AP Chemistry Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ne
Neon
permanganate
MnO₄-
NH4^+
Ammonium
ClO4-
perchlorate
Mercury
Hg
Hs
Hassium
green
Ba+2
Soluble
Hydrogen carbonates
selenate
SeO4 -2
Excited State
...
Compounds Containing Sulfates
Soluble
anions are (basic/acidic)
bases
Density
D = M/V
Base
Conjugate acid + water
diamagnetic
nonmagnetic; all electrons paired
John Dalton
experimented with gases
different substances are
different combinations of atoms
Henry's Law constant
Mol L/atm=mol/L atm
1 mm = ____ m
10⁻³
empirical formula
formula reduced to lowest terms
dipole-dipole force
intermolecular force of attraction between neighboring permanent dipoles that is created when the dipoles line up so that the positive and negative ends are close to each other
liquid
distinct volume; no specific shape; assumes shape of the portion of he container that it occupies; cannot be compressed to any appreciable extent
Mass number
number of protrons and neutrons.
1 A (Angstrom) = ____ m
10⁻¹⁰
Po4, N, Cytosine, Glucose or Deoxyribose
Glucose
alkanes
most basic class of hydrocarbons, each carbon atom is bonded to four other atoms, the simplest alkanes are (methane CH4, ethane C2H6, propane C3H8)
dissolution
process in which an ionic solid dissolved i a polar liquid
Beta (β) particle
an electron produced in radioactivedecay
Milikan
Calculated charge of elec by examining behavior of charged oil drops in electric field
DeBroglie
said if light can have material properties, matter should exhibit wave like properties
Which of the following actions will most decrease the degree of dissociation of acetic acid of .10 M of volume 879 mL?
...
N2, C2H2, CN-
common molecules containing triple bonds
element
any substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances
Eicosanoids
* Derived from arachidonic acid (a fatty acid)* Hormone-like chemical signals between cells* Example = Prostaglandins - role in inflammation, blood clotting, hormone action, labor contractions, blood vessel dilation & constriction
Cation Nomenclature 3
cations formed from nonmetal atoms have names that end in -ium (NH4 + ammonium ion, H3O + hydronium ion)
molecular orbital theory
explains some aspects of bonding, describing the electrons in molecules by using specfic wave functions called molecular orbitals (MO)
digital thermometer
Used to take the temperature of various samples.
dipole moment
property of a molecule whose charge distribution can be represented by a center of positive charge and a center of negative charge
physical properties
doesn't change the identity of the substance, ex: color, density, melting point
Volumertric analysis
a process involving titration of one solution with another
Which of the following substances when added to a solution of nitrous acid (HNO2) could be used to prepare a buffer solution?
D) NaNo2
Ionic Compound
A compound composed of cations and anions.
Kelvin (K)
Si base unit of temperature. absolute temperature
Breakdown of Disaccharides
Can be broken into monosaccharides, water needed for reaction bc Hydrolysis
Dalton's Postulate 1
each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms
solubility equilibrium
condition that exists when the rate at which an ionic solid dissolved in a solution is equal to the rate at which ions leave the solution to regenerate the solid
electron capture
a process in which one of the inner-orbital electrons in an atom is captured by the nucleus
Boiling point elevation
when solute added to solution, bp increases; delta T = i x k sub b x m (m=molality)
Molal boiling-point elevation constant
a constant characteristic of a particular solvent that gives the change in boiling point as a function of solution molality; used in molecular weight determinations
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element.
extensive property
a property thta depends on how much matter is being considered
first law of thermodynamics
energy can be neither created nor destroyed, it can be converted from one form to another, and can be transferred from one part of the universe to another, ENERGY IS CONSERVED
Coulomb's Law
E= 2.31 x 10^-19 (Q1Q2/r), where E is the energy of interaction between a pair of ions, expressed in joules; r is the distance between the ion centers in nm; and Q1 and Q2 are the numerical ion charges
alkyl group
a group that is formed by removing a hydrogen atom from an alkane.
conjugate acid-base pair
two species related to each other by the donating and accepting of a single proton
group (of the periodic table)
vertical column of elements having the same valence electron configuration and showing similar properties
Law of Constant Composition
A law that states that the elemental composition of a pure compound is always the same, regardless of its source; also called the law of definite proportions.
