Male Reproductive System 2 Flashcards

seminiferous tubules
Terms Definitions
The Foreskin
condition of
transperineal urethral resection
resembling a male
Sperm cells
stored in epididymis
surgical removal of foreskiin
benign prostate hyperplasiausually occurs in the transitional zone
hormone that Stimulates interstitial cells to release testosterone
-"reversible" male sterilization (not guaranteed)
-Vas deferens are isolated from the spermatic cord
-a section is removed
-one or both of the open ends are cauterized(heat), tied, or clipped
inflammation of the glans penis
testicular capillaries
fenestrated, have limited-to-no barrier function, counterbalanced by Sertoli tight junctions in protecting developing sperm
Intrascrotal temperature is kept constant by 2 sets of muscles:
comma-shaped where sperm exit; divided into head, body, and tail
Allows for contraction ofthe scrotum
tunica dartos
primary male sex organs, paired, oval-shaped, and enclosed in a sac called the scrotum. tested produces spermatozoa [sperm cells] and the hormone testosterone
spermatogenic epithelium
made up of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids, and Sertoli cells; considered "stratified glandular epithelium"
dilation of the ductus deferenswhere the seminal vesicle joinsenters the prostate as the ejaculatory duct
the scrotum Contains paired testicles separated by a midline ______
Epididymis—ductus/vans deferens—ejaculatory duct—urethra
pathway of ejaculated sperm cell
basal compartment
this compartment extends from basal lamina to their tight junctinos and contains spermatognia and earliest primary spermatocytes
The fibromuscular cord that guides the testes through the Inguinal Canal
Cowper's gland
bulb on urethra; produces neutralizing and lubricating material; pre-ejac. fluid
Male Reproductive System
-synthesizes sperm (the male gametes)
-stores the sperm
-delivers sperm to the female tract
Genital Herpes
Sexually transmitted disease caused by Herpesvirus hominis type 2 (also called herpes simplex virus).
transrectal ultrasound
an ultrasound proceduyre used to diagnose prostate cancer. sound waves are obtained by placing a prove into the rectum. the sound waves are transformed into an image of the prostate gland.
~70 day process in which spermatogonia proceed through differentiation into secondary spermatocytes
Ductuli efferentes
perforate the tunica albuginea into the epididymistall columnar ciliated cellsshort absorptive cells
place in order
vas deferens
Seminiferous tubules
Seminiferous tubules--> sperm--> epididymis --> vas deferens
Thick, whitish fluid containing
Sperm cells & Secretion from
Layers of vas deferens
Inner: pcceMiddle: smooth muscleOuter: Adventitia
Prostate cancer
-digital rectal exam (use finger to palpate surface of prostate)
-measure PSA levels (prostate specific antigen)
AN STD caused by a one-cell organism, trichomonas. it infects the genitourinary tract. men may be asymptomatic of may devlope urethritis, an enlarged prostate gland, or epididymitis. women have vaginal itching, dysuria, and vaginal or urethral discharge
head of epididymis
contains inner circular layer of muscularis
Cremaster muscle
Skeletal muscle that raises and lowers the testis
What disorder is chacterized by a low grade fever, back pain, muscle aches, & urinary frequency?
Testicular cancer
curable if detected early enough; men advised to regularly examine their testicles for lumps; however, most lumps are relatively harmless varicoceles and hydroceles
Seminal Vesicles
these produce about 60% of the seminal fluid
erectile tissues of the penis
unpaired corpus spongiosum, paired corpora cavernosa
stimulates descent of testes and maturation of sperm
interstitial cells of Leydig
ductus deferens participation (ejac)
stimulated to secrete product by sympathetic nervous system input, 3rd step of ejac
What is an x-ray of the urinary tract using a control medium?
Midpiece of sperm
part of a sperm; contains many mitochondria that produce ATP needed to supply energy required for sperm to use its tail swimming
What tuboles are in the testes
seminiferous tuboles which have sustentacular cells and interstitial cells
______ is the cuff of skin covering the distal end of the penis
Prepuce, or foreskin
what three things are included in the secretions from seminal vesicles?
fructose, prostaglandins, and proteins
to cut
Digital Rectal Examination
inflammation of prostate
stem cell of sperm
inflammation of an epedidymis
Seminalplasmin – _________ protein
tunica vaginalis
outer tunic of testis
-stimulates spermatogenesis in the adjacent seminiferous tubules
-stimulates function of the other male reproductive organs
-stimulates secondary sexual characteristics
male and female sex glands
membranous urethra
traverses muscular urogenital diaphragm, epithelium ranges from pseudostratified to stratified columnar but is generally irregular
Hormonal regulation of spermatogenesis and testicular androgen production involve the testes, _____, and _____ pituitary gland
food and fluid and sperm
urethra through the center; erectile spongy tissue; shaft and the head.
median raphe
septum that divides the scrotum
scrotal swelling caused by collection of fluid
seminiferous epithelium
"stratified" epithelium that functions in sperm production
Suportive, connective tissue of an organ, as distinguished from its parenchyma.
