Male Reproductive System 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
GC
gonococcus
phim
muzzle
GU
genito-urinary
Vesicul/o
Seminal Vesicle
vesiculroot
seminal vescles
TUMT
Transurethral Microwave Thermoherapy
prostatolith
a prostate stone
Urethra
transports semen and urine
gonorrhea
contagious, inflammatory sexually transmitted disease caused by bacterial organism that affects the mucuous membranes of genitourinary system
accessory glands include
____ vesicles
______ gland
_________ glands
seminal
prostate
Bulbourethral
FSH
hormone that stimulates sustentacular cells to release ABP, which enhances testosterone’s effects
produces testosterone
insterstitial cells of Leydig
puberty
period hwne secondary sex characteristics develope and the ability to reproduce sexually begins
middle muscularis of vas deferens
circular
tunica ________, derived from peritoneum
vaginalis
scrotum
holds testis and controls temperature
Testis
in scrotum95.6 degrees to properly develop sperm
Most common cause of scrotal swelling
hydrocele
prostatovesiculitis
inflammation of prostate gland and seminal vesicles
primary spermatocytes
stage after spermatogonia, plentiful, found close to precursor cells, long prophase lasting ~20 days, highly susceptible to insult/injury, undergo 1st meiotic division to produce next cell type
Sterilization
Any procedure rendering an individual incapable of reproduction; for example, vasectomy and tubal ligation
The hormone ____ enhances sperm motility
relaxin
Spermatic cord
composite structure consisting of sheath of connective tissue & enclosed structures; components include ductus/vas deferens, testicular arteries, veins, nerves, and the cremaster muscle; inferior lies in scrotum, superior through inguinal canal
blood-testis barrier
membrane that prevents antigens of sperm from escaping into blood
Urogenital Fold
These are paired longitudinal ridges that develope in the embryo - in the male they form part of the penis; in the female they form the labia minora
Cryptochidism
the testes don't descend, results in sterility
Epididymis
-a single tubule coiled on the posterior surface of the testis
Human Papillomavirus (HPV)
A prevalent sexually transmitted disease causing benign or cancerous growths in male and female genitals (also called venereal warts).
penile implant
surgical implantation of a penis prosthesis to correct erectile dysfunction
tunica albuginea
collagenous capsule that surrounds the testis
identical twins
Two infants resulting from division of one fertilized egg into two distinct embryos. Conjoined ( "Siamese") twins are incompletely separated indentical twins.
Both _____ and _____ motor fibers carry impulses from integrating center to penis
autonomic
somatic
Varicocele
a varicose vein in the pampiniform vein
rete testis
tubulus rectus conveys sperm into the ________
Semen
made up of sperm, fluid from seminal vesicles, alkaline material from prostate; 300-500 million sperm per ejaculation.
Paired, pouch like sacs, posterior to the base of the bladder
seminal vesicles
artificial insemination
introduction of semen into vagina by artificial means
FSH and testosterone
stimulate Sertoli cell function, one is carried by androgen-binding protein
Secondary spermatocytes
result of the first meiotic division of primary spermatocytes
____ is a smooth muscle that wrinkles scrotal skin
Dartos
Male reproductive system
includes gonads, testes, in scrotum; accessory organs include ducts that transport sperm and some glands, whose secretions enhance sperm activity
cryptorchidism
failure of testis to drop into the scrotum
Spermatogonia divide into what
These divide to form primary spermatocytes and daughter spermatogonia
3 segments of the urethra
membranous, penile, external urethral orifice
Radical Prostatectomy (RP)
Excision of the prostate gland with its capsule, seminal vesicles, vas deferens, and sometimes pelvic lymph nodes; performed by a retropubic or perineal approach, or laparoscopically; used to treat prostate cancer.
bulbourethral glands discharge (ejaculation)
lubricates penile urethra, first step in ejaculation
scrotum is
1-3 degrees lower than the normal temp of the body
prostate gland
makes the fluid to keep the sperm alive and active
Benign prostatic hypertrophy
-can compress the urethra and lead to urinary difficulties
spermatogenic-asynchronous cycle of the seminiferous epithelium
adjacent areas of tubule are in different stages of sperm development, gap junctions in Sertoli cells contribute to this, allows for continual production of mature cells
the prostate Secretes a thin, milky, alkaline fluid that accounts for __ of the semen volume
1/3
contains
Citrate, calcium, acid phosphate, a clotting enzyme, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
Male & female reproductive systems
consist of gonads & the accessory reproductive organs