The larger the atoms and the more polar the compound is
the higher the boiling point
at STP what is the temperature, the pressure in mmHg and liters occupied by 1 mol of gas?
273K or 0 C
760 mmHg
22.4 liters
A student titrates an unknown weak acid, HA, to a pale pink phenolphthalein endpoint with 25.0 mL of 0.100 M NaOH. The student then adds 13.0 mL of 0.100 M HCl. The pH of the resulting solution is 4.7. Which of the following is true?
D) The pKa of the acid is greater than 4.7.
Mn
Manganese
thiosulfate
S₂O₃²⁻
SO3^2-
Sulfite
OH-
hydroxide
Lithium
Li
Pu
Plutonium
Node
...
PO4 3-
Phosphate
phosphite
PO3 -3
Ground State
...
Sulfate
SO4. Charge: 2-
hydrogen sulfite
HSO3 -1
uniform
homogenous mixture (solution)
a gain of electrons
reduction
Filtration
solid/liquid mixture (heterogeneous) or a solid/gas mixture (heterogeneous)
STP
273 K and 1 atm
pH Scale
1-7 Acidic
7 neutral
7-14 Basic
Metal Hydride
Metal + Hydrogen -->
Experimental uncertainty
All experimental measurements include some uncertainty. Evaluation of the uncertainty helps determine whether the experiment was done correctly.
unsaturated
description of a solution that contains less dissolved solute than it can under existing conditions
K=1
equal amounts of reactants and products
dilute
small concentration of a solute relative to amount of solvent
1 Gm (gigameter) = ____ m
10⁹
cholesterol
Cholesterol is a precursor for what?
weak bases
bases that are weak electrolytes (partly ionized)
amphoteric
description of any substance that can react either as either an acid or a base
electromagnetic radiation
radiant energy that exhibits wavelike behavior and travels through space at the speed of light in a vacuum
Formal charge
Used to determine most probable resonance structure; # of valence electrons (aka group number) - (1/2 # of bonding electrons) - (nonbonding electrons)
nonmetals tend to form ____while metals tend to form ______
anions; cations
Br
compound with formula CaX2. X may be
Organic Chemistry
The study of carbon containing compounds, typically containing carbon-carbon bonds.
homogeneous mixture
well mixed, same throughout, cannot see particles
Carbohydrates
* made of Saccharid (simple sugar) monomers* C, H & O* 3 classes - monosaccharide, disaccharide & polysaccharide (complex carbs)
periodic table
arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic numbers, with elements having similar properties in vertical columns
sigma bonds
the line joining two nuclei passes through the middle of the overlap region, where the electron density is concentratrically
water bath
is an instrument that gently warms samples using water kept at specific temperature.
galvanizing
process in which steel is coated with zinc to prevent corrosion
Spontaneous at high temps
Delta S (+)
Delta H (+)
Precipitation reaction
a reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separates from the solution
MX2
a halogen, X, and an alkaline earth metal, M, will form a compound with the formula
Gas
Matter that has no fixed volume or shape; it conforms to the volume and shape of its container.
linear structure
a structure with a 180-degree bond angle.
* gels that hold together tissues & cells* joint lubrication* rubbery texture of cartilage
Lipids
angstrom (A)
non-SI unit of length used to express atomic dimensions, equals 10^-10 m
spectator ion
ion that does not participate in a chemical reaction and is present before and after the reaction
heating curve
plot of temperature vs. time for a substance where energy is added at a constant rate
Lewis Acid/Base
Acid - electron pair acceptor; Base - electron pair donor; all BL acids&bases are Lewis acids&bases
hydrogen
has an ox. state of +1 with nonmetals and -1 with metals
Period
The row of elements that lie in a horizontal row in the periodic table.
physical property
any property of a substance that can be oberved without transforming the substance into some other substance
spin magnetic quantum number
ms, new quantum numbers for electron spin, in addition to n, l, and ml
changes of states
changes from liquid to gas, or from liquid to solid, etc; all are physical changes
conjugate acid
the new species of the base after it has received an H+
number of significant figures
number of digits reported for the value if a measured or calculated quantity, indicating the precision of the value
half-life (of a reactant)
time required for a reactant to reach half of its original concentration
Proton: (2 things)
- 1/1 H (same as hydrogen nucleus; no electron)
- Positive one charge
Exceptions to Salts in Water
salts containing Ag, Pb, and Hg2 are not soluble
What is Gibbs free energy change?
if ΔG is negative, the reation is spontaneous
if ΔG is 0, equilibrium is reached
For a solution equimolar in HCN and NaCN, which statement is false?
