Mammalogy Flashcards

Terms Definitions
pilosa
sloth
tayassuidae
peccaries
suiformes
piggies
cervidae
deer
Manatee
SireniaTrichechidaeTrichechus manatus
Fisher
CarnivoraMustelidaeMartes pennanti
rhinolophoidea
mouse-tailed bats
sirenia
manatee, dugong
paucituberculata
shrew-like opossum
Harbor seal
CarnivoraPhocidaePhoca vitulina
Meadow vole
RodentiaMuridaeMicrotus pennsylvanicus
White-footed Mouse
RodentiaMuridaePeromyscus leucopus
Common Porcupine
RodentiaErethizontidaeErethizon dorsatum
Hoary Bat
ChiropteraVespertilionidaeLasiurus cinereus
Feral cat
CarnivoraFelidaeFelis cattus
rhinos
class mammaliaorder perissodactylafamily rhinocerotidae
hedgehog
class mammaliaorder erinaceomorphafamily erinaceidae
Therapsida
Reptile like mammals.
peramelemorphia
bandicoots & bilbies
cynocephalidae
colugo (2 spp)
perissodactyla
equidae, rhinoceratidae, tapiridae
euarchonta
dermoptera, scandentia, primates
Northern River Otter
CarnivoraMustelidaeLontra canadensis
Big Brown bat
ChiropteraVespertilionidaeEptesicus fuscus
ermine
class mammaliaorder carnivorafamily mustelidaemustela erminea
warthog
class mammaliaorder artiodactylafamily suidae
chevrotain
class mammaliaorder artiodactylafamily tragulidae
badger
class mammaliaorder carnivorafamily mustelidaetaxidea taxus
sambar
class mammaliaorder artiodactylafamily cervidae
Ornithorhynchidae
Duck-billed platypus. Semiaquatic mammals found in Australia. Males have venom glands and spnes on rear ankles. Muskrat like in habits and habitats. An arrary of electroreceptors can detect the electrical field of heartbeats of insects in the mud. Considered rare and possibly extinct in the wild.
Simplex uterus
primates, anteaters, pangolins
bovidae
oxen, goats, sheep, antelope
Rodentia
mice, rats, porcupines, beavers
thecodont
-socketed (tooth anchored)-contrasts: acrodont (on jaw, not socketed) and pleurodont (on shelf, not socketed)
house mouse
class mammaliaorder rodentiafamily muridaemus musculus
grizzly bear
class mammaliaorder carnivorafamily ursidaeursus arctos horribilis
white-tailed deer
class mammaliaorder artiodactylafamily cervidaeodocoileus virginianus
black bear
class mammaliaorder carnivorafamily ursidaeursus americanus
snowshoe hare
class mammaliaorder lagomorphafamily leporidaelepus americanus
norway rat
class mammaliaorder rodentiafamily muridaerattus norvegicus
harp seal
class mammaliaorder carnivorafamily phocidaephoca groenlandica
humpback whale
class mammaliaorder cetaceafamily balaenopteridaemegaptera novaenglidae
black-backed jackal
class mammaliaorder carnivorafamily canidae
great apes
class mammaliaorder primatesfamily hominidae
Northern Bat
Order Chiroptera, Infraorder Yangochiroptera, Family Vespertilionidae, Myotis septentrionalis
Small-footed Myotis
Order Chiroptera, Infraorder Yangochiroptera, Family Vespertilionidae, Myotis leibii
Theriodons
Mammal toothed therapsids. Evolved into what we'd consider a mammal. Same ecological roles as our weasels and wolves.
Classification of Marsupials
Subclass TheriaInfraclass Metatheria
Scaling - What limits size?
SupportFoodThermoregulationMovementOxygen demand
Bipartite
Eutrherian reproductive system with two long horns to a single uterus, joining near a SINGLE cervix. Found in carnivores and whales.
Spontaneous ovulation
ovulation happens before copulation
multituberculates
-"rodents of the mesozoic)-coexisted with modern mammals-chisel-like incisors-large diastema (char. of herbivores)-complex cheek teeth (many cusps)-diversified simultaneously with angiosperms-some arboreal, some may have been gliding
eastern gray squirrel
class mammaliaorder rodentiafamily sciuridaesciurus carolinenis
southern red-backed vole
class mammaliaorder rodentiafamily muridaeclethrionomys gapperi
Eastern Mole
Order Soricomorpha. Family Talpidae. Scalopus aquaticus.
Masked/Common Shrew
Order Soricomorpha. Family Soricidae. Sorex cinereus. Only around Black Mt.
Suborders of Theriodons
Gorgonopsia, Therocephalia, and Cynodontia
Gestation
time of implantation until birth. Altricial vs precocial depends on length of gestation. Special form occurs in marsupials and echidnas which have marsupiums resulting in extremely altricial young.
Family Vonbatidae
Within Order Diprotodotidae. Wombats. Three species. Burrowers, large, found in OZ. Marsupium open posteriorly.
General Bat Anatomy
Wing (plagiopatagium, propatagium, uropatagium), eyes usually reduced, nose ornamentation, ear modification
Mexican free-tailed bat
Order Chiroptera, Infraorder Yangochiroptera, Family Molossidae, Tadarida brasiliensis
Monotreme uterus (egg-laying)
urogenital sinus and cloaca
Class Mammalia Subclass Therian Order Chiroptera Two suborders
Bats
four characteristics in appendicular skeleton in mammals
-epiphyses-calcaneum-limb orientation-reduction in bones of limb girdles
Family Talpidae
moles, shrew-like moles, desmans. Includes terrestrial and semi-aquatic forms, found in new world and old world (mostly N. Hemisphere), Zygomatic arch and auditory bullae intact, teeth not incombent
Bones
Made entirely of osseous tissues which consist of osteocytes and matrix. Blood vessels and nerves penetrate throughout. Covered with periosteum. Functions: protection, movement, storage of blood and fat cells, immunity (produce WBC), posture/form
Extinction
disappearing is a way of changing distribution. Mass extinctions lead to adaptive radiation.
Sudiferous Glands
sweat. Eccrine and Apocrine sweat glands.
wing loading
body mass to wing surface area
Least Shrew
Cryptotis parva. statewide. short tail distinguishes it from Sorex.
Distributional shift
Forced by evolutionary pressures which effect the ability to survive or reproduce. Environmental change, competition, predation, niche shift
Dioecious
Two sexes. Male produces spermatozoa via testes. Female produces ova via ovaries.
Order Pholidota Family Manidae
"scaly ones" Pangolins(1,8)Africa, Asia. when threatened, curl up in ball with sharp scales. Anal glands produce foul-smelling liquid. Edentate - no teeth,sticky saliva. tongue longer than head and body length put together (anchored to pelvis) Sharp claws for digging to find termites, close nostrils and ears for digging.
Diprotodont
first incisors enlarged to meet upper incisors
synapsid
-"together arch" - arch of bone formed by opening of fenestra-fenestra - below suture of postorbital and squamosal, much of musculature passes through and anchors on dorsal surface of skull
Order Dasyuromorphia
62 known extant species located in Australia. Mostly carnivorous and insectivorous. Includes Tasmanian tiger.
Intermembraneous ossification
Flat bones. Mold is formed between membranes and later filled with osseus tissues.
Cost of expending energy...
decreases proportionally with size. Larger need less amount of oxygen to run.
Ecological roles of bats
1. Insectivores2. Vertebrate prey: fish, amphibians, small mammals, birds, reptiles3. Sanguivores (blood)4. Nectivores (pollination)5. Frugivores (seed dispersal)6. Folivores
Layers of the skin
Epidermis - superficial epithelial layerDermis - deeper connective layerSubcutaneous - not part of skin, but consists of areolar and adipose tissue. fat storage, blood vessel passage, and an area for pressure sensing nerve endings.
Megachiroptera
Old world fruit bat One family, old world tropics, subtropics, fruit,nectar or pollen. No hibernators, nothing w/echolocation, largest bats (~1.7m wingspan)
K-selection in bats
limited repro. potential. Most only one litter/year with 1-2 young. Long lived, over 30 yrs, strange for such a small animal.
Suborder Strepsirhini Family Lorisidae
(5,9) lorises, angwantibos, pottos cent. Africa, SE Asia, Sri Lanka, long-legged, insectivores
Order PilosaFamily Cyclopedidae (1,1)
Silky AnteaterCentral and South America
suite of characters approach
-jaw joint - dentary/squamosal articulation-strongly heterodont dentition-precision of acclusion-alternate side chewing-well-developed inner ear region (expanded petrosal, which houses inner ear)-small size (rat-sized or smaller)-axial flexes (dorso-ventral in mammals, lateral in non-mammals)
behavioral implications for endothermy
-permits nocturnal behavior-hair for insulation-increased auditory capacity-increased olfactory capabilites
viviparous
-give birth to live young which are nourished in the uterus-exception of egg-laying monotremes
Functions of the Skull
houses brain, houses special senses, feeding, communication, defense
Animals from SA allowed to NA
Porcupines, glyptodonts, armadillos, ground sloths, opossums.
Origins of Bats
Known from all continents (aside from Antartica and South America). Probably monophyletic. By early Eocene, bats were everywhere and well developed by then. Icaronycteris found in Green River Basin of West N.A. 9 genera in fossil record of many different continents.
Unique Skeletal and Anatomical features of Eutherians.
Braincase relatively large; greater complexity of neocortex; corpus callosum present.Auditory bullae present, formed from tympanic bone.Palatal vacuities absent or small.Angular process of dentary not inflected.Primitive dental formulat = 44. Incisors, canines, and premolars are deciduous.Epipubic bones do not occur. Reproductive tract and glans penis not bifurcated.No marsupium.Scrotum posterior to penis; baculum sometimes present.
Suborder Microchiroptera Family Phylostomidae
New World leaf-nosed bats (160spp) Western US to North. SA Fleshy projections to help beam out echolocation call through nose. Vampire bats - tropical/subtrop. America. Feed exclusively on blood of warm blooded animals. Adaptation: sharp invisors, large canines, cheek teeth very small in size and number. Go for sparsely haired areas on ungulate. Some cause wound infection or disease spread. Narrow esophagus, simple stomach/digestion. Anti-coagulant in salive called Draculin (glycoprotein). Long thumbs for jumping off ground onto animal, genearlly painless bite.
facial muscles all derived from what?
-constrictor colli (throat muscle)
To move faster...
1) Have a longer stride.2) Have a faster stride.
Great American Interchange
filter route between NA and SA via Panamanian land bridge which opened approx 3.5 MYA during the Pliocene.
Layers of a Hair (from inside)
Medula, Cortex, Cuticle, In/External Rooth Sheath, Dermal root sheath.
Family Tenrecidae Subfamily Potamogalinae
Other shrews, 3 spp., otter shrews, potamogale large, 60cm., 1kg., early branch of family.
Suborder Haplorhini Family Atelidae (5,24)
howler, spider and wooley monkeys Cent. and S. America, howlers are loudest terrestrial animal (specialized)
key character approach
-used jaw joint - mammals have joint between squamosal and dentary-vs. quadrate and articular-approach confused by Probainognathus and Diarthragnathus, perfect transitional forms (possessed both types of jaw joints)
Special bones in the Pelvic Girdle
Epipubic bone present in pouched marsupials for support
3 ear ossicles and their ancestral homologs
-malleus - articular-incus - quadrate-stapes - stapes
Two major regions of the Dermis
1) Papillary - bumps on skin, fingerprintS2) Reticular
How does skin aide in: Perspiration and its evaporation
lowers body temperature. flow of blood in the dermis is adjusted.
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