Male Reproductive System Flashcards

seminiferous tubules
Terms Definitions
perine/o
perineum
balan
glans
apre
without
RP
Radical Prostatectomy
Male gametes
sperm
rare testis duplication
polyorchia
Cowper Gland
Bulbourethral Gland.
semen analysis
study of semen
TURP
transurethral resection of prostate
corpora amylacea
eosinophilic, glycoprotein-rich concretions in the lumen of glands, found only in urethra, look like biconcave sponges in the middle of the lumen
vericocele
enlarged, swollen, herniated veins near the testis
Testis
(structure)
-surrounded by the tunica albuginea 
-septa are extensions of the capsule that  divide and support the testis
-seminiferous tubules are coiled among the septa
Orhid/o, orchi/o, orch/o, test/o
Testis, Testicle
orchid/o, orchi/o, orch/o, test/o
testis, testicle
testosterone is synthesized from ______
cholesterol
Cryptorchidism
congenital condition in males characterized by failure or one or both testes to completely descend into scrotum prior to birth; testis remaining in abdominal cavity for too long will become sterile due to higher temperature
Testes
Primary reproductive organ of the male
Spermiogenesis
-the acrosome form: contains enzymes for fertilization
-the flagellum forms: allows the sperm to swim
-all excess cytoplasm and organelles are sloughed
Varicocele
Enlarged veins of the spermatic cord.
straight tubule
short segment immediately following seminiferous tubules, contains numerous Sertoli cells, makes contribution to tubular fluid, cells range from simple cuboidal to columnar
Spermatid
Arise from secondary spermatocyte from completion of meiosis II Early spermatid has dense round nuclei while late spermatid are pointed and have flagella
Doughnut-shaped gland that encircles part of the urethra inferior to the bladder
prostate gland
Interstitial/Leydig cells
found between seminiferous tubules; produce and secrete masculinizing hormones known as androgens (the main such being testosterone)
sustentacular cells
supporting cells of descendants of spermatogium;
Prepuce (foreskin)
The skin covering the glans penis
Epididymus
J-shaped tube; sperm mature there for 64 days
Male urethra
(three types)
-Prostatic urethra: surrounded by prostate gland, receives semen during the sexual response
-Membranous urethra: penetrates the urogenital diaphragm
-Penile/spongy urethra: surrounded by erectile tissue- the corpus spongiosum
Phimosis
A tightness of the prepuce that prevents its retraction over the glans penis; it may be congenital or a result of balanitis. Circumcision is the usual treatment.
prostatolithotomy
incision into the proistate gland to remove a stone
tubular fluid
contains nutrients and metabolites for developing spermatocytes, produced by Sertoli cells
Sertoli cells
Supporting cells of the seminiferous tubulesPhagocytose excess cytoplasmSecrete fluidProduce hormones: Inhibin, ABP, and anti-mullerian hormoneForm blood testis barrier
stimulate the development of sperm
fsh and testosterone
Male accessory glands
seminal vesicles, prostate gland, Copwer’s/bulbourethral glands
vasovasectomy
restoration of the function of the vas deferens to regain fertility
apex of prostate gland
faces the deep perineal space
Blood testis barrier
-tight junctions between Sertoli cells form the barrier between the compartments
Suprapubic Prostatectomy
Excision of the prostate gland through an abdominal incision made above the pubic bone and through an incision in the bladder; used to treat benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer (also called suprapubic transvesical prostatectomy).
efferent ductule
segment that leaves the testis (good riddance!), has irregular epithelium (ciliated pseudostratified), only site of ciliated cells in the male tract, short cells are absorptive, leads to epididymis
corpus spongiosum
center erectile tissue with the penile urethra running through it
perineum
Area between the anus and scrotum in the male.
______ is a spongy network of connective tissue and smooth muscle riddled with vascular spaces
erectile tissue
Prepuce/foreskin
loose cuff of skin surrounding tip of penis; generally removed via circumcision shortly after birth
Bulbourethral (Cowper) glands
contains sugar for energy & has slightly basic (pH)
Tunica albuginea (of the testis)
Thick, white connective tissue surrounding each testis
function of testes
production of sperm. production of testosterone
interstitial cells of Leydig
clusters of eosinophilic cells in peritubular interstitium, produce testosterone in response to LH, are structured like steroid secretory cells, have crystalline inclusions, abundant smooth ER, mitochondria with tubular cristae, no secretory granules; transient activity allows for male gonad development in fetal period, and they are reactivated during puberty to help develop secondary sex characteristics
erectile dysfunction
Inability of an adult male to achieve an erection; impotence.
Tail of sperm
part of sperm; flagellum that provides for sperm motility
Accessory structures forming the male duct system
Epididymis, ductus deferenes, the ejaculatory duct, and the urethra
transurethral resection of the prostate gland [TURP]
successive pieces of the prostate gland tissue are resected by using a resectoscope inserted through the urethra. the capsule is left intact. usually performed when the enlarged prostate gland interferes with urination
main function of the male reproductive system is to
produce and deliver sperm
one cause of male infertility
barrier may not be sufficient, and since primary spermatocytes acquire new cell surface features, cells of the luminal compartment may be recognized as non-self and destroyed
LH and FSH are released from what gland
The Anterior Pituitary Gland release these
prostat/o
prostate
crypt-
hidden
crytpre
hidden
-ism
state of
Gametes
sex cells
BNO
bladder neck obstruction
SpermatozoonPlural Spermatozoa
Sperm Cell
BPH
benign prostatic hyperplasia/ hypertrophy
Spermatolysis
Dissolution (destruction) of sperm.
Epididymis
Sperm gain unidirectional motilitypseudostratified columnar epithelium stereocilia muscular wall reabsorbtion of fluid and secretion of glycoproteins
Vas Deferens
(function)
-sperm storage
 
