?
Obligate anaerobe
An organism that only carries out fermentation or anaerobic respiration; such organisms cannot use oxygen and in fact may be poisoned by it
Oxidative phosphorylation
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; the third major stage of cellular respiration; electron transport and chemiosmosis; "industrial" way of making ATP
ATP and NAD+
From an energetic viewpoint, what do muscle cells in oxygen deprivation gain from the reduction of pyruvate?
inner membrane
Where is ATP synthase located in the mitochondria?
pyruvate; carbon dioxide
The citric acid cycle converts a derivative of what into what?
NADH
Where do the protons come from on the electron transport chain?
two carbon
For each turn of the citric acid cycle, what enters in the reduced form from acetyl CoA
two hydrogen atoms
What are removed by enzymes called dehydrogenases during the oxidation of glucose?
three; one
During each turn of the citric acid cycle, how many NADH and how many FADH2 are formed?
oxidation
What is the loss of electrons from one substance?
Lactic acid fermentation
a type of fermentation where the pyruvate is reduced directly by NADH to form lactate as an end product, with no release of CO2
Fermentation (Anaerobic Respiration)
A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
tightly bound, nonprotein prosthetic groups
Most components of the electron transport chain are proteins with what?
the citric acid cycle
The carbon dioxide that animal cells breathe out is created by what process?
beta oxidation
Fatty acids are broken down by what to acetyl CoA?
2; 0; 2
How many NADH, FADH2, and ATP is created in Glycolysis?
1 acetaldehyde and 1 CO2
For each pyruvate, what chemicals are produced in alcohol fermentation?
2 pyruvate and 2 NADH
What is the input of fermentation (doesn't include the input of glycolyis)
2 ATP, 2 pyruvate, 2H2O, and 2 NADH + 2H+
What does Glycolysis produce?
10 NAD+, 2 FAD, H2O, 34 ATP
What are the outputs of oxidative phosphorylation?
NADH gives up its electrons to form NAD+
What must happen for glycolysis to start in lactic acid fermentation, regarding energy?
2 ATP, 2 NAD+, 2 ethanol and 2 CO2 or 2 lactate
What are the outputs of fermentation?
2 acetyl CoA, 2 ADP + (P)i, 6 NAD+, and 2 FAD
What are the inputs of the citric acid cycle?
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