B) The [H+] is larger than it would be if only the HCN was in solution.
S
Sulfur
perbromate
BrO₄⁻
O
Oxygen
S2O32-
sulfite
Fluorine
F
Rb
Rubidium
Xe
Xenon
Frequency
...
OH 1-
Hydroxide
bromate
BrO3 -1
Wave Functions
...
Compounds Containing SO32-
Insoluble
Quantum number: subshell
L=0,1,2...n-1
Trigonal bipyramidal
90, 120
heat is given off
exothermic
Electronegativity trend
Increases towards fluorine
electrolyte
substance whose aqueous solutions contain ions
Nernst
-relates cell potential to concentration
-E=Ecell-.0592/n x logQ
-As Q increases, so Ecell decreases
mass number (A)
protons + neutrons
atoms
basic building blocks matter, smallest particle of an element that retain the chemical identity of the element
Exothermic
Energy that is outside a reaction
Rate Law
Only looking at reactants here
Molarity (M)
moles solute/ liters of solution
Fractional crystallization
solid mixture w/ different solubilities
solvent
the dissolving medium in a solution
strong acids
acids that are strong electrolytes (completely ionized in solution)
chemical equilibrium
dynamic state in which the concentration of reactanats and products incolved in a reversible reaction remain constant with time because the rates of the forward and recerse reactions are equal
Alcohol
an organic compound in which the hydroxyl group is a substituent on a hydrocarbon
Collision Theory
rxns occur b/c reactants are constantly moving around and colliding with one another, need: sufficient energy and favorable geometry for rxn to take place; rxn rate increases with concentration of reactants and temperature
nonelectrolyte
a substance that, when dissolved in water, gives a nonconducting solution. (4.2)
equilibrium position
a particular set of equilibrium concentrations
lattice energy
the energy change occuring when separated gaseous ions are packed together to form an ionic solid
standard solution
a solution whose concentration is accurately known
molecular weight
another name for formula weight when the chemical formula is that of a molecule
mean free path
average distance traveled by a molecule between cosion
beaker
holds solids or liquids that will not release gasses when reacted and unlikely to splatter
integrated rate law
expression that shows concentration of reactant as function of time
Temperature and equilibrium
If it's exothermic: low temperatures increase product
if it's endothermic: low temperatures increase reactant
(Same for the opposite)
Indicator
a chemical that changes color and is used to mark the endpoint of a titration
theory
a set of assumptions put forth to explain some aspect of the observed behavior of matter.
Cathode Rays
Streams of electrons that are produced when a high voltage is applied to electrodes in an evacuated tube.
trigonal pyramid
a structure that has a tetrahedral arrangement of electron pairs but not of atoms.
Enzymes
* Mostly globular proteins* Each has a unique 3D shape* 5000+ in living organisms* Inside & outside of cells* Most end in "ase"
percent yield
relates the actual yield of a reaction to its theoretical (calculated) yield
solubility of sulfates
all are soluble except ca2+, sr2+, ba2+, and pb2+
Basic oxide
an ionic oxide that dissolves in water to produce a basic solution
Nerst equation
important thing to know: as conc of the products of a redox rxn increase, voltage decreases, as conc of reactants in redox reaction increases, voltage increases
Paramagnetic
elements that do not have all of their electrons spin paired; are strongly affected by magnetic fields
Reduction
When an atom gains an electron in a redox reaction.
electron affinity
- energy when an atom gains an e-
polar covalent bond
one of the atoms exerts a greater attraction for the bonding electrons than the other (if the difference in relative ability to attract electrons is large enough, an ionic bond is formed)
a weak acid
equilibrum lies far to the left. A weak acid yeields a relatively strong conjugate base.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
within an atom, no two electrons can have the same set of quantum numbers; each electron in any atom has its own distinct set of four quantum numbers
half-life (of a radioactive sample)
time required for the number of nuclides in a radioactive sample to reach half of the original value
Who discovered the nucleus and how?