-contracts during sexual response
 
-cut for vasectomy
orchioplasty
surgical repair of a testis
viagra is a _________ inhibitor
phosphodiesterase
Male ducts
epididymis, vas/ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, urtethra
3 types of Urethra
Prostatic, Membranous, Spongy
rete testes
converged network of seminiferous tubules
sterilization
process that renders an indiviudal unable to produce offspring
FSH
Facilitate ABP production from the sertoli cells
____ glands Empty their secretions into the ducts during ejaculation
accessory
Bulbourethral/Cowper’s glands
paired, pea-sized glands below prostate gland w/in urogenital diaphragm; produce clear mucus that drains into penile/spongy urethra when male becomes sexually excited; small amount of mucus tends to accumulate at tip of penis prior to ejaculation
acrosome
head of a sperm that pierces egg
prostate gland
produces an alkaline material for semen
Interstitial (Leydig) Cells
-endocrine cells of the testis
-stimulated by LH from anterior pituitary gland to secrete testosterone
 
Prosthesis
An artificial replacement of an absent body part (a penile prosthesis may be implanted to treat erectile dysfunction if first-line therapies are not effective).
syphillis
infectious STD having lesions that can affect any organ or tissue; a syphilitic mother may transmit the disease to hjer unborn infant because the causative organism is able to pass through the placenta
peripheral glands
in prostate proper, commonly involved in prostate cancer
Glands of Littre
Mucous glands of the urethra
Pea-sized glands inferior to the prostate
Bulbourethral Glands
Scrotum
contains testes; divided into left and right via middle septum; provides temperature slightly cooler (about 5 degrees) than core body temp, which is necessary for adequate sperm cell production; responds to external temperature to maintain optimum temp.
benign prostatic hyperplasia/ hypertrophy
enlargement of the prostate gland
cremasteric reflex
a fingernail quickly stroked along the upper medial surface of the thigh raises the testis
Ductus (Vas) Deferens
-within the spermatic cord: vessels, nerves, and muscle
 
