Marriage, Family, and Kinship Flashcards

common ancestor
Terms Definitions
consanguineal
related by birth
genitor
A biological father.
consanguineal relatives
Relatives by blood.
kinship
a culturally defined relationship established through blood ties or marriage
clans
Unilineal descent groups, usually comprising more than ten generations, consisting of members who claim a common ancestry even though they cannot trace step by step their exact connection to a common ancestor.
moieties
Complementary descent groups that result from the division of a society into halves.
incest
sexual relations with a relative
consanguineal family
A family of "blood relatives" consisting of related women, their brothers, and the women-s offspring.
conjugal family
A family established through marriage.
marriage
The customs, rules, and obligations that establish a socially endorsed relationship between adults and children, and between the kin groups of the married partners.
nepotism
The granting of privilege or favoritism on the basis of family relationships.
unilineal descent
Descent that establishes group membership exclusively through either the male or female line; also known as unilateral descent.
lineage
A unilineal kinship group descended from a common ancestor or founder who lived four to six generations ago, and in which relationships among members can be exactly stated in genealogical terms.
clan
An extended unilineal kinship group, often consisting of several lineages, whose members claim common descent from a remote ancestor, usually legendary or mythological.
extended family households
collateral household, includes siblings, spouses, chidren
kindred
a bilateral set of close relatives
monogamy
Marriage in which both partners have just one spouse.
exogamy
A rule requiring marriage outside of one's own social or kinship group.
endogamy
A rule requiring marriage within a specified social or kinship group.
EGO
The person in kinship diagrams from whose point of view the relationships are traced.
blended family
Kinship networks occasioned by divorce and remarriage in the United States which include the previously divorced spouses and their new marriage partners.
bifurcation
a principle of classifying kin under which different kinship terms are used for the mother's side of the family and the father's side of the family
matrilineal descent
Descent traced exclusively through the female line to establish group membership.
incest taboo
The prohibition of sexual intimacy between people defined as close relatives.
moiety
Each group that results from a division of a society into two halves on the basis of descent.
polygamy
A rule allowing more than one spouse.
polygyny
a man has more than one wife
postpartum sex taboo
prohibition of sexual intercourse between a couple for a period of time after the birth of their child
sororate
The custom whereby, when a man's wife dies, her sister is given to him as a wife.
levirate
The custom whereby a man marries the widow of a deceased brother.
arranged marriage
the process by which senior family members significantly control the choice of their children's spouses
nuclear family
A family organized around the conjugal tie (the relationship between husband and wife) and consisting of a husband, a wife, and their children.
segmentation
The process that takes place within a lineage whereby small subdivisions of a lineage will oppose one another in some social situations but will coalesce and become allies in other social situations.
reproductive technologies
Recent developments, such as in vitro fertilization, surrogate motherhood, and sperm banks, that are making the reckoning of kin relationships more complex.
matrilocal residence
System under which a husband lives with his wife's family after marriage.
avunculocal residence
System under which a married couple lives with the husband's mother's brother.
double descent
The tracing of descent through both matrilineal and patrilineal links, each of which is used for different purposes.
Eskimo system
Kinship reckoning in which the nuclear family is emphasized by specifically identifying the mother, father, brother, and sister, while lumping together all other relatives into broad categories such as uncle, aunt, and cousin; also known as a lineal system.
extended family
Two or more closely related nuclear families clustered together into a large domestic group.
conjugal tie
the relationship between a husband and wife formed by marriage
composite (compound) family
an aggregate of nuclear families linked by a common spouse
collateral kin
kin descended from a common ancestor but not in a direct ascendant or descendent line, such as cousins or siblings
bridewealth
Money or valuable goods paid by the groom or his family to the bride's family upon marriage; also called bride-price.
Iroquois system
Kinship reckoning in which a father and father's brother are referred to by a single term, as are a mother and mother's sister, but a father's sister and mother's brother are given separate terms. Parallel cousins are classified with brothers and sisters, while cross cousins are classified separately but not equated with relatives of some other generation.
rules of descent
rules that connect individuals with particular sets of kin because of known or presumed common ancestry
cross cousins
The children of a parent's siblings of the opposite sex (mother's brothers, father's sisters).
corporate descent groups
Permanent kinship groups that have an existence beyond the membership at any given time.
polyandry
A rule permitting a woman to have more than one husband at a time.
role ambiguity
Confusion about how one is expected to behave.
parallel cousin
Child of a father's brother or a mother's sister.
cross cousin
Child of a mother's brother or a father's sister.
patrilocality
when a couple marries it moves to the husband's community so their children will grow up in their father's village
bride service
work performed by the groom for his bride's family for a variable length of time either before or after the wedding
bilocal residence
a pattern of residence in which a married couple lives with or near either the husband's parents or the wife's parents
matrifocal family
a family consisting of a mother and her children
ambilineal descent
A form of descent in which a person chooses to affiliate with a kin group through either the male or the female line.
fraternal polyandry
A custom whereby a woman marries a man and his brothers.
clan or sib
a set of kin whose members believe themselves to be descended from a common ancestor or ancestress but cannot specify the links back to that founder; often designated by a totem
sororal polygyny
the marriage of a man to two or more sisters at the same time
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