Ernest Rutherford by preforming the gold foil experiment.
The pH at the equivalence point of a titration of a weak acid with a strong base will be
C) Greater than 7.00
Make-up of a generic amino acid
Amino (NH2) + Carboxyl (COOH) + R group
C
Carbon
iodite
IO₂⁻
Mg
Magnesium
v
velocity
Selenium
Se
Pb
Lead
Ca
Calcium
Deci
10^-1
SO3
SO4 2-
Iodate
IO3 [[-1]]
Tetrahedral (degree)
-Pyramidal
-Angular Bent
109.5
107
104.5
Prefix for 10
deca
Hydrogen sulfate
HSO4 [[-1]]
Bonding Pair: 0:5
Trigonal Bipyramidal
Binary compound
a two-element compound
variable composition
no set formula
29.9
1 atm to inches Hg
solutes
substance being dissolved, the lesser quantity
Ion
a charged particle
( i.e. Al³⁺ )
Distillation
differences in boiling points of liquids are used to separated them; temp is raised to temp that is greater than the boiling point of the more volatile substance and lower than the boiling point of the less volatile substances
Ionization for HCN and correct equilibrium law..
[CN-][H+]/[HCN]
Covalent Bond
.3 - 1.7 electronegativity difference
Bond Angle of Trigonal Pyramidal
Less than 109.5º
thermochemical equations
balanced chemical equations that show the associated enthalpy change, where coefficients in the balanced equation represent the number of moles of reactants and products producing the associated enthalpy change
salt
ionic compound formed from the anion of an acid and cation of a base; typically a crystalline compound with a high melting point
homogeneous equilibrium
equilibrium system where all reactants and products are in the same phase
Strong Bases
Ba(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, maybe Ca(OH)2 though some precipitates, Group 1 + OH-
precision
the degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity; the reproducibility of a measurement.
Hydrocarbons
Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen.
Robert Milikan
Calculated charge of electron, and then calculated its mass.
Transition elements
In the middle of the periodic table.
precipitation reactions
reactions that result in the formation of an insoluble product, occur when certain pairs of oppositely charged ion attract each other so strongly that they form an insoluble ionic solid
heterogeneous equilbria
equilbrium condtion for a reaction in which all the reactants and products are in two or more different states
Metallic bonds
bonds between metal atoms. Group of nuclei surrounded by a sea of electrons.
dry cell battery
common battery used in calculators, watches, radios, and tape players
Zero order graph
(I have to find one. Haha)
Ideal solution
a solution who's vapor pressure is directly proportional to the mole fraction of the solvent present
ionic solid
a solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions which are mobile and thus free to conduct electrical current.
Polyatomic Ion
An electrically charged group of two or more atoms.
Percentage Composition
The percentage by mass contributed by each element in a substance.
strong electrolyte
a material that, when dissolved in water, gives a solution that conducts an electric current very efficiently
diprotic acids
acids that yield two H+ per molecule of acid (H2SO4)
All hydroxides are insoluble except those compounds containing
Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+
ionic compound (binary)
compound that results when a metal reacts with a nonmetal to form a cation and an anion
Spontaneous at all temps
Delta S (+)
Delta H (-)
Consider the reaction: 4NH3 + 7O2 => 4NO2 + 6H2O. At a certain instant the initial rate of disappearance of the oxygen gas is X. What is the value of the appearance of water at the same instant?
C) 0.86X
sp2 hybridization
the formation of a hybrid orbital from one 2s and two 2p orbitals
weak base
a base that reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions to only a slight extent in aqueous solution
pressure
P = F/A, force, F, that acts on a given area, A
In a strong acid and strong base titration, what is the major relationship between pH and pKa @ half-equivalence point?
they are equal
Heat of fusion
energy that must be put into a solid to melt it or heat given off by substance when it freezes
Law of Conservation of Mass
Total mass of materials before and after a reaction are identical.
Oxidation Rule #8: The sum of the oxidation numbers for all atoms in a polyatomic ion is equal to _______.
the charge of the ion
magnitude of the atmospheric pressure
can be calculated as F = ma (F, force, exerted by any object is the product of its mass, m, times its acceleration a. Acceleration produced by Earth's gravity is 9.8 m/s^2
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Term:
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