principal cells
very active cells present in the ductus epididymis, secrete factors that promote spermatozoa maturation/capacitation
Seminal Vesicle
formed from an outpouching of the ductus deferens lumen has meshwork of trabeculae secrete spermatozoa activating substances pseudostratified epithelium bilayered smooth muscle
What is a common procedure of tying the Vas deferens to render a male sterile?
VASECTOMY
The _____ ______ functions in keeping the urethra open during ejaculation
corpus spongiosum
Male perineum
area between base of scrotum and anus
Transports both
semen and urine Enlarged at tip to form glans penis
Ductus deferenes (vans deferns)
the sperm duct after the epididymis
Spermatic cord
-vessels and nerves for the testis and the vas deferens are bundled together
-pass through the abdominal wall in the inguinal canal
ejaculatory duct
located at the junction of the vas deferens and seminal vesicle, pair enters prostate at colliculus seminalis
What type of cancer is most common in males between ages 20 & 35 yrs of age?
TESTICULAR
Form in abdominopelvic cavity; descend into scrotum about two months before birth
fetal development of testes
Crus of penis
Formed by the Corpora Cavernosa at the base of penis
prostate=specific antigen [PSA]
a blood test that measures the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood. elevated test results may indicate the prsence of prostate cancer.
what are the 3 major regions of sperm?
Head-DNA,
midpiece- mitochondria
tail- flagellum
epididymisPlural - Epididymides
One of a pair of long, tightly coiled tubes lying on top of each testis. Carries sperm from the seminiferous tubles to the vas deferens.
Trace the route of the duct system
1. From the seminiferous tuboles in the testes to 2. Epididymis to the3. Ductus deferens, which carries the sperm out over the pubic bone, over the bladder, and down into the 4. ampulla, which joines with the seminal vescicle to create the 5. Ejaculatory duct, which travels through the prostate before emptying into the 6. Urethra!
epididym/o
epididymis
sperm
seed
ectomysuf
removal
Balan/o
Glans Penis
-cide
to kill
DRE
digital rectal examination
Spermatogenesis
sperm cell production
orch/o, orchi/o, orchid/o, test/o
testis
Gonorrhea
Contagious, inflammatory sexually transmitted disease caused by a bacterial organism that affects the mucous membranes of the genitourinary system.
LH
facilitates testosterone production from leydig cells
Testes suspended
outside body in scrotum
Gonads
Male and female sex glands.
anorchism
state of absense of testis
______ liquefies the sticky mass
Fibrinolysin
Erection
results from filling/engorgement of three bodies of erectile tissue with blood; during arousal, parasympathetic innervation dilates arteries supplying erectile bodies, thereby increasing flow of blood to those tissues
Seminal Fluid
An alkaline secretion containing fructose
produces sperm and sertoli cells
seminiferous tubules
coitus
sexual intercourse between male and female aka copulation
spermatids
haploid cells, differentiate to form spermatozoa, have close physical association with Sertoli cells, still connected to one another
Spermatocytogenesis
includes the mitotic divisions of spermatogonia and end up as primary spermocytes
peak secretion of testosterone occurs at age ___
20
Meiosis
cell division by which testes/ovaries produce sex cells/gametes/sperm/eggs; 2 consecutive divisions of nucleus—results in production of cells with only half the # of chromosomes (23), thus only half as much genetic material/DNA
type A daughter cell
spermatogonia produces another spermatogonia.. whats the daughter cell called?
Glans penis
the enlarged tip of the penis
Seminal Vesicles
provides nutrients for sperm; thick yellowish fluid
Sperm production
-sperm are produced constantly- not "on demand"
 
-400 million sperm are produced each day
 
-40-100 million are released during one ejaculation
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Excessive development (enlargement) pertaining to the prostate gland.
prostatovesiculectomy
excision of prostate gland and seminal vesicles
seminiferous tubules
highly coiled, blind-end tubules lined by spermatogenic epithelium; outer wall contains smooth muscle and is fibrous (tunica propria)
Spermatic chord
complex of ductus deferens, testicular arteries, and pampiniform plexus of veins
The ____ deferens and ____ duct
Serve as a storage reservoir for sperm (up to 42 days) and propel sperm to the urethra
ductus
ejaculatory
Blood-testes barrier
formed by junctions b/t sustentacular cells; prevents protein antigens that occur in differentiating sperm from entering bloodstream & activating immune system; if breached, male’s body will attack own sperm
hormones Aid production
of gametes, Regulate secondary sex characteristics
Bulbourethral gland
(function)
-embedded in the muscle of the urogenital diaphragm
 