andr/o
male
spermi
sperm
balan/o
glans penis
-ism
state of
vasroot
vessel, duct
epididymectomy
excision of epidydmis
BPH
benign prostatic hypertrophy
abnormal increase of fluid
hydrocele
testicular carcinoma
cancer of testicle
androphobia
morbid dislike of males
supporting structure of testis
spermatic cord
prostatorrhea
excessive discharge from prostate gland
Interstitial (Leydig) cells between tubules produce ________
testosterone
Spermatozoa form
within testes starting at puberty
contents of spermatic cord
-vas deferens-testicular artery-pampiniform plexus of veins-nerve-lymphatics
Coitus
Sexual intercourse between male and female (also called copulation) aka SEX
oligospermia
condition of scanty sperm in semen
seminal vesicles
paired, blind-ending pouches near junction of ductus deferens and prostate, very looped and cells are very short, contains pseudostratified columnar epithelium, height and activity of cells is testosterone-dependent, mucosal arches are unique, has abundant smooth muscle, produces viscous mucoid secretion (60% of ejaculate volume, rich in fructose, prostaglandins, amino acids, and ascorbic acid)
testosterone
Hormone secreted by the interstitial tissue of the testes; responsible for male sex characteristics.
the _____ converts testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT) before it can bind within the nucleus
Prostate
cowpers gland
cleans and lubricates the urethra
Interstitial cells
these produce testosterone and are found between the seminiferous tubules
bulbourethral glands
-muscular layer of the pelvic floor-small glands with a duct opening into the urethra-secrete a mucous-like fluid which lubricates the urethra
Surrounds each testis andextends into abd., contraction regulates temperature
cremaster muscle
andropathy
diseases of the male [that is, peculiar to the male, such as a testitis]
prostate releases contents (ejac)
contraction within fibromuscular stroma occurs, products condition vaginal environment for spermatozoa survival, step 2 in ejac
scrotum
External sac that contains the testes in men.
Corpus ______ fills with blood causing the penis to enlarge and become rigid
cavernosum
Seminiferous tubules
specific sites of sperm cell production in testes; walls consist of spermatogenic cells embedded in sustentacular/sertoli cells
Male accessory glands
these include the prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourethral glands
inguinal hernia
passage of spermatic cord and testes out of abdomen into scrotal sac
Sertoli cell
tall columnar epithelial cell found in the seminiferous tubule, non-mitotic after puberty, terminalljy differentiated, has large euchromatic nucleus that is commonly indented, has abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, stretches from basement membrane to lumen of tubule, supports spermatid production and spermiogenesis, "conditions" the microenvironment for sperm to develop
seminal vesicle
either of paired sac-like male glands that secrete a fluid into the vas deferens.
testosterone is the basis of ___ in both males and females
libido
Prostatic urethra
first portion of male urethra; runs through and is surrounded by prostate gland below urinary bladder
vas deferens
moves the sperm farther into the reproductive system
Primary spermatocytes divide into what
Secondary spermatocytes come from this
What temperature is the scrotum?
5.5 F below body heat
digital rectal examination [DRE]
a physical examination in which physician inserts a finger into rectum and feels for size and shape of rectal wall. used to screen for BPH and cancer of prostate. BPH usually presents as a uniform, nontender enlargement whereas cancer usually presents as a stony hard module.
Sperm and seminal fluid mix in the ____ _____ and enter the prostatic urethra during ejaculation
ejaculatory duct
Ejaculation propels them out through series of ducts
Vas deferens, Ejaculatory duct, Urethra, Penis
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
A blood test that measures the level of prostate-specific antigen in the blood. Elevated test results may indicate the presence of prostate cancer or excess prostate tissue, as found in the benign prostatic hyperplasia.
prostate gland
gland, in men, at the base of the urinary bladder that secretes a fluid into the urethra during ejaculation
Function of the male gonads
these are used for sperm production (exocrine) and testosterone production (endocrine)
Ampulla of the male reproductive system
The enlarged terminus of the ductus deferens that empties into the ejaculatory duct
orch
testes
seminroot
testis
HPV
Human Papillomavirus
vas/o
vessel, duct
Spermatozoa transported
in semen
Impotence
See erectile dysfunction
HSV
herpes simplex virus
TURP
transurethral resection of prostate
Accessory Glands
(list three)
-seminal vesicles
 
-prostate gland
 
-bulbourethral gland
TUIP
Transurethral incision of the Prostate
balanorrhea
excessive discharge from glans penis
Spermiogenesis
morphological changes from spermatid and spermatozoa
Vas/ductus deferens
receives/transports ejaculated sperm from epididymis to ejaculatory duct; runs upward from scrotum w/in spermatic cord, thru inguinal canal, into pelvic cavity, along then behind bladder, where it joins duct from seminal vesicle to form ejaculatory duct
Penis
Male external genitalia that delivers sperm into the female reproductive tract
Epididymis
(function) 
-resorbs shed cytoplasm and damaged sperm
-sperm storage
-site of sperm maturation
-site of swimming lessons
Hydrocele
Scrotal swelling caused by a collection of fluid.
phagocytosis
performed by Sertoli cells, degrades damaged cells and recycles spermatid residual bodies
Tunica Vaginalis
Squamous epithelium covering the tunica albuginea
Corpus ______ Surrounds the urethra and expands to form the glans and bulb of the penis
spongiosum
Sustentacular/sustentocyte/sertoli/nurse cells
surround spermatogenic cells in wall of seminiferous tubules; provide physical & chemical assistance to immature sperm cells; tight junctions b/t these form blood-testes barrier
tubulus rectus
seminiferous tubules of each lobule converge to form a ___________
Interstitial Tissue
division between the tubules; where testosterone is produced.
Hernia
-an organ that is out of place
 
-most commonly a loop of the small intestine descends through the weak area
prostatocystotomy
incision into the prostate gland and bladder
glandular epithelium of prostate
irregular, ranges from pseudostratified to simple columnar
Testosterone
(-) on LH production(+) on sertoli cells, reproductive organs, secondary sex characteristics
What is a risk factor testicular cancer?
MUMPS
Dartos muscle
under cold conditions, wrinkles and thickens the scrotal skin thus reducing heat loss; under hot conditions will relax
Prostate cancer
-most common type of cancer in men
 
-second leading cause of cancer deaths after lung cancer
Chlamydia
The silent std as many people are unaware they have the disease. Symptoms that occur when the disease becomes serious are painful urination discharge from the penis in men, and genital itching, vaginal discharge, and bleeding between menstrual periods in women. The causative agent is C. trachomatis.
connective tissue septae
incompletely divide the testis into ~250 lobules that in turn contain seminiferous tubules
Corpora cavernosa
paired erectile tissue on dorsal end of penis
prepuce (foreskin)
Skin covering the tip of the penis.
the duct of ______ has cilia that Absorb testicular fluid
Pass nutrients to the sperm
Site of sperm maturation
Peristaltic movement of its walls helps sperm move
epididymis
Spongy/penile urethra
terminal portion of male urethra; runs through and surrounded by corpus sponginosum of penis; opening at tip is called external urethral orifice
Male Reproductive System Function
Produce gametes (reproductive cells) & Produce hormones
Inguinal Canal
The testes pass through this from the abdominal canal to the scrotum during development
interstitial cells (of Leydig)
produce and secrete testosterone in testes
3 glandular zones of the prostate
periurethral mucosal glands, periurethral submucosal glands, and peripheral glands
Type B spermatogonium
arrise from type A pale cellsUndergoes four mitotic divisions to give primary spermatocytes
Estrogens & progesterone
main hormones produced and secreted by ovaries
Bulb of penis
formed by the Corpus spongiosum at the base of the penis
human papilloma virus [HPV]
A prevalent STD causing benign or cancerous growths in male and female genitals [aka venereal warts]
within each testis are
clusters of hundreds of tiny tubules called seminiferous tubules
periurethral mucosal and submucosal glands
surround the urethra and are typically responsible for benign prostatic hyperplasia
vas deferens, ductus deferens, or seminal duct
duct carrying the sperm from the epididymis to the urethra [the urethra also connects with the urinary bladder and carries urine outside the body. a circular muscle constricts during intercourse to prevent urination.]
preputi/o
prepuce
prepuce
(preputi/o)
foreskin
-pexy
fixation
Gamete
Sex cell.
glans penis
(balan/o)
Prostatectomy
removal of the prostate gland
GCT
germ cell tumors (malignant neoplasms)
-seminoma (develops from the cells that form sperm)
-nonseminoma (accounts for majority of testicular cancer cases usually between ages 15-35)
Cowper's glands
Also known as the bulbourethral glands, are located on either side of the urethra just below the prostate gland and their ducts open into the urethra. They secrete thick mucus acting as a lubricant.
Ablation
removal of tissue by surgery, chemical destruction, cryoprobe, electrocautery or radiofrequency energy
Vasectomy
ligation of both of the vas deferens for the purpose of male sterilization
Castration
removal of both gonads in the male or the female
Testicular Carcinoma is Seminoma
Sterlization procedure for males is a vasectomy
Orchiopexy is a fixation of an undescended testicle
Swollen, twisted veins near the testes is Varicocele
/ 156
Term:
Definition:
Definition:

Leave a Comment ({[ getComments().length ]})

Comments ({[ getComments().length ]})

{[comment.username]}

{[ comment.comment ]}

View All {[ getComments().length ]} Comments
Ask a homework question - tutors are online