The tunica _________, the fibrous capsule of the testis
Inguinal canal
slit-like passageway through anterior pelvic wall that courses just deep & inferior to aponeurosis of external oblique muscle
interstitial cells
these cells lie surrounding the seminiferous tubules and produce androgens (testosterone)
Corpus spongiousum
single ventral erectile tissue that surrounds the penile urethra
-the process by which sperm (male gametes) form in the testes; involves meiosis
bulbourethral glands
paired glands at junction of membranous and penile urethra, produce clear/viscous pre-ejaculatory fluid
tubuli recti
straight short tubules connecting the seminiferous tubules with the rete testis
Produce thick, clear, and alkaline mucus prior to ejaculation that neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra
Bulbourethral Glands
adluminal compartment
this lies internal to the tight junctions and includes the meiotically active cells and the tubule lumen
Vas deferens
long tube from vas deferens to ejaculatory duct to transport sperm
Prostate gland
-surrounds the proximal part of the urethra
-adds secretions to the sperm during the sexual response
-multiple ducts drain into prostatic urethra
-secretions include enzymes that liquefy the semen(decrease vacosity of semen=less thick, easier to move)
sperm [spermatozoon]
the microscopic male germ cell, which, when united with the ovum, produces a zygote [fertilized egg] that with subsequent development becomes an embryo
androgen-binding protein
made by Sertoli cells, carrier of testosterone and allows it to be concentrated in the seminiferous tubule lumen
Primary spermatocyte
arrise from mitotic divisions of type B cells2n
______ is a condition where the testes fail to descend into the scrotum
Cremaster muscles
will pull testes up toward warm abdominopelvic wall in cold conditions; relaxed in hot conditions
Prostate Gland
This gland is inferior to the bladder; secretes a milky fluid which activates the sperm
ejaculatory ducts
extend from their origin near the neck of the bladder anteroinferiorly through the prostate gland
Paired, pea-sized glands inferior to prostate, lateral to membranous urethraat the level of the urogenital diaphragm
Cowper's glands (or bulbourethral)
seminal vesicle discharge (ejac)
fluid clears urethra, "happy ending" to process
testes descend through a canal into an external sac called
the scrotum
a fertilized egg; the first cell of a potentially new individual; receives 23 chromosomes from egg and 23 chromosomes from sperm to equal 46
secondary sex organs
aid in the formation of semen and transport sperm. epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, seminal vesicle, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, penis
human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]
a type of retrovirus that causes AIDS. HIV infects T-helper cells of the immune system, allowing for opportunistic infecitons such as candidiasis, p.carinii pneuomonia, tuberculosis, and kaposia sarcoma
the ____ region of the urethra runs through the penis and opens to the outside at the external urethral orifice
spongy or penile
Two corpora cavernosa, one corpus sponginosum
three columns (bodies) or erectile tissue
prostate-specific antigen
reproductive organs
glans penis
Glans Penis
rare absence of testis
state of hidden testes.
tumor of the tissue
Interstital cells
These cells produce testosterone
Usually secondary result of epididymitis
prostate cancer
cancer of prostate gland
inner muscularis of vas deferens
Sertoli (Sustentacular) cells in between germ cells protect _____ cells and promote development
inside Testes produce
Male germ cells (spermatozoa)
contents of testes
seminiferous tubules, interstitial cells (of leydig), mature sperm
DESTROY THE GOVERNMENT! Jk.State of absence of testis (unilateral or bilateral)
peptide hormone produced by Sertoli cells that provides negative feedback on FSH release by the pituitary
glans penis
Sensitive tip of the penis
At ejaculation, _______ nerves serving the genital organs cause:
Reproductive ducts and accessory organs to contract and empty their contents
Spermatic Cord
A connective tissue sheath that encloses the ductus deferens, vessels and nerves
dartos muscle
smooth muscle fibers in the superficial fascia of the scrotum that are responsible for the rugosity of the skin of the scrotal sac
Which cell produces testosterone in the testes?
Interstial Cells
double layer covering of the testes
tunica vaginalis
a tightness of foreskin that prevent its retraction over glans. may be congenital or a result of balanitis. circumcision is usual treatment.
orchidopexy, orchiopexy
surgical fixation of a testicle [performed to bring undescended testicles into scrotum]
spermatogonia type B
proliferative cells, very mitotically active, differentiate to become primary spermatocytes
Hair-like projection on a sperm cell that makes it motile (able to move)
_____ is the inability to attain erection
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
enzyme in prostate secretion; measuring the level of this enzyme in a man’s blood is the most important method of screening for prostate cancer
The cap on the head of the spermatozoon that has enzymes
testes location
outside pelvic cavity. within scrotal sac
rete testis empty into _________ ducts which empty into the __________.
efferent; epididymis
sac suspended on both sides of and just behind the penis. testes are enclosed withing
cytoplasmic bridges
connections between clusters of type B spermatogonia that persist through maturation of spermatids into spermatozoa, help to synchronize differentiation
Helicine arteries
empty directly into the the vascular spaces Parasympathetic nerves stimulate helicine arteries to relax, blood flows in and compresses the veins against the tunica albuginea--> atreovenous shunt
Internal penis consists of the ____ and three cylindrical bodies of ____ ________
erectile tissue
male hormones made and secreted by the testes; main one is testosterone
seminal vesicle
makes the fluid to feed the sperm
Chorionic Gonadotropin Hormone
The hormone secreted by the placenta that stiumlates secretion of testosterone by the fetal testes
Two muscles of the penis
1. Corpora cavernosa2. Corpora spongiousum
erectile dysfunction
inability of the male to attain or maintain an erection sufficient to perform sexual intercourse [formerly known as impotence]
acrosomal phase of spermiogenesis
acrosomal cap develops, grows opposite of flagellum, cap flattens/spreads/associates w/ the nucleus, cell rotates so centrioles face the lumen, head remains embedded in Sertoli cell, axoneme outgrowth begins
hydrolytic enzymes allow sperm to
penetrate and enter the egg
prostate-specific antigen test
blood test used to screen for prostate cancer
Supplies blood to the corpus spongiosum, glans penis and urethra
bulbourethral artery and dorsal artery
Tunica Albuginea of the Testis
Dense connective tissue capsule of collagen fibers
FSH promotes what in males?
Sperm formation in promoted by this hormone
Effect of GnRH secretion during puberty
The secretion of this hormone during puberty causes increased LH And FSH to release from the anterior puberty
testicular self-examination
prostate gland
hormone replacement therapy
through, across, beyond
transurethral incision of prostate
(secondary effects)
-facial hair
-increased muscle mass
-deeper voice
Creation of artificial openings between the severed ends of the vas deferens are reconnected in an attempt to restore fertility in men who have had a vasectomy.
surgical repair of glans penis
ductus deferens
Pseudostratified epithelium with stereociliavery thick three layered muscular coat
results from peristaltic contractions of smooth muscle in the walls of the male ducts, all the way from epididymis through urethra
Chronic infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum, which usually is transmitted by sexual contact, may be acquired in utero, or (less often) contracted through direct contact with infected tissue. If untreated, the infection usually progresses through three clinical stages with a latent period. The initial local infection quickly becomes systemic with widespread dissemination of the bacterium.
blood-testis barrier
Sertoli tight cell junctions positioned on the luminal side of the spermatogonia prevent immunoglobulins from entering lumen, allows for compartmentalization of seminiferous epithelium
release of spermatozoa from the seminiferous epithelium
sperm are produced
in the seminiferous tubules
seminiferous tubules
the actual "sperm factories"1-4 of these in each of the 250-300 lobules of testis
Pathway of Sperm
Seminiferous tubules, Tubuli recti, rete testis, epididymis, ductus deferenes
space between the visceral and parietal tunica vaginalis
vaginalis sac
an artifical replacement of an absent body part
surrounds urethra at base of bladder, compound tubulo-alveolar gland, has numerous branching ducts opening into urethra, has very thick fibromuscular stroma
Rete testis
net like network of interconnecting channels within the mediastinum
What the structure that sperm enters upon maturity?
_____ consists of bands of skeletal muscle that elevate the testes
Benign prostatic hyperplasia
non-cancerous enlargement of prostate gland that occurs in most elderly men; urination becomes increasingly difficult due to prostate presses against prostatic urethra; can be detected via digital rectal exam
Seminal vesicles
-add secretions to the sperm during the sexual response (fructose as an energy source for sperm, substances that neutralize the acidity of the vagina)
-duct combines with the vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct
Bulbourethral gland
mucous glands that empty into the penile urethrasecretion provides lubrication and clears urine from urethra
fraternal twins
Two infants born of the same pregnancy from two separate ova fertilized by two different sperm.
Only 2-5 ml of semen are ejaculated, but it contains 50-____ million sperm/ml
hormone replacement
use of a hormone to remedy a deficiency or regulate production
LH promotes what in males?
This hormone stimulates testosterone production in males
ejaculatory duct
begins on posterior side of prostate. passes through prostate gland to join urethra formed by union of ductus deferens and duct of seminal vesicles
Tunica Vascularis
A plexus of blood vessels lying lying subjacent to the tunica albuginea
the ___ region of the urethra is the portion surrounded by the prostate
interstitial cells of the testis
Cells that lie between the seminiferous tubules and produce the hormone testosterone.A pituitary gland hormone (luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the interstitial cells to produce testosterone.
transurethral incision of prostate gland [TUIP]
a surgical precedure that widens the urethra by making a few small incision in the bladder neck and the prostate gland. no prostate tissue is removed. TUIP may be used instead of TURP when prostate gland is less enlarged
Transurethral incision of the prostate gland (TUIP)
A surgical procedure that widens the urethra by making a few small incisions in the bladder neck and the prostate gland. No prostate tissue is removed. TUIP may be used in stead of TURP when the prostate gland is less enlarged.
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