-secrete during sexual response to flush any residual urine from the urethra (first fluid released, washes out urethra before semen is released)
genital herpes
std caused by herpesvirus bominis type 2 [aka herpes simplex virus]
basal cells
actively dividing cells found in the ductus epididymis that differentiate into the secretory cell type
paminiform plexus
network of veins in the spermatic chord part of the counter current cooling of blood
What is the second most common type of cancer in males?
PROSTATE
____ is a Milky white, sticky mixture of sperm and accessory gland secretions. a transport medium that activates sperm
semen
Sperm Cell Anatomy
three parts – head, midpiece, tail
Dartos and Cremaster Muscle
These muscles regulate the temperature of the scrotum
bulbourethral glands
lie on the sides of the membranous urethra, have ducts that open into the urethra and contribute secretions to semen during ejaculation
2 parts of the penis
corpus cavernosa and corpus spongiosum
Golgi phase of spermiogenesis
polarization of organelles (Golgi to one end and centrioles to other), hydrolytic enzymes (hyaluronidase, trypsin-like protease, etc.) accumulate in acrosomal vesicle, centrioles migrate opposite acrosomal vesicle
What is the most appropriate method of diagnosing testicular cancer?
TESTICULAR SELF EXAM
Three parts of the reproductive system
1. Gonads2. Ducts3. Accessory Organs
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]
a disease that affects the body's immune system, transmitted by exchange of body fluid during the sexual act, reuse of contaminated needles, or receiving contaminated blood transfusions
what are the 3 regions of the urethra?
Prostatic
Membranous
Spongy, or penile
process of puberty complete
when large #s of sperm have been produced in testes
Four ways to maintain temperature in the testes within the scrotum.
1. Suspended away from the body.2. Countercurrent blood flow3. Cremaster - elevates into body4. Dartos - wrinkles skin to conserve heat
prepuce
foreskin
didym
testis
vesicul/o
seminal vesicle
prostatroot
prostate gland
sperm/o, spermat/o
spermatozoon, sperm
STI
sexual transmitted infection
Most frequent epididymal tumor
adenoma
vesiculectomy
excision of seminal vesicle
aspermia
inability to produce semen
contains seminiferous tubules and interstitial cells
lobules
orchiepididymitis
inflammation of testis and epididymis
ABP
Androgen Binding ProteinsReleased by sertoli cells to bind testosterone and concentrate in the cells lining the reproductive duct
Clotting factors _______ semen immediately after ejaculation
coagulate
GnRH
hormone released by hypothalamus which controls release of two anterior pituatiory gonadotropins
mature sperm
-head, body, tail-acromosome- located at tip of head, contains enzymes which help penetrate ovum-23 chromosome (22 autosomes, 1 sex chromosome)-life expectancy: 48-72 hrs after ejaculation-approximately 50-150 million per milliliter of ejaculate
Trichomoniasis
A sexually transmitted disease caused by a one-cell organism, Trichomononas. It infects the genitourinary tract. Men may be asymptomatic or may develop urethritis, an enlarged prostate gland, or epididymitis. Women have vaginal itching, dysuria, and vaginal or urethral discharge.
prostatocystitis
inflammation of prostate gland and bladder
What STD commonly exists with gonnorhea?
CHLAMYDIA
testosterone is also converted by neurons into _______ to bring about stimulatory effects
estrogen
type B
when a spermatogonia produces primary spermatocyte destined to produce four sperm
Ejaculation
The forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra
muscles of urination
external urethral sphincter and compressor urethrae
Most common cause of acute scrotal pain& swelling
epididymitis
testicular torsion
twisting of spermatic cord causion decreased blood flow to testis. occurs most often during puberty. because of lack of blood flow to testis, considered medical emergency
activin
produced by the Sertoli cells, allows positive feedback on FSH release
Dartos Muscle
Regulates the temperature of the scrotum
semen
Spermatozoa and fluid ( prostatic and other glandular secretions)
Expansion of the corpora cavernosa compresses _____ _____ and retards blood outflow
drainage veins
Membranous urethra
second portion of male urethra; courses through urogenital diaphragm in floor of pelvic cavity
Secondary spermatocytes divide into what
Spermatids come from this
structure of testes
small, oval structures surrounded by CT
Supplies blood to the corpus caverosa
deep penile artery
prostate secretory product
watery, slightly acidic fluid, has factors that inactivate macrophages and fibrinolysin (inhibits clot formation in ejaculate)
ejaculatory duct
tube through which semen enters the urethra.
period after ejaculation where it is almost impossible to get an erection
refractory period
Male accessory sex glands
5 total—seminal vesicles, prostate gland, cowper’s/bulbourethral glands; secretions of these account for about 95% of semen volume
transurethral microwave thermotherapy [TUMT]
a treatment that eliminates excess cells present in a benign prostatic hyperplasia by using heat generated by microwave
spermatogonia type A
renewable stem cells found in the seminiferous epithelium
_____ is a form a birth control that involves Cutting and ligating the ductus deferens
vasectomy
has slightly Base-like (pH)
to protect the sperm against the acidic vaginal environment
The Parts of the Male Reproductive System
Testicle/Testis, Sperm, Testosterone, Seminiferous Tubules, Epididymis, Vas deferens ductus deferens or seminal duct, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, scrotum, penis, glans penis (part of penis), prepuce (part of penis), semen, and the genitalia/genitals.
vas deferens
Narrow tube ( one on each side) that carries sperm from the epididymis into the body and toward the urethra.Also called Ductus Deferens
base of prostate gland
faces the undersurface of the neck of the bladder
pampiniform plexus of the spermatic cord
the anastomotic venous plexus of the spermatic cord
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