Marine Biology Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Coccolithophorids
CaCO3
Hexapod
insects
Manatee grass
Syringodium
Porpoises
Phocoenidae(Odontocete cetaceans)
phycoerythrin
reddish pigment
Gastropods include
prosobranchia
opisthobranchia
pulmonata
squalus
spiny dogfish
lithospheric plates
plates
Phylum Chrysophyta
"Silicoflagellates" SiO2
Spawning
Breeding in fishes
Polar Bear
Ursidae(Polar Bear)
aplacophora
most ancestoral...no shell
hypothesis
an educated guess
producers
photosynthetic organism like phytoplankton
photoautotrophic
obtain energy from sunlight
La Plata dolphin
Pontoporiidae(Odontocete cetaceans)
Phaeophyta
brown algae...brown because yellow-brown pigment: FUCOXANTHIN
most abundant in molluscs
gastropods
Kingdom Protista
Phylum Baccilariophyta, Phylum Chrysophyta, Coccolithophorids, Dinoflagellates, Radiolarians, Foraminiferans.
Flagella
whip-like structures that help dinoflagellates move
Gills
Aquatic arthropods exchange gases through ______________.
detritus
dead organic material. Bacteria remineralizes it.
What are decapods?
shrimp, lobsters, crab
biramus
two portions to the leg...marine
Zoea
larvae of shrimp and crabs
pangea
when all continents joined together
Class Cephalopoda
"Head-foot" EX: Squid, Octopus, Chambered Nautilus, Cuttlefish, etc.
Agnatha
This class includes jawless fishes such as lamprey.
diatoms
microscopic phytoplankton that have a silicate cell wall - most abundant photosynthetic organism in ocean
Mucilaginous
This material on seaweeds provides additional protection from drying out when the tide goes out.
important 2
Because mangroves are constantly dropping their leaves, bacteria constantly break down the leaves,The detritus then adds organic matter to sediments and the sediments become anaerobic. Thus there is little life within the sediments, but lots of activity on the roots and in the water.
How fast do cells divide?
4-5 days
Pygmy and Dwarf Sperm Whale
Kogiidae(Odontocete cetaceans)
Chlorophyta
Green Algae...because its not masked by other pigments!!!
Siphonophores
hydrozoans with drifting colonies of polyps
sediment
loose material like mud and sand
Class Bivalvia
-Bivalves Ctenidia (gills) used to respire plus also filter feed on particles. Mantle secretes the shell.
Ulva
Grows well in polluted waters (excess Phosphorus) Some eat fresh in salad.
Lateral Line
This adaptation in fishes allows detection movement and vibrations in the water.
Red Tide
large blooms of dinoflagellates with harmful effects on marine life
heterotrophic
an organism that eats or absorbs organic material to feed
What is the limiting nutrient in freshwater photosynthesis?
Phosphorus
whats the keystone species in the antarctic?
KRILL
what percentage of animals on earth are invertebrates?
97%
What are examples of cephalopods
octopuses, squid, cuddlefish
marine ecology
the scientific study of marine-life habitat, populations, and interactions among organisms and the surrounding environment including their abiotic (non-living physical and chemical factors that affect the ability of organisms to survive and reproduce) and biotic factors (living things or the materials that directly or indirectly affect an organism in its environment).
network of water filled canals
water vascular system
continental drift
when all continents separated from pangea
Class Trematoda
"Flukes" Ex: Schistosoma #2 killer in the world (schistosomiosis)
Mangrove swamps
Mangal communities are located in the tidal flats of the tropics and consist mainly of Mangrove trees.
gross primary production
all the respiration and photosynthesis in an ecosystem; found by adding the light and dark bottles in the light-dark bottle method
When do neap tides occur?
1/4 moons; smaller tides;
What are infauna?
Animals that burrow into the substrate.
Meroplankton
organisms which have only part of their life cycle in the plankton. An example is larvae of barnacles or crabs. Many benthic organisms have part of their life cycle as meroplankton.About 70% of benthic organisms have a planktonic stage
What are Protozoa?
eukaryotic organisms such as ciliates that eat bacteria and cyanobacteria, the main grazers in teh microbial loop
why is cyanobacteria important?
first photsynthetic organism on earth...important role in accumulation of oxygen in our atmosphere!!
What are Barbels ?
Barbels are the whisker-like appendages found on both sides of the mouth of all catfish.
net plankton
size of plankton that comprise most of the biomass
Which mangrove species is known as the "pioneer" species?
Red Mangrove
diverse classes of zooplanktonic holoplankton
Crustacea (copepods, krill, many meroplanktonCnidaria (siphonophores, medusa)(i.e. JELLYFISH)Molluscs (pteropods)Appendicularians (salps & larvaceans)Ctenophores (comb jellies)
mudskipper
spends most of its time out of water catching insects. It gets oxygen from the air through its gills.
what are characteristics of Arthropods?
Have segmented body, jointed appendagesExoskeleton of chitin
what defines chimaeriforms
they have a weird head
naked skin
no spiracle
flattened grinding teeth
claspers
Economic Importance of Brown Algae
Fertilizer, Algin (emulsifier in ice cream and cheese). Mariculture.
Define Critical Depth
The depth at which the organism can't be mixed below (they die)*can be mixed shallower but not deeper
what are autrophs capable of
capable of converting inorganic carbon to organic carbon without using preformed matter as an energy source
How many viruses are in seawater?
5 million-15 million to mL
What are foraminifera (Forams)?
They are protozoan amoebas with a shell they live inside of
Give two examples of seagrass
eelgrass-zostera--looks like an eel no association
turtle grass-thalassia--turtles like to eat it
What is Autotrophic algae ?
Algae capable of photosynthesis and growth using only dissolved inorganic nutrients.
Adaptations enabling phytoplankton to float
large cavity in center, spines, store oils and fat
What is a keystone predator?
A predatory species whose effects on its community are proportionatley much greater than its abundance. ex: starfish
what does macroalgae attach to?
a substrate with a holdfast that anchors the alga
where is the reef flat?
behind the crest. sandgrass is found on the floor
what is a mangrove?
its a tree with big roots under water...good for nurseries for fish
Flowering plants...seagrasses are how salt tolerant?
they are very salt tolerant, they prefer to be sumerged in the salt water.
What is a Coelenterate ?
An aquatic animal of the Phylum Coelenterata which is characterized by a central mouth usually surrounded by tentacles bearing stinging cells, and no anus; includes sea anemones, corals, and jellyfishes.
Which of the 3 estuary macrophytes degrades the slowest?
spartina and mangroves; contain lots of silica
Chlorophyll A is the ___ pigment in...
the dominant pigmnt in green algae
what supports the body of a sponge?
spicules, either made of silaceous (silicon) or calcareous (calcium)
scyphozoans and important fact about them
larger jelly fish...the medusa is the dominant form in these
What happens to the mixed layer in Spring? Why?
becomes shallower because there is less mixing (less storms)
What are the three types of coral reefs
fringing reef, barrier reef, and atoll
What is a Benthic organism ?
Refers to organisms that live on or in the ocean bed.
When does the spring tide occur?
full or new moon; sun and moon are aligned
What are the polyps that lack a medusa stage?
Anthozoans, which consist of anemones, sea fans, corals, and sea pens
What is an Anadromous fish ?
A fish that spends most of its life feeding in the open ocean but that migrates to spawn in fresh water.
What do cnidarians have instead of a brain?
A nerve net that connects the cells and transmits impulses
why are ribbon worms more complex than flatworms?
they have a mouth and an anus, and circulatory system. They also have proboscis that contains